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Hacktivism, or Fifty Shades of Grey Hat

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so it is without
and
alone uh clear but here's is working on that of good morning and welcome to the hacktivism panel um I marks what
are often joining me our Gabriella Coleman Frank reader and stuff on him along just arriving and if you ask 10 different people what hacktivism main might get 10 different answers I say this because I have a very specific understanding of hacktivism which evolved from the Cult of the Dead Cow and that is using technology to improve human rights that short and sweet but it by no means universally accepted so in the interest of consensus perhaps we could start with this from the German cultural studies scholar Peter Krause and I quote hacktivism is a portmanteau of and activism and is the subversive use of computers and computer networks to promote a political agenda with roots in hacker culture and hacker ethics it's ends are often related to free speech and human rights or freedom of information and quote I would argue that hacktivism began with the a piece of the piece or Youth International Party as they were officially known were formed by the American political activist Jerry Hoffman and Abby Rubin these characters turned politics and anti corporatism into theater and casting a wise I to the ways in which hacking could disrupt the system Abbie Hoffman and the technical expert L. Bell started the pioneer magazine the Youth International Party line in 1971 later the name was changed to TAP TAP for technological assistance program the magazine included details on how to make free telephone calls build telephone hacking devices and encouraged cranking I take particular pleasure in bringing attention to chat because 2 members of the Cult of the Dead Cow were prominent in the tap movement or digital who founded mind blocks of the 1st i in New York and the nite stalker of former CIA contractor in Vietnam who returned from that experience thoroughly radicalized and was 1 of my earliest meant hacktivism at the same time it's important to acknowledge other salient factors because hacktivism didn't just emerge from technology and the Internet it was a blend of the machine with disparate social factors the Berkeley Free Speech Movement second-wave feminism civil rights the anti-nuke movement post colonialism punk and for lack of a better phrase just fucking things out here many of us think of hacktivism as the stuff that in an anonymous does dedusting or defacing websites and occasionally stealing data and publishing it on page then there are other hacktivists acts whistle-blowing which in the cases of Chelsea Manning and Edward Snowden means unauthorized disclosure of classified documents and receipts and publication of that information by actors like WikiLeaks Laura Poitras and Glenn Greenwald and if you can believe the press there are other kinds of hacktivists they wear masks and make videos that they preach real radical Islam and the called ISIS or data there's also the Syrian electronic army who have raised the hacking into an art form and assorted other groups military analysts would call with these groups are doing that or a form of low-intensity conflict and crime waged by networked nonstate actors typical examples include terrorists and organized crime syndicates but for the purpose of our discussion today and also because we only have an hour will focus more on those flavors of activism the don't also include bloody violence in the toolkits this land leads me to the question can we associate ethics with hacktivism by Peter crops definition the answer would be yes because hacktivism is associated with hacker ethics but Dr. probe conveniently avoids elaborating exactly what hacker ethics are so part of our job here today will be to help clarify that notion and with I should like to invite our panelists have to share the opening remarks below would you like to start have high everywhere and things have explored for that
constant introduction and it's a little bit about how I got to this topic is I think that will be the way to open with mine an opening provocation so i'm a cultural anthropologist and I was a very very traditional culture anthropologist I worked in Guyana South America and religious healing but I was interested in the questions of patents and intellectual property and then 1 day 1 of my hacker friends although I don't know he was a
hacker I just thought he was a programmer but he was a hacker pulls me aside and says you know what if you are interested in challenges to intellectual property lab you might wanna learn about this thing called the copy left as a cop copula left you know the license that free suffer hackers invented in the 19 eighties to challenge copyright and patents in software and a kind of Joe into that world and basically I was means that a bunch of you know clever engineers really invented the loss in such a way that became widespread and using that kind of awakened my my fascination with hacker politics and so I jumped ship I became an anthropologist who studied hackers and specifically the politics of hacking and I'm very interested in the different modalities that hacktivism takes stretching from legal hacks to EU legal hacks to the historical stuff that of split talked about
such as the Europe's to the role of the Chaos Computer Club here in Germany and then my specialty is anonymous which I'll be talking about now my to provocations and this is how in and are the following the 1st is in the form of a statement I think without Europe at we wouldn't have as interesting or is
profound forms of hacktivism as we do even though there's very important North American components Europe is the center of gravity in the west and then then the 2nd comes in the form of a question although hacker politics have long existed since the hippies or dramatic dramatic acts of civil disobedience with Phil Zimmermann for example who released PDB we've seen a true explosion of hacktivism and hacker politics in the last 5 years stretching from Wikileaks to anonymous to everything in between and the question is why these are a group of people who are socially and economically privileged were taking
on an enormous risk in you don't see that scene and trend with other groups such as doctors and lawyers were privilege so that's maybe something I'd like to
