Merken

Pics or it didn't happen – How does social media access affect what we know about killings in the Syrian conflict?

Zitierlink des Filmsegments
Embed Code

Automatisierte Medienanalyse

Beta
Erkannte Entitäten
Sprachtranskript
so this is a and
they
thank you very much and so many things go this and am a post doctoral research at the University of Mannheim I also work for the human rights and analysis group and in the in the research that I am doing my everyday life I look at how our governments
use repression where the user what types of repression they use and and how it varies from time to time and from location to location I mean in this research I spend a lot of time thinking about how to accurately measure violence and it's surprisingly hot and then this is what this talk space to be about
so the ability to use social media and to communicate and directly from and catastrophes from conflict situations is something that is and that is um well known to people and you you're attending and Republican and then basically what we see nowadays is that anyone who's and caught in the midst of what event can just kind of swipe out their smartphone take a picture and tweeted for example we put a video offered on you tube I end what this consequently means is that not only is the way in which we are sharing pictures of cats pictures of of food and pictures of maybe all babies with uh with our family and our friends and changing and changing
the amount of information we air we and we create but also changes the the man of real-time information we have about violence in conflicts and oftentimes nowadays we find that we know much more about what's happening in a conflict and when we look at as social media for example then if we look at a mainstream media so this in general is very good news that's particularly good news when we're talking about autocratic countries where the central newspapers for example a censored and and we have no other in some way of getting getting at this information and so in the old days it might have taken years and years and years for us to find out about really big massacres and what happened there and nowadays if 1 person is present and taking a video that we already have an indication of what's going on but what I want to focus on in this talk today is that more information doesn't necessarily mean complete information and and this is something I that we tend to forget when we think about the amount of data that we have increasing so 1st of all I'd like to talk to you about
why we even document violence why am I and my team at that he writes Analysis group found and pursue this uh this work and every day and then I'd like to talk to you about why some events in conflicts get reported and why some don't and how the internet has changed the way that this reporting happens and then in order to figure out how it's changed we need to know what the dark figure of violence is what exactly is happening with the entire reality is sending to talk to you the very I'm simply about how we can figure out what the stock figure looks like I and then lastly we're going to look at how violence has been documented in the Syrian conflict and how much of what's actually going on and were able to an to see through and through social media the OK so why do we document violence so why do
we attempt to document violence and not just individual a qualitative
accounts of what happened to individual people but at a large scale well 1st of all we think it's important to remember every single victim and in and of
itself and that going further than that at the end of conflicts often times and the question is who was the main perpetrator who needs to be held accountable and end and who can we bring to justice and yields do that we need to and we need hot statistics them and that is something that drives us the numbers on conflicts of something that basically and shape the post-conflict narrative about what happened so who was the main person-in-charge of killing and the majority of people within the conflict who
and where the main victims within a conflict in all of these things really are and dependent on on and on the information that we gather and lastly if we wanna have policy-based uh a policy of advice that evidence-based we need some hard facts we need to know if and the during conflict has got more intense from 2012 to 2013 were a few people have been killed we need to know which parts of the country most affected and so on and so forth and to answer these questions of comparisons we need good statistics
OK so we've been doing this job for much longer than and social media is existed or my team has been doing the span of this work for much longer and then they lots of different ways to to figure out who's been killed and by
whom and and in in a conflict 1 way is to talk to people ask them has your brother being killed has your system being killed and who in your community being killed who were the perpetrators had it that happen another way is to turn to police records so you see here in the middle is a picture of the Guatemalan police archive and and this gives us a very clear information of the types of things that the quantum Mullen police ordered them and to be done to to its citizens and we contented truth commission reports on the right here you see and this is the truth commission report that was compiled for Timor and that's it has an incredible amount of information qualitative interviews with people what happened to them and and what the dynamics within the conflict another way is to use border records so how many people have fled the country how many people of cross the border and this is the kind of official statistics that we
can use to to figure out and how many people have left the country how intense the conflict is and lastly when we have no other means of figuring out who's been killed or we can go and look at graveyards we can do in actual graveyard census and see some this being killed
now most of us before social media we wanted to find out what happened in the conflict we tend to newspapers we looked at what newspapers were writing so newspaper told us come in capital x 20 people were killed on Sunday for example I and most of us
know that this is probably just a bit of what's happening on the ground newspapers don't give us a full an overview what's happening they were put test but they come across In the same way all of these sources have certain shortcomings I'm an only give us a certain snapshot of what's happening with a conflict and there are many different reasons for why these different sources can be biased main first one
is locations so if we think about newspapers they might send and journalists to a capital city I'm and that journalists will come report on what happened in the capital city might not necessarily report on something that's happening out in the countryside right so this would be I'm already only giving us a part of what's happening depending on who the perpetrators we might find out about what happened and what not governments tend to have a lot of resources to cover up what they do lots of people disappeared and lots of an a lots of different ways to cover up to cover up the killing and it also depends on the resources and within a country and and public health is also something that really affects how and how much we know about what's happening so if you imagine a country with a very warm climate a lot of people have been killed and it's going to be top priority to bury those people in the most
respectful and quick way and in order to avoid any and public health risks this directly affects what we know about what's happening because by the time reporters arrived people might have already been there the and lastly an witness incentives and um are incredibly important so am I scared if I tell and a report about what happened that the government will secure me In this directly Alsace effect affects the security situation so we generally see people reporting from areas that aren't too dangerous to report from because of otherwise they'd be risking their like so all of these things really affect what we know about what's happening in the conflict and what not in all these things and affected our previous sources as well so all data on violence that we have is incomplete for
almost all of it and the point I wanna make with this talk is that large amounts of data don't change this so just because we have much more now that doesn't mean it's still not lending out certain parts of what's happening OK so counting the dead before the
internet how do we count the dead now that we have the internet this is a picture of the Syrian conflict and and and it's 1 of those cases where people have been using an all kinds of devices to connect and to to to directly report of what what's happening on the ground and this is absolutely phenomenal because it really helps us to understand what's happening even if there's no and local media that's reporting on it but at the same time reporting through the Internet is also and dependent on certain factors right so I summarized here is for
different factors and document and by certain is dependent on people if no 1 is present when someone's being killed to film what happened then we don't know what happened if you think about a very different place now recently in and in the US there was a another as police shooting of them an unarmed black man and I'm a witness told that because we didn't have that video then nobody would have known what was happening in in the same way in in in civil wars there's no 1 there to take a picture I'm when and what's happening then the person is present it's ever device and in order to communicate what he's doing at work what what what occurred by social media and the person needs to be able to connect to the Internet at some point and the person needs to be willing to take this picture and uploaded and they might be all kinds of reasons why the where the person is not willing it might be political affiliation it might be and that the person is way too scared to do this because he was he might be tracked it might be
because am it might be all kinds of different reasons why this why this might occur and so so we see just because
so we now have the internet to communicate values these atrocities directly doesn't necessarily mean that it's going to happen every single time come and again these things are also affected by location and who the perpetrators and so on and so forth OK the the Syrian conflict