talk about so without pass it over to Frank yes thanks for the introduction exploit
diseases he has always been basically something the off hacktivism before the term was coined
even on the missing to this or to talk about the various definitions and roles are off to determine activism them all systems from differences and how you interpret hacking as a parent um and we assess a C. Morris stick to the old school the MIT way of saying OK taking this understanding technology and making it your own so taking the system parts of it you know Holbrooke's and then making what you want to do with it and so we are not so much about breaking the sets of especially not only about the dosing so but this is basically when what Europe you societies and cultures definition of taking this also what the society's understanding of the from activism and hackers have always been are we are somewhat political because they have been marginalized our thing for a long time and it's like politics focused in the beginning very much on the ICA things like a right to tinker regret to communication of fighting against the click on efficient monopolies so these kind of stings politicized and movement and the more digital things things network computers became the core society Bisbee the more these topics moved into the center of society's attention the more politicized the movements and the groups also became and no we are facing a situation of busy all politics has that 4 components or essentially will we we cannot abstain so we cannot assume the movement or a social group cannot really abstain from from being somewhat political and now the forms that we prefer as a C C our known the stuff that it is called containing component of fun so like taking the fingerprints of 4 minutes of anterior publishing them are so that everybody can use them on a fingerprint scanner and this is the stuff that
we like so that the things we know somebody can have a good law on on the other hand understand the political meaning but some of the
topics that they need to care about us so much more serious that there it's not always possible to to make people lawful but the 2 1 1 1 thing that there are no that brought explore the need to give was the very all things and iris 1999 in
approximately here when there was circuit that what they wanted to release the ghost toolkits code
suffered a lot faster name I think and
this they wanted on time it and they they wanted to do the bills on time Urabá that and while we both actually talk talked a lot of that and came up with some there or what we
call back then the curation of digital P is also a piece of our saying OK we a 2nd rules that abstained from the dosing because uh the dose is a means of preventing collocations and the right to communication and visit the freedom of communication for everyone is something that's very dangerous so using these tools of preventing communication something that we don't want to go and we ask others to think about if that's the right way of going off achieving a political means now and that kind of started this whole debate a single and what tools mechanism
conducive if it's legitimate or not and so you women condemning people just saying OK this is something that we don't really like and
yet that that is still there I think the moral the start of typical debate among the what international scheme yeah and another 1
and 3 for coming late is when just disjoint is that momentum is defined in and coming directly from Mongolia when I was attending a very
strange conference call the freedom online coalition conference which is the 5th of this kind and the fuel line coalition is having a needle and a coalition of 26 countries very number correctly it's a little ironic told that amongst those countries are you have the USA I can go a little so friends that's a sparse a very interesting and low on surveillance but the point was and is a alienation is to defend freedom online you monotonically was lot launched by the the Clinton and it is supported by that type of people it's say why was I there because we're trying with some other c society actors human stakeholder I governance it is called so everyone has a voice so the stakeholders group of web and interest in the topic we're trying to develop some guidelines on an underwriting formed approach to cyber security so the idea behind that is that well there's a lot of decisions that are being taken in or above our heads yeah very non-transparent they tell us national security but when that isn't a chance to have a look at what they do and have say we're trying to hijack the process of some sort of policy hacking and by some ideas that our government might eventually like as well I'm not sure where this is going to go home but um you know I I like to introduce this did this snapshot from Mongolia in light of what's and once I yeah level wrote about an anonymous being the bit guardians of
liberties and practice more in general are not as we know it's very complex terms that allow different approach you're there so far but I'm very much in that along that line analytic of scientists the believe that hacktivism
is essentially a formal democratic participation like any other I'm I agree or not agree with that and we there we we that the actions and the tactics but that's what essentially this I have erred in their opening speech in this use of open species of this for the moonlight coalition event
that was the dutch and you will rise mustard was a schematic of muscle deals with human rights across the globe who come basically place together and the enemy's hacktivists cyberterrorists credit card credit card frauds all of that altogether now what
I what surprised name is not the case in this approach which is pretty widespread unfortunately amongst many governments including those that idea to defend the were free the learning as well these are the same people were trying now to pass a piece of legislation but other personalization of ethical hacking why well because it is a high because they realize that to protect their borders they also need hackers and they might not having government over the people that they need so I actually in a separate meeting I question the guys by the way I don't think this is public information this ethical hacking that piece of of of legislation
that best of them called me on that but but for sure they're working answer any good we have articulate what was the idea behind in on the 1 hand putting activist in jail in a way if they
could then the terms of output than that in that market but at the same time trying to call them so my question I guess for this bond would be in order to boss around the idea of at um how kinetics
where is the addicts other we define it
within the activists fear but also outside about and how do we resist the temptation of joining the enemy and so you know how they would assist the height and we deal with that how do we um also also deal with the fact that amongst our people there might be someone was actually already working for the enemy and we all know that right so we know that we should lock
at Texas predicting preventing these days in light of what is happening also in cybersecurity sphere so that really have to take some and I would like also
to tool to knowledge from things for example given a bit of a story of the
CCC and how for example they have interface with the Government of what in and actually I'd like
to pick up on something that says Frank mentioned this a declaration of war that was made by a group called deletion of underground in 1999 and it's when a coalition of the hacker groups from North America and Europe got together so
that the original the hacker groups involved in ad for security groups would be in 26 100 Chaos Computer Club culture the dead cow his back a lot heavy industries track and the pool house um I say I like I had actually gone back and and looked at the document
and read it quite carefully and 1 thing that jumped out at me and uh this is a quote from from the original release it's
as governments and and this is you know like the statement that we jointly made governments worldwide are seeking to establish a cyber space as a new battleground for their artificial conflicts the Legion of underground has inadvertently legitimize this alarmist propaganda with
this dramatic announcement they they declared cyber war on China interact in their announcement and with its dramatic announcement played into the hands of a policy makers who want complete control over the Internet and are looking for reasons to seize it if hackers solicit recognition as paramilitary factions then hacking in general we will be seen as an act of war era go hackers will be viewed as legitimate targets of warring states do you think that was a
presión comment what do you think given anything has changed in the last 16 years where I think we're a relatively precise predicting little happened
and I think the man make it then we managed to the latent for a couple of years because of the political groups to their audiences and actually and there was a lot of debate on that statement that there was a lot of time thinking about what means our justified what are the of you of the ways of interacting with the politics here or how to use them to technical means and that we have determined in the in the political sphere and uh so I think make them that because because of the very precise description of that as we see today because this is basically what this graph is what we have to have today and the bill 1 thing be that's probably important and all of that before it before and we came to the point of this is to see also told us that there are demand and also was seen as a means of political action course but then when there was a lot of political produced a book French and it has some more or and back then this is he was also
involved in the and campaigns to visit the denial so to French telephone network which because there was not a moment not much Internet
most basically the the thing to do them there and we learned a lot from that and we we decided not to
do that again they're going back to 1st principles meaning communications human right we don't want to stop there but this this type of debate on last various much smaller I mean that was very small groups of people so that
because he was much smaller and today it's much much much wider and more varied and more diverse things so that down even many more opinions not so much fixed groups I mean just anonymous heaven and the premium on yeah I'm going to mention the case
and personnel who you're the more games in the film OK so a few people have this is an interesting factoid images
goes to white exploit blood this talking about that film which you know had uh happy-go-lucky hacker math Matthew Broderick who almost started war war 3 when he interacted with this computer called whopper and was playing a game with that you know that actually helps
an instigate the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act in the United States after lawmakers had seen on and it's very
interesting how form of popular culture back in the 19 eighties that combines weird kind of rhetorics of cyber war helped create the law on United States that helps entrap kind of hampers so I just want to mention that now in terms of think Frank is totally right I mean back in the nineties and eighties the
hacker seems really small and you can kind of reach consensus to some degree over hacktivism and tactics but today I mean you have so many
different kind of groups and entities that if anything the field of hacktivism is all finds fights diversity and even the anonymous has a very famous statement called anonymous is not unanimous right and some people within anonymous don't even like D. Dobson others embrace it but there was 1 moment actually where I think they really decided on at the legitimacy of Daedalus and it was in the fall of December or the fall 2010 anonymous with dedusting the copyright industry association web pages from the Motion Picture Association to others in the UK and the Pirate Party which we can consider as contributing to
hacktivism through a traditional means bed anonymous to stop
would you stop he doesn't please stop the doesn't stop and then actually a secret little channel anonymous decided to stop what they decide to stop and then they announced to the public chat channel that they were gonna stop well the hundreds of people and that public channel were like but you guys know word dedusting this is ah tactic and then they kind of engaged
in this conversation and anonymous released a very sophisticated statement about why they considered the DOS
is a form civil disobedience now this doesn't mean we need to agree with it I'm just pointing to the fact that actually they have thought through the issue based on you know their own debates with an anonymous you don't have simply debates between had 4 groups even have a within hacker groups as well