and is the case that I'm going to talk about in this and talk mostly because it's been termed the most socially mediated conflict in the history of the world what we see happening in Syria is likely to be an arm and a precursor what we will see in future conflicts I'm in countries that are also very socially connected and thousands and thousands of people have been killed and countries been at war for more than 4 years now and we see pictures like these every day on social media and in the news the now they also other people using the Internet in
Syria 1 of them is and present a aside you and maintains a pretty lively Instagram account and where if you compare this to this picture the 0 look like a pretty different place it
looks like it's pretty orderly and everything is fine and he's doing a good job and His wife is also taking
care of people and people all over the country so as so we also have to have that picture of serious down but luckily we have some incredibly
dedicated groups working on the ground providing near real-time information of victims I'm and I'm just going to mention a few of these here and lots more and but some of them are the steering network for human rights violations documentation sentence area this year incentive assists statistics and research the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights in the Damascus Centre for Human Rights Studies and they're more and what they're basically doing is they're trying to in real time collect as much information as they can on the people have been killed how they've been killed when they were killed and and who is responsible so to give you an example this is
the website you can go and have a look at it later if you want to um of the violations Documentation Center and what they basically do is they have people all over the country and gathering as much information as they can on victims and and they do this in a very rigorous way they come and they they use different verification processes where they can they provide a youtube blink of the person who's been killed and in order to make sure that the information that they gathering is correct another example
is the network for human rights and who also does similar work and they have thousands and thousands of people who providing them with information and this typing with them every day and the heads of these organizations on even and located in Serie anymore so they're communicating through the Internet all the time and collecting all this information so we really wouldn't have as much information as we have now without the internet and in the conflict and them the work that these groups are doing is absolutely phenomenal and it's phenomenal not because it's exciting all crazy but because it's actually courageous that and so I I encourage you to check out what they but they work looks like the but 1 common feature 1 of the problems that all of them communicate to us is and that they have a lot of problems getting information in areas that are besieged by the government so where the government is moved in and taken over a tight control because people of fearful of committee of
of telling them what what's happening and because the government is is based 3 key hindering their work now this is a map of Syria from August 2013 that was just an and and created by the Carter Center and what it shows us is the central zones of territorial control within the country where you can see in the south is and areas that were predominantly government controlled in red in August 2013 green was predominantly opposition-controlled and balloon was predominantly Kurdish held know if these groups are telling us that the information they have on what got was government-controlled is far
less then the information that they have on with the opposition is control this means that we know much less about what's happening in the south and what's happening in the north so this directly affects what we know about the conflict and if we only look at observed data now we might come to very on conclusions about who the main perpetrator is so in the conflict OK so in order to figure out how much we actually know we need to estimate the top figure and luckily we have all these groups in Syria working in parallel on the same cases so we have multiple data sources and what
we can do is we can compare the information between the different sources right because all of these sources the telling us the name of the person who was killed when the person was killed possibly the gender and the date so this can help us to to compare the information and then these overlaps can be used to model the reporting process
so we can try and understand who was and was included on a list and who wasn't and once we have this model we can statistically predict or estimate what went unreported now I'm going to walk you very briefly through the type of and the
type of research that we do and mandate to use no matter but I'm happy to talk about the math afterward OK so let's assume that we're trying to