you know that the contrastive which was used for image formation from from 2 degrades are we know uh oral quantum in terms of
total from do interesting seeing form we use to Murray tram activism as being London was this who described there was connectivities and our ability seen as something that our borders on terrorism saw what which I also offered from government officials and then what they actually tried to do was to prevent error activism being and legitimate form of political protest and the percussion holders can evolve so what means of non-traditional approaches of oral re Scholes political forest can can be done and what our asses is accepted in society what rusts acceptance studies process it's not something that we can decide not already we can predict colors 11 sort this could very well be that let's say custom example not not meaning advancing denial of service the is OK as long as it only affects 1 website or there'll but that doesn't is not OK for the fix will countries or something like that so that maybe maybe something that can is moving altered Boris on it's OK to I mostly of heaven strike at 1 victory but not what would upon or something that so that there 2 things that the diffuse looking this basically it's part of the process of oral society become digital unlearning hall to their workers the tools that we have gotten so long to although much wider scaled they're all to with that and so what what we do is take this is something useful something a little bit more prudish but the more the technological education gets for the more people know about systems to more people on how to hack which we actively encourage the more people also have these tools of civil disobedience and the to conceal their hands and they we look for a 0 means which I think it's perfectly OK the
I just like to like maybe follow up in this uh I think Frank an IID and more less on the same side like does is bad and on but I'm interested in the arguments that favorite uh and more recently they've been creeping up and I I'm kind of familiar with some of them but uses to find so when I wrote a book about anonymous I had to you know actually contemplate about how and whether I agree with dedusting or not and as someone who had been involved anonymous as a hacker he'd been part of the old school scene in the early 19 nineties and he jumped into anonymous use 1 of the old guys probably at the age of 30 or something in 1 day he told me you know what did us is like a moral pretzel it's like on the 1 hand it's problematic but on the other
hand it's effective and and that that really resonated with me and so by problematic he meant you know some the issues that that Frank was talking about which is you know you are at some level kind of rotten folks to free speech but on the other hand out by dedusting you get the attention of uh the mainstream media and further cause will also I actually got Simon a students Molly Sauter PhD student who ended up writing up an entire book on D DOS and so obviously read
the book and I think she makes a really compelling case that and if you take a kind of contextual view of free
speech it's not that every actor in society has equal access to free speech and so then when you put that in perspective some of the dedusting that anonymous does for example against pay pal MasterCard and Visa you're not really taking away their ability to speak when you did ask them you know why because credibly rich corporations who can go right to the New York Times talk to the new york times they could sue the heck and arrest folks because the dedusting their ability to speak through that d DOS does not go away and in fact a marginalized group who doesn't have access to the same media channels at the corporations do they gain a voice so in some ways it's in every speech level right so I actually am kind of comfortable with that tactic to some degree if you take a kind of contextualized view of free speech on the other hand you know if you have a states dedusting a small NGO 4 weeks ions and then you kind of cross that NGO who never had much of an ability to speak anyways well that's kind of a net free speech last so I see the value of cheating a more through a private contextualized lens then a kind of abstract free-speech metric the year of I think there are
beer of blue we model disagreement it it can be an just a phonotactic unjust off opinion
that in almost all cases the most stupid tactic available arms so there it is doesn't require much skill doesn't require much creativity there it is relatively bland thing that doesn't transport message in itself but it meet the message to be attached to it error and so on yeah and it violates the 1st principle to just busy communication is in principle got so that the the thing that are we would like to encourage us busy that do the tools that we have the creativity that this solid there is actually being used so that the air gap not try to stick to the same all Texaco again because if you look at the the effectivity of the just from a moral perspective just effective to the uh it's not the if effective anymore so we need to be very very large scale to be actually getting into mainstream media so if you just the dosing 1 company or another it it is really just the blue problem using do more building you know message across which is why I actually after the fall of 2010
and early 2011 anonymous kind of stop dedusting in answer to a lotta happened the
it is like to 2 other commenters my intersects what you're talking about which is the issue of visibility of tactics and um out to the actions intersect mainstream media and what's the value of that and the fact that have my for example where the critical autosomal studied envisioning this tactics were supposed to be tactical media so small things not practiced by the mouse the would intervene at Hawkins the situations and also as an activist myself I would never have sort
visibility because visibility would have meant brain gain my tactics and the spotlight which meant that also exposing myself and other people to probably repression for example and we see now that especially among the was that issue disability in getting attention and operating in tandem with mainstream media as a achieve the mainstreaming away so I wonder whether you have different tactics for
different times or whether it is a face that is bound to somehow and know
vanishing away when I lemmings thing about the sick of as already in use anymore
it's a way in which social media revolution from of the news anymore so I would like to know what other people think of as of and mainstream media I think you can always get the attention of Europe to make action is relevant and funny enough on so that this is something that people tend to forget that there it must be a good story I mean you need to really understand the of the mechanical of media and if it is not a good story but just a news item then that will have that maximal-ratio contact and doesn't
really change anything but just a be news item and so the sum to constantly evolving tactics and constantly changing the way how you do things is part of the game so
basically not sticking to the same old tactics and not sticking to the same modus operandi of fiction is go to polls for the voting law-enforcement and also for actually being active for the cell but effective and what to do and sort of to looking too long at 1 tactic or another is probably counterproductive so that that's what I found fascinating those that are there the but especially the money most of the it is so susceptible to false like operation so for instance since all biases are is something that I'm pretty sure that that's more or less than a false operation office intelligence uh are and so the but the ability of US intelligence to actually understand what those 2 space activity that you can do 1 anonymous label is an actually use that and extend a little bit of our has also the the huge danger of deeded timizing uh the label like anonymous and physically making it a pool for everybody the room would prove to follows interest that's a great questions define it because a lot of political movements and I'll just give 1
example Greenpeace was like amazing at getting the attention in the 19 eighties and then all of a sudden because they're using the same tactics and had the
same message that basically there was a media block out you know and 1 of the things that you look at the history of hacking from that's the sixties to today is just how much attention at different you know hacker groups and actions have gotten really been very successful at at gaining attention and this is in part because hacker groups morph over time and and then you know they use different tactics as well and and this is
an say 2 things I think 1 of the reasons why I actually anonymous has been so interesting
is because at root the unpredictable but they they're triggered by world events in world events are unpredictable you don't know which event going a kind of a jump into and not always kind of keeps some fresh at some level they kind of go away for 3 months and then next thing you know they're fighting police brutality in United States arm and then this is also you know I'm I'm kind of conflicted a little bit about like crazy chaotic hacking or hacktivism but the
1 good elements about that is that it ensures some level of both on triggering that kind of media attention and and and other interesting elements is that it kind of uh and you know retains a er gives gives hacktivism a certain
type of bytes you know which I think is a good thing in the long run to but then we really
need the mainstream media and unlike was front said earlier about their education social with people that are there's something different about
different values the things can be done differently but we need them because in the past we actually degree the world well you know I think WikiLeaks is
a great example here and so WikiLeaks was created in 2006 right and
they had this great website had great information that shocking information on it some weeks there that I was just like my job was dropped you know but they kind of were envisioning themselves as separate from the mainstream media not working with them and it was not working you just can't necessarily put up information and have people come and then in 2010 assigns change strategies of for Collateral Murder they they did a slick video for and the video that showed a US soldiers gunning down journalists they held a very fancy press conference in Washington DC in some hackers here in Europe helped coordinate that and then all of a sudden they were working with the mainstream media and then WikiLeaks was everywhere so I think that we do but on the other hand I think it is important to create alternatives and at the same time whether it's something like in media which was started by hackers and and that helps spur citizen media or something like the copy left license is an alternative and that's 1 of the things that so powerful about hacktivism is that there's ways in which they intersect with the mainstream and there's other channels in which they're creating alternatives it has a good it is
not by law and it is always balls so it's in the mainstream media reaches a lot of Orleans are much rent of media reaches lots
of other organs that have all dropped out of the mainstream media and and you can use 1 way or another to get the attention of both and and it's not not a question of what you're aiming for essentially it's just in the indications whole what's but the tension that you get these in both forms of that did social media or alternatively your mainstream media and they're they're all playing development cycle so they're found essentially the the the the question if you are able to sustain attention for issue a caring about yeah because it's relatively easy was in good heckle Prangle whatever or the because to get uh very short attention but it's extremely hard to achieve sustain the detention into political change and that assessing the the thing we're activism needs to evolve tool basically not just about getting attention and getting shot on massive assault but actually using these tools also to or effect long-drawn political change what is the tension along the drawing attention to issues which is a very hard thing to do and then today's me environment so the question
fair you know anyone on the panel but way is distinctive about hacker politics are hacktivism in
comparison to other forms of more traditional leftist forms of activism is there something distinctive
and as as I said in the beginning I have a very specific understanding of hacktivism so for me it's obviously the technology