estimate how many people were killed in this village the at a certain point in time and these are all the people this is the universities are all the people who were killed so the 1st group goes in and tries to figure out who was killed and a document these people this is the 1st group In the 2nd group goes and and tries to find out again all the people who were killed they're able to document these people now ready we know that the 3 people in the middle between these 2 circles having documented on both lists where is the people on the outside haven't Jim and another group comes in and the 3rd group documents these people and again here we can look at the overlaps we can see and how many people have been and include on 3 less how have included on these 2 on those 2 and animal on the individual words so this is what we mean when we talk about the overlap of the different sources and as you can see these ones on the side of a dock figure no 1 has actually included those on a list now the great thing about statistics this using the probability of these overlaps so we can estimate how big this number is so depending on the size of the overlaps we can't we can we can extrapolate what the size of the top favorites so to give you an example despite the resources that we have and this might be the entire universe that we're trying to estimate that we might have a different case when the groups go in they collect much more information but the universe of doctors just the same so if we compare this case in this case in the 2nd case we've documented far more people said it looks like more is happening but the docs figure is the same so what that means is these groups as you can see have basically collected the same information and therefore they have a few people that the other groups have collected so the size of the overlap is what's really important not so much the overall size of 1 of the observed and then this might be another case where we have very few people have been reported but also the overlaps a very small right so we know that probably what's out there is much more and we can estimate that the now happy to talk about the and the statistical models behind this afterwards it's and surprisingly hard to do this and this work the and but uh if you're interested in in the in the nitty-gritty details I'm only too happy to talk about them so let's apply this to the to the searing case from what we did for the UN last
year was established exactly the amount of people who had been a reported in the different lists because the UN
wasn't interested so much in understanding the entire and the entire amount of people have been killed but the number of people who'd been documented so that's what we did and and newspapers
write the report on the fact that we counted 191 thousand people but the truth is probably much much worse so to give you an idea of the data that we're looking at now this is the only table and in a show whether what and this is a snapshot of the database the what the database looks like we have a name for every single victim and then we have multiple sources so he have souls a C D and then the ones and zeros tell us whether that individual victim was included in source a B C or D so as you can see here the 1st victim listed was only included source and he was
he was the effects as well was uh killed in Aleppo on the 16th of May and November 2012 the 2nd person that we
recorded with live found in 2 different lists and lost less C and the killed in homes in 2013 and was also male and so on and so forth so this is the information that we then use and this perfectly maps to the different as circles that you just saw another way to look at this information is to think about how many people were included in more than 1 source so what you see here is amount of killings that were recorded and that occurred in Syria by different governorates the right at the top most people were recorded she's been killed in rural Damascus and the doc the shade of the buyer is the more sources include that that Pickens name In the light of the shape the less sources include that that the constraint if you think back to the circles we know that if the overlaps the quite small the total number is likely to be pretty large so ready from this graph we can see that can be found the number of people who included in 1 source are locked which means that the dot figure is likely to be really really large so this already offers a for as a 1st indication of the fact that we have a lot of data on what's happening in Syria we have over almost 200 thousand people on the list and still it's only showing us a snapshot of what's happening so what we see here is the estimate this is actually looking at the entire docs figure and this is looking at the entire . figure for the rural areas surrounding rule Damascus from main 2 thousand 13 2 May 2014 and the little lines that you can see at the bottom little black lines are the actual sources that we included and the yellow line is when we put them all together and the blue line gives us the estimated total there was you
can see the blue line is much much higher then I than the other 2 lines and you probably noticed that there's a really big spike In the In in mid-August in 2013 I and for those of you if you've been following the news and more closely you know that in the August 2013 and the Syrian chemical weapon attack occurred and and the Washington Post reported back then that 104 thousand people were killed in this attack now if we