part but the the ethical framework if you will comes from the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights so for me activism is all about human rights as it works through technology and across the digital on the internet uh sort of about to things like
DOS saying or like these various tactics I did we moralists discarded in the early days because we thought they were violations of access to
information which is a basic human right and freedom of expression which is a basic human right so I tend to take a fairly absolutist view in that sense so I'm for me specifically the the ethics would have come out of the UN and have applied that not just to speech and privacy and a lot of other good stuff and but this kind of uh maybe user sideways so quick but in many ways I'm a completely inappropriate person to be the moderator and because I have a very distinct point of view and I don't really have a scholarly understanding but you know of
what hacktivism is from the beginning to the end or as a continues and out with the various motivations and actors are so I and I was trying to do my due diligence and researched as much as
I could about uh various groups and and 1 interesting thing in your provocation but you said that uh hacktivism was most vital or or most effective in Europe or in
roughly it was right on so in the research that I was doing especially looking at the early groups like I went back and honestly the earliest thing I thought would qualify would be the piece and then there's a big golf until 1984 and that was a group that
was formed founded in Germany and nineteen eighty-four network liberty alliance and so they were the 1st people to really use technology and social action together in in in a much more sophisticated way and they were the 1st group together a seriously behind uh Richard Stallman the GPL and and really push that ahead which with other players in Europe but certainly they were very very effective but I may
be wrong but I also think that the whole in the media movement came out of some kind of 1984 coalition because it
was found that year but it was an international group was founded in Seattle actually which in the
intermediate was founded in Seattle all by it was incredibly vibrant in
Europe but again it's 1 of the things where the united states is so big that I think you're going to have very important groups and entities but if you can do a per capita break down the number of like hacktivist an active this is much much larger and the European Continent compared to the USA which has a very large kind of on you know check entrepeneurial sectors which which takes a lot of the hacker orders is on energy away from the
activism I think uh there's something else I discovered by in my travels come trying to find out who else was involved a generally and hacktivism various factors and players and 1 thing I discovered
is that there a feminist activist and there is a whole discourse around feminist activism and I'm guessing a lot of that came out of various writings like maybe the the cyber feminist manifesto I think there was 1979 and some various other is sort of scholarly and just in a playful articles about this I do we know when this has is uh feminist activism is or or what it's aiming to achieve yeah anybody that maybe even
somebody oceans and I guess I can I can share some experiences encountered when I working with what I could actually radically different activists rather than have this structure cause it was a few years
back to the main knowledge sometimes also inference where what is around the time and when I often-encountered women but not often enough and being a woman was actually questioning why that was the case well you know there are lot of obvious reasons but what I am kind of liked was some were a group that that was a we growth what owning a server and when service or the when an activity eyes these commercial writing about basic hosting websites and mailing lists for other feminist groups and aware of women only space not as an end in itself but as a sort of a means to an end which was to create a cozy environment for people to for women in this case or gender at a where people to have operated in there because 1 of their candidate questions that they had was that they were being well patronized by people would you more in that people you more would invite man so um on exactly how is in the sex that separate from its manifest but I think this is an very one-dimensional be elections written something about that I mean I think it's a huge
problem because is Frank mentioned you know nothing of politics independent of the digital and whether it's journalism you know hackers are refiguring
journalism whether it's intellectual property hackers a rethink it refiguring intellectual property whether it's an you know kind of direct action hacktivism attackers participating and there's very low numbers of women who participate in these worlds and on the 1 hand it's a simple mirror of what is going on in computer science you know the people in the United States of computer science undergraduates appeared in 1984 and it's been downhill cents right and there's a true more systemic problem and then in the world of down and you know I think it's really important not to means 1 unifying brush to some sectors and some groups have been fantastic when it comes to boosting diversity so
Python on an open source project you know had a diversity statements as I was at the conference this year a couple of years ago they had something like 5 per cent of the speakers were women now it's like 50 % we've really done in efforts to and you make it more inclusive I would say some other sectors of hacker down like the security world are atrociously bad when it comes to gender and and then the hacktivist circles definitely have issues
and in so far as the very very informal also unlike the Scharstein open source projects and it's very difficult to to recruit in some ways and because there's informal cultural norms and informal mechanisms so in those cases we just need to boost the number of female developers in society and that's support for requirement and then also boosts the issue so that people can you know talk about it and engage in formal formal or informal means of recruiting folks as well likely have a way
of saying it but it is like I think he's called that near the Barbie using and then which as sunglasses and offering classes subclasses and I do computer in their hands so talk about mainstreaming only
intersects behavioral factors in as
well right and there's really interesting things there is just a study that showed that I'm if a computer science class
in college is tied to uh political or social issues the number of women who enroll in the class is often over 50 % rates we need a happy education system and as well in and teach computer science in different ways to address this problem anything else that we
want to bounce around because 1 thing that I'd like to do that I'm guessing that a number of people have questions so that as much as possible i'd like to uh engage
the Yunnan we can or years the 1st question hi thank you very much for all of them for
a stimulating fields I just wanted to say something about a feminist activism and I think
of going from 1 Frank was saying about politics I think what's interesting about the intersection of feminism and will didn't like the visible um political action on the
internet or through digital means is trying to reframe politics trying to reframe of relationships in agency with the digital it's not just about actions and they think it's a it's something that's kind of coming back and people and evolving as well and we wouldn't be hearing more about it I think limiting the discussion to the idea that gender gap of women in tech which is definitely a problem all the focus on half an excessive kinds of harm that women face online alone in my opinion it is provocative but it is really kind of limits the discussion about possibilities and can what comes next and reimagining cyberfeminism so they think that the the
the right way to go for a lot of that is basically on treating it as 1 of the major issues that we have this
movement physically that the Congress for instance we try to be as inclusive as possible without making it a major topic of the conference because the topic of the conference this Morris was an offering those stuff like the from and to core programs that use OK please come we have somebody who guides for Congress which is hugely successful arm and they're also trying to boost role models which recent history of the most important thing that the Arab is the bring woman for ought to do them gift them positions to be role models to to encourage other woman to to come and go get take up the stuff from them do this thing is also that the M. diff especially education is part of the mechanism are busy teaching the kids to heck is something that we do it to the case of school thing that we try to our this to bring forward or total look it's the idea that they have is controlling a computer making it you're all making it do what you like there are this is the initial spark assisted initial feeling that our ability empowers him bring it forward and it really helps and that also has fallen actually to implement and goes to to get into into the way of thinking like Africa using these tools and so on and this is something very very good try to do more of course and with a limited means but the thing this is 1 of the core issues starting indication as early as possible about what deck of thinking and hold to hard to get the the
at the and so I wanted to pose a question about future technologies and the potential for half the hottest way as
specifically uh robots Internet of Things virtual reality and and kind of potentials you can margin there the return of the wild I mean power
to that'll we what we're seeing so far is that the the way technology can be used there has but far not been fully explored and so that the as ways of circumventing restrictions as the ways of some
basically making people off about the state and executed to paranoia and technologies to a great I mean if you look at the that they have seen last week there the 1st public instance it was not the 1st since the 1st public instance of food and small drawn used as an graffiti sprang instrument error that's uh that made headlines so that is just the beginning so the more robots we have 2 more fun you will have this them
that's for sure there are the big problem I see there is that from what do we need to be very aware that it needs to
still be something that people understand this is not terrorism so this is not this is not digital wireless but this is something you Lichten that the fathers of course that carries a message that has a very clear that our purpose and the purpose of this carried was the means so that means that the the way of doing that activity fusing technology at using technology in a way to carry out political message must be always clear there because when people understand that and let's say you just the bring down a mobile phone network and regardless of what a mobile due to message you carrying with that is that people remember you as the guy who prevented emergency calls yeah
I out I always like to say you know currently a free energy you a lot of hacking it's best to do it on the side of the Atlantic just
because the punishments are a lot less staff and in fact 1 of the best places and it's quite exciting and we didn't really talk about latin America in this and panel but there's been on unbelievable anonymous fled hacking against governments that have expose corruption for example in Peru by LulzSec Peru and these countries actually don't have the cyber resources in their intelligence organizations to catch these folks so really there can be some really interesting configurations where some of the more interesting stuff is going to be happening at of the Middle East a Latin America and then I'll just actually saving this is not really related to your question but I think Frank entered a really well you know the most interesting hacker hacktivist group is red hat in Turkey they've been in existence for 16
years the Leninist Marxist at the fact the electrical company in erased deaths you know and and so
in some ways I think like some of the bias these we have about our understandings of hacktivism have to do with the fact that well we've we've looked at CDC we've looked at CCC but we haven't looked at the
groups in Latin America we have looked at Red Hat and so a lot of hidden histories here as well if I can be haiku back to to show of robots and Internet of Things and the reality is what I think actually have to this is a very