look at this graph we obviously see that this is an undercount and it's not surprising because so many people have been killed who is supposed to take up all that information as opposed to recorder let information at once it's basically impossible it's going to take us few years to find out all the names of these people so this this and this graph can help us understand where the observed that information is leaving out important part of the story now this graph we're only looking at people who were killed by bombings people were killed by shelling isn't big logic tax and so it makes sense that this would produce a really big and the count at the time when the other chemical attack occurred now it might be that these groups in 2 years have way more names and that then the observed number and approximates what we've estimated Ch and to show you for the same time period these them
and killings and that occurred in a targeted way so people who were 1st detained and then killed people who were tortured and then killed and people who were you were and executed directly and as you can see during the early during the chemical attack a lot of people were a lot of people were directly detained and so in this case the and the observed count x to give us a pretty good idea of what happened but then later when the number in the outskirts of Damascus of intense battles again we're going on between on the undiscerning government and and the opposition and here we see uh that there was a really big spike and at the end of November and the beginning of December where far more rests target executions occurred than than the it actually tells us so later when we try to figure out who was responsible for massacres who was responsible for and for a as a certain atrocities it's going to be important to think about not only what we can as about the observed data that we have but also on what the actual number might look like time so In conclusion what I'd like to leave you with this is that big data because it's this big buzzword that everyone's talking about now began on human rights can really create an illusion of complete information and it's so tempting to take these this this and this information generated through social media and just that put it on a map for example or put on a time line and say this is what's happening in Syria because it's really easy to do that it's already digitized right and if you had to do that with all the police records in Guatemala would take too much much longer and and this illusion is dangerous when it allows us to draw
false false conclusions about patterns within the conflict in the body this is not a criticism of the data so these groups without these curves and information we wouldn't even be able to do the estimates it's a criticism of drawing
accurate conclusions and thank you and I'm open to questions thank you very much but then questions while annotations for some some of it the Daniel have just 1 question it sounds like you only under assume overestimation
of there is also a possibility of an underestimation I mean I'm differently like virus assignment because we overestimate of other
organisms organization because the political interest I don't know that's the case of just and that's a really good question so and 1
step in the processing of the data that I left out is that we take the information from these groups and we d duplicated so we go through and do internal matching 1st come and that is because most groups don't have the capacity to do that will get information about and the person was killed from 2 different sources and then again if we use the big data as it was there we might actually overestimate exactly and so the 1st step in actually arriving at a total observed number is doing the duplication so basically they're
uh data shown this from 2011 and um the see there you that the the data from government control scenario
is not so developed lots of data from the oppositional state of of now like ISIS is playing a bigger role in Syria are there any conclusions about how all valid is the data coming from these parts of the country ruined right now the and so I think we need to distinguish between data validity and data completeness and data validity is is the question of is the data that
we that we get correct or not and and as I said most of these groups are good for multiple stages of verification and they you know they they and include pictures of the people who've been killed include all kinds of and
biographical information that makes it quite convincing that these are people who use you this is accurate information I am a different question is that the level of completeness and yes and these groups have reported to us that as soon as the ice is taken over a certain part of the country were as soon as and the government's taken over a certain part of the country and the amount of information goes down words more hard for them to access and information so we don't include inaccurate information in this analysis if we don't have complete information on as a person who's been killed so if we don't have a name them we can't include that person the analysis hello yeah all the how high I just have a quick question you would you to comment on the limitations to