of a very important role to play in the limit demilitarising discusses the narrative as well because all of this as a a lot of privacy implications the extent to which users are in control of their data for example is important and if we take activism is also possibly playing a role in shaping the narrative in the perception was good it was legitimate what is not good and what government should not do well I think that besides playing tools shows really look at the policy side of things
this if I am of the dela but again you just want to give a little informational
collecting we these causal cyberfeminism because of and running this project called this option that the collateral learning by doing the found of
the Aviion osmotic so that 29 and so the overlay uniformly at the quiz question battalion lost part of it is an option that the glove project so we focus people interested to meet me them other side of the family in the sentence gender hockey use unjust inviting them sorry for the propaganda but they sort of the the most useful since you mention them and
they would be fun to that many of the GDR
reading about us thank you for that and put any other
questions from the audience so get back to you exploit the and 1 of the at
and you have a couple more minutes for round up less statements in them but the and actually have a sort of a question going back to I believe it is time rationale out for delicate
contextual style and I think that if I understand part of the argument i that it's it gives voice to the little man and this kind of thing I
to III at a no do something to somebody or some institutional something I and the sense
that I I get from that it it seems to be the little man that I like attacking the institution I don't like I I'm wondering about the little man we don't like at all attacking the institution institutions that we do if it's part of the argument is well that there are legitimately a lot of unheard voices not all of which we would agree with this so I just for me also is somewhat problematic because let's say the little man uh is a disgruntled Tea Party member something out there in that range so and the the solid that they don't like to be a further review the seal you so my voice is going to retractors this formal institution of of Yemen I think he really put your
finger on the moral conundrum a nite you know there there's examples like that where did you know that much to say ISIS who did the half against the French TV company right now I'm no big fan of Isis at
all that but nevertheless I think I actually think it was an interesting political intervention and in some ways I was like maybe it'll inspire other activists and with causes I do support to do something similar right and I still do think in this relates to the demilitarization and
discourse that define it was talking about and not analogous huge
fan of D. dust because it does lose his effective more interesting things to do but nevertheless when it's a little person whether it's someone on the right or the left attacking the big institution and there's no damage it's it's relatively and you know it it's too often equated with this happen in the media where there's damage where there's lots of data when there's not so I think it's really important to kind of contextualize what dossiers and make it clear and then under those circumstances I still feel like it's not that big of a deal
you know and now if it is an organization who really is truly truly
shut out from communicating in the long term I do see it as a problem but the state is not and give up their right to the the state the dancers right there even if we give
up they're not gonna give it up and so in that case you know I still think it can be worthwhile tactic the picture should this is that in the past so we have seen our haggis associated with that are not seen driving groups backing sides of publishing the data and which has been long drama tactic of the
onto ficus will physically active do not see fewer false and a move to T-shirt shops unpublished data from that and sometimes just strike that can do some blessing Donnie reason that they will why isn't limited currently known is simply because the if you all know I think had mind-set in principle is associated with onto full of current thinking and that limits the talent pool on the right but this must not hold up so that's not the natural law it's just something that is currently the case and it could very well be that we that the actually found we seeing more of that and that that the activism that is happening there as if he wants to some of the those attacks against foreign citizen UK there was this 1 abortion clinic it was the ghost and so on so this is actually happening at the tools available to everybody the tools on and the questions just who wields them Belarus I mean both technically and politically improper analyze on we pro we will see that that's gonna be very interesting and wild yeah gets very often
the monastic now as a scholar we have a tendency to actually look at the group to like uh because you felt that with the group this group so we don't like to spend it with that of the people that make us uncomfortable and so the reason of emphasis on the kind of good case nonetheless latest Sanford voting we might argue that is not actually dico that everyone has a vote
special out of a sort of voting process certain countries but after all this is what we call democracy in which is also not perfect so I don't think that's a mole um that different voices with also within the the hacktivist commune itself and so well install the professor Summers but we have the movement to which ended the greedy
this would be to say thank you exploit for
moderating this creep and would define a gorilla and funk um thing was very insightful so a round of applause for your thank you very much
and
what is the
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Hacktivism, or Fifty Shades of Grey Hat
Serientitel re:publica 2015
Teil 47
Anzahl der Teile 177
Autor Ruffin, Oxblood
Rieger, Frank
Coleman, Gabriella
Milan, Stefania
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/32184
Herausgeber re:publica
Erscheinungsjahr 2015
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract The history and practice of hacktivism is a complicated business. Where did it come from, who's doing it, and why does it matter? Or is the whole discourse completely over-hyped? Join a discussion with some people who have thought about hacking and political engagement online. And come prepared to challenge what you hear.

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