anatomization using kernel classic tactics of giving numeric codes and 2 names and particularly from a digital privacy and data protection perspective so the you mean in the searing case or in general the so
so we we need and full identifying information to do our work I am and groups that share their data privately with us do it through secure way and that the human rights groups working with are the ones who decide how they transmit the information we communicate to them look we need we need this information to do our work and we happy to and to exchange it with you 3 4 2 channels we sign a non-disclosure agreements with you but actually a lot of these groups put their data online and and the reason for this is that these are people and who's been killed and so on the and the security risk for the for the for the victim itself is not there anymore
and it's very different when we're talking about non-lethal forms of violence if we're talking about sexual violence for example where the level of reporting is much lower even off we're talking about other forms
of as violence that a non-lethal and anonymization is a much bigger much bigger concern and but generally we as we let the group's dictate how they share information with us from and we don't make the names publicly available when we when we do when we do the analysis and could you please
elaborate um you mention a teeny bit about it but what advice concrete advice to half a journalists in a reporting situation and maybe in the Syrian example but also in general what we can
do to take care of these numbers that's a great question and think I think infographics are incredibly and and this something that people like to look at right infographics of something that get a lot of clicks and and and and a lot of cases when we know that this is the full information included in the infographic then it's you know that it's fine to go ahead with that I think the main the main recommendation jealous when it comes to to data on violence is to really think about where the information comes from to talk to to talk to experts and get get kind of uh an opinion on whether it's and it's useful in this case to add to visualize the information that's the way I think I think that's the concrete advice and that that I'd give it's really depended on on on on context as well so for example and there are certain conflicts where we have full information we now know almost every single person is who was killed and and he was killed in Kosovo and so this is this is the case where I'd say you know go ahead make an infographic do it and but there are other cases where we know that the data that's underlying underneath it is very problematic both because the duplicates in it and because of an the counts and I don't know if that's satisfactory or not when the
question for me 1st of all thank you for work of things the portal to do your colleagues on questionnaires from a statistical viewpoint is violence
decreasing or not because we now shocked by ceramic tiles and people the of thousand
people of the died certain conflict operator looking back to another of the wars certainly thinks even think was I can also argued
that we actually facing less violence on the other hand we are much more vulnerable to was virus
because we are not so used to Our from this is to secure your scientific viewpoint of so set to 100 thousand people may be on I could imagine that if they were really serious about killing in Syria that could have killed more so on your question to
Syria and think and I think we know that the true number is higher I and I think I think every single person who's been killed in serious the tragedy and just to to make that clear but I think the number is probably much higher than 200 thousand which these graphs also show and so said so interesting trusting a set number that's out there is is problematic and I'm from a scientific viewpoint and from the from the research I do my my my honest opinion is that we don't have did the information to infer whether the world is becoming more peaceful or not and because the information we have this change so rapidly across time and
and the question is is it important or not but I think I'll leave that to more philosophical people and that that the work that
we do is try to a J as objectively as possible and come up with answers for concrete and conflicts what we do know is if we look at the observed data that we have is a massive spike now through Syria again and in the in the past years in the past few years and even there we know that it's account so and I think that there the graph that I show you are quite clear in that this show us that the number is much higher than 200 thousand right and how do you
decide which group to working with like when you take another case industry in case where it seems like a really trustful sources how do you find these groups and how do you begin to trust in their sources and what they say we and so we have on our website we have an
entire atoms set of categories L questions that we go through and when we think about whether we wanna take on a new project or not and and 1 of the things is do we think that our work will have an impact so and this certain conflicts where we think the truth is not going to make a difference so finding out what's happening in my lecture not make a difference of 0 and those are necessarily case where we're gonna spend all our manpower want because we're very few people working on this and in terms of sources so in the in the Syrian conflict and these these groups and were put in contact with us for the UN so but primarily and I should say that in the in the report and we also include information and that was gathered by the Syrian government an the Syrian government gave us information for the 1st 3 months of the conflict and that was to 2000 2 thousand records so that's also included in the analysis and for the UN report it's not included in the analysis that I showed you an earlier on because that was for an earlier time period the trying and it's really interesting
would you say I was going to us because it's so much work and I really fully how important how many people have to help you to how can you decide what you
just said now we have to choose which uh which conflicts we are going to try to to get the the fact did visit going on who can give you the means the financial means to have people working on at it's all have you then use it sometimes it's not worth of finding the truth so what is still criteria that we can you can do all the hard work to get the data so the 1st criteria is we need multiple sources to
do our work and where there is only 1 group collecting information we can't do any triangulations and it's still incredibly important work these groups of doing within the conflict is just that we can't use them for us statistics and so we need more than just 1 or 2 sources and that we can work with and and then as you saw we
need really high-quality information not just enough that we can read somewhere 5 people were killed on day X we actually to know the names of those people and so on and so forth and I think
that the level of quality really also ensures that the groups that we're working with our and our fully dedicated to to to what they're doing the the and more or slightly personal
question about 1 thing you doing from some fascinating work I'm just wondering I've driven more by that date on the analysis of the trace of all by the human rights aspect of things what drives and so my background is political science
I'm I'm a political scientist turned quantitative political scientist and and
maybe applied statistics and new system my background as human rights that mean I think all of the people who work for us and we have an pure mathematicians we have the decisions working for us we have computer scientist working for us 1 of the things that we say our job descriptions as we need a full commitment to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and all of us is intrinsically driven and you might say yes many questions the can tell thank you very
much for the giants and universe over the
and
in
Hypermedia
Videospiel
Rechter Winkel
Datentyp
Besprechung/Interview
Gruppenkeim
URL
Soziale Software
Raum-Zeit
Einflussgröße
Computeranimation
Analysis
Zentralisator
Güte der Anpassung
Versionsverwaltung
Familie <Mathematik>
Ereignishorizont
Katastrophentheorie
Computeranimation
Videokonferenz
Echtzeitsystem
Hypermedia
Indexberechnung
Information
Computerunterstützte Übersetzung
Smartphone
Metropolitan area network
Internetworking
Gruppenkeim
Versionsverwaltung
Marketinginformationssystem
Ereignishorizont
Computeranimation
Internetworking
Verkehrsinformation
Hypermedia
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Figurierte Zahl
Ereignishorizont
Verkehrsinformation
Analysis
Zentrische Streckung
Statistik
Versionsverwaltung
Zahlenbereich
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Versionsverwaltung
Subtraktion
Statistik
Prozess <Informatik>
Hypermedia
Mereologie
Versionsverwaltung
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Paarvergleich
Information
Statistik
Diskretes System
Versionsverwaltung
Familie <Mathematik>
Physikalisches System
Packprogramm
Computeranimation
Arithmetisches Mittel
Datensatz
Ungleichung
Rechter Winkel
Verkehrsinformation
Datentyp
Quantisierung <Physik>
Inhalt <Mathematik>
Information
Verkehrsinformation
Softwaretest
Bit
Hypermedia
Versionsverwaltung
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Quellcode
Soundverarbeitung
Subtraktion
Flächeninhalt
Ungleichung
Verkehrsinformation
Computersicherheit
Mereologie
Computersicherheit
Versionsverwaltung
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Quellcode
URL
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Verkehrsinformation
Computeranimation
Internetworking
Punkt
Ungleichung
Verkehrsinformation
Hypermedia
Mathematisierung
Mereologie
Teilbarkeit
Computeranimation
Internetworking
Subtraktion
Zusammenhängender Graph
Punkt
Schießverfahren
Baumechanik
Ausgleichsrechnung
Teilbarkeit
Computeranimation
Inverser Limes
Videokonferenz
Internetworking
Verkehrsinformation
Hypermedia
Primzahlzwillinge
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Metropolitan area network
Subtraktion
Hypermedia
Versionsverwaltung
URL
Versionsverwaltung
Computeranimation
Internetworking
Internetworking
Statistik
Datennetz
Gruppenkeim
Information
Computeranimation
Echtzeitsystem
Flächeninhalt
Prozess <Informatik>
Rechter Winkel
Datennetz
Login
Verkehrsinformation
Primzahlzwillinge
Statistische Analyse
Information
Versionsverwaltung
Beobachtungsstudie
Web Site
Subtraktion
Dualitätstheorie
Prozess <Physik>
Selbst organisierendes System
Gruppenkeim
Versionsverwaltung
Computeranimation
Internetworking
Datennetz
Datentyp
Schreib-Lese-Kopf
Dean-Zahl
Datennetz
Reihe
Programmverifikation
Gleichheitszeichen
Flächeninhalt
Rechter Winkel
Gamecontroller
Verbandstheorie
Information
Hill-Differentialgleichung
Ordnung <Mathematik>
YouTube
Beobachtungsstudie
Zentralisator
Gruppenkeim
Versionsverwaltung
Quellcode
Zeitzone
Mapping <Computergraphik>
Multiplikation
Flächeninhalt
Gamecontroller
Information
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Parallele Schnittstelle
Figurierte Zahl
Internetworking
Quellcode
Informationsmodellierung
Prozess <Physik>
Prozess <Informatik>
Geschlecht <Mathematik>
Datenmodell
Mailing-Liste
Quellcode
Information
Information
Verkehrsinformation
Computeranimation
Schätzwert
Statistik
Punkt
Kreisfläche
Mathematisierung
Gruppenkeim
Zahlenbereich
Mailing-Liste
Computeranimation
Eins
Informationsmodellierung
Lesezeichen <Internet>
Rechter Winkel
Datentyp
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Wort <Informatik>
Information
Drei
Grundraum
Figurierte Zahl
Tabelle <Informatik>
CDMA
Datenhaltung
Datenanalyse
Zahlenbereich
Mailing-Liste
Quellcode
Analysis
Computeranimation
Datenhaltung
Eins
Gruppenkeim
Statistische Analyse
Ganze Funktion
Versionsverwaltung
Verkehrsinformation
Nebenbedingung
SCI <Informatik>
Subtraktion
Total <Mathematik>
CDMA
Zahlenbereich
Computeranimation
Datenhaltung
Quellcode
Minimum
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Indexberechnung
Ganze Funktion
Figurierte Zahl
Gerade
Schätzwert
Soundverarbeitung
Tabelle <Informatik>
Shape <Informatik>
Kreisfläche
Graph
Schlussregel
Mailing-Liste
Quellcode
Mapping <Computergraphik>
Rechter Winkel
Zahlenbereich
ATM
Information
Versionsverwaltung
Datensatz
Graph
Mereologie
Gruppenkeim
Zahlenbereich
Information
Zählen
Versionsverwaltung
Sichtenkonzept
Mathematische Logik
Frequenz
Gerade
Computeranimation
Beobachtungsstudie
Schätzwert
CDMA
Gruppenkeim
Versionsverwaltung
Zahlenbereich
Information
Zählen
Computeranimation
Mapping <Computergraphik>
Vollkommene Information
Datensatz
Rechter Winkel
Mustersprache
Hypermedia
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Information
Kurvenanpassung
Versionsverwaltung
Gerade
Computervirus
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Schätzung
Prozess <Physik>
Selbst organisierendes System
Gruppenkeim
Kanalkapazität
Zahlenbereich
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Quellcode
Information
Vervollständigung <Mathematik>
Mereologie
Validität
Gamecontroller
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Softwareentwickler
Multiplikation
Vervollständigung <Mathematik>
Mereologie
Programmverifikation
Gruppenkeim
Inverser Limes
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Wort <Informatik>
Information
Analysis
Übergang
Datenmissbrauch
Rechter Winkel
Perspektive
Computersicherheit
Digitalisierer
Gruppenkeim
Klassische Physik
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Information
Quellcode
Eins
Kernel <Informatik>
Bit
Bildschirmmaske
Gruppenkeim
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Information
Verkehrsinformation
Analysis
Übergang
Expertensystem
Rechter Winkel
Versionsverwaltung
Zahlenbereich
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Information
E-Mail
Zählen
Kontextbezogenes System
Hypermedia
Nichtlinearer Operator
Computervirus
Versionsverwaltung
Mathematisierung
Zahlenbereich
Ungerichteter Graph
Information
Beobachtungsstudie
Web Site
Lemma <Logik>
Graph
Rechter Winkel
Gruppenkeim
Versionsverwaltung
Zahlenbereich
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Quellcode
Subtraktion
Datensatz
Kategorie <Mathematik>
Versionsverwaltung
Gruppenkeim
Ordinalzahl
Projektive Ebene
Quellcode
Information
Term
Frequenz
Verkehrsinformation
Analysis
Arithmetisches Mittel
Triangulierung
Gruppenkeim
Versionsverwaltung
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Information
Quellcode
Rechter Winkel
Gruppenkeim
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Information
Analysis
Übergang
Deskriptive Statistik
Statistik
Prozess <Informatik>
Rechter Winkel
Mathematikerin
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Physikalisches System
Informatik
Hinterlegungsverfahren <Kryptologie>
Entscheidungstheorie
Hypermedia
Konvexe Hülle
Besprechung/Interview
Grundraum
Computeranimation

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Pics or it didn't happen – How does social media access affect what we know about killings in the Syrian conflict?
Serientitel re:publica 2015
Teil 161
Anzahl der Teile 177
Autor Gohdes, Anita
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/31855
Herausgeber re:publica
Erscheinungsjahr 2015
Sprache Englisch
Produktionsort Berlin

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract Social media platforms have taken on a central role in providing fellow citizens and the outside world with critical information in the chaos that surrounds violent conflict, in particular where traditional media sources are censored or unavailable. Access to services such as Twitter offer citizen journalists all over the world an easy and cheap way to share details on events that might have otherwise gone unnoticed.

Ähnliche Filme

Loading...