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Do we need a Cork math font encoding?

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Do we need a Cork math font encoding?
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Cork, Ireland

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The city of Cork has become well–known in the TeX community, ever since it gave name to an encoding developed at the European TeX conference of 1990. The Cork encoding, as it became known, was the first example of an 8–bit text font encoding that appeared after the release of TeX 3.0, which was later followed by a number of other encodings based on similar design principles. As of today, the Cork encoding represents one of several possible choices of 8–bit subsets from a much larger repertoire of glyphs provided in font projects such as Latin Modern or TeX Gyre. Moreover, recent developments of new TeX engines are making it possible to take advantage of OpenType font technology directly, largely eliminating the need for 8–bit font encodings altogether. During all the time since 1990, math fonts have always been lagging behind the developments in text fonts. While the need for new math font encodings was recognized early on and while several encoding proposals have been discussed, none of them ever reached production quality and became widely used.
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when a proposed a talk and at the idea of taking the returned to co-opt as an opportunity reviews the situation of mass form as most of you will know at the previous conference in clock is the clock encoding were developed Richards an enormous impact on the development of text fun but on the other side so the woman quite such a success in the development of last forms uh them there been some project working on something that's have really succeeded and there's been some other developments going on and flow what it was sort of write a review paper and give you a bit of the history of what has been done what
has happened review some of the recent developments and also look at the what the and use the development could mean for our future development flow we talking the about font encodings particularly on about unit code in unit code might also be talking a bit about font technology and so on the impact of open type and open-type and a a lot of the basic theme could be summarized you must forms for mutation and its the so let's start with the
history what was the situation back at in 1999 in 1990 of the conference call at that time take was undergoing the transition phase as from told us yesterday they convinced on can to work or to extend and then take worsens 3 was released him at the beginning of 1998 what with the introduction of support for multiple languages it could font encoding at the same time some other developments were going on that many European user groups were founded at that time and the European units were really interested so in making use of some new features they wanted to have that I've formations for their language that would that fund support for the language so they they actually started to work on fonts and font encoding and from how it happened let's at this it took conference in clock the came together worked on the font encoding was named after the conference site and that sort of this way called became famous in the community what the so the it that's
some success so further motive was the 1st example often you made the font encoding I it became the model of the official model support group proposed by they take 4 was organization of 8 bits of texts from both simulated attacks on encodings which provide support for many European languages and this was the beginning of so many developments in font encoding so the last 2 decades certainly did a few things right like include complete 7 bit subsets of a the common denominator it's used to consistent encoding for all the fun shape so low that should be at most like the dollar becoming a pound sign in 1 of the if you switch italic uh scatter consistent way of organizing the uppercase and lowercase cold so bridges support for hyphenation that no interdependencies between text and must forms but that was only because the the really well and had you Max forms for the at that time on the other hinge there also some shortcomings the cork encoding
of did not really follow any other then that floated on so that created the discrepancy between the input and output encoding which we have been dealing which within the IP protection systems for many many years will sort of soft in only a few years later in red related to be introduced input bank uh packages and 2 variables quite a messy situation the laws of the question that tried to support her many all most European languages but it could support all of them in 1 8 bit font table so the although region is idea might have been to create 1 standard font encoding the ended up with many local encoding so uh there's the Polish Q x and whatever being used besides the cork encoding so this was a really thought of the few years ago when the net in modern forms were created which at least made it possible to blue support all the various encodings this the same set of forms the also there was no room for all the text that was in the fund encoding so as the need for supplementary encoding yeah and it's also loses a cork encoding didn't consider a is goods that are commonly available in PostScript fonts so when you take a PostScript form and want to make available you still have to face some here's the ritual form and then you need to ritual falls on top of 1 real form through get all the characters that are in the form so there were alternatives like that as wide a 1 encoding proposed flow and then we've we've ended up with the the command of formed encodings
but the coke including was adapted and followed by additionally he and both supplemented by a text simple encoding most there are many other local encoding used besides that and while we learned over the break that those thing a good font encoding cancel out all the the meaning several different the fund encodings and there are we move this beyond the 8 bit limit and towards unique code an open type technology and then go that of so with that in mind forms and the gyre forms to be developed in the past few years we have a consistent implementation graph before glyphs that provided in using the unit code coding and OpenType font technology and there are many subsets created from the big font so using 8 bit encodings and so type 1 technology so what's the situation
today would say take his the they going another transition phase In In recent years behind that pdf f largely replaced the and PostScript output scalable fonts have replaced the bit-mapped fonts and now we're starting to adopt unique code and open to to replace the a bit have a new projects fish in the past few years the real to develop what you take engine so for text forms we already made quite a lot of progress unfortunately for Marsh was still everything flow the vector basically using 7 bit encoding so that were created 30 years ago so the what about mouth formed
when the descended forms were created the text forms at the mosque funds were created at the same time because there was a need for them because the canoes needed them to types that the out of computer programming could do without loss forms when the 8 bit forms were developed was driven by the need for European languages at this time the use of needed them but so that it was recognized that there could be a need for a bit muffled but was not driven by the user needs that could still go on use the 7 bit forms and types that must perfectly well so the reasons for developing new must have encoded was sort of low from the incremental point of view you want to see rules interdependencies improves organizations maybe being able to support more of world in the same number of false the but this an opportunity in that that the user sees a small like follows the 4 after and have for for the end user so let federal on
going on since at the time of the 1st world conference the was as at yesterday's related projects of spot the this some research works that student working on mass funds for several months during the 1993 developed a proposal how must forms of could be organized but unfortunately after a few months opportunities nothing happened anymore that it took several years and to the same so that the proposal was taken up again that time from what we've I joined in and then we worked on it for several months lands we had some prototypes were based on from that of formants work to create new lives of from fondants worked really cold to put together various pieces report the represented the results that you take the 98 model on other storms has here at that time he criticized why are you doing a good font encoding settle circle that that sample really weren't ready for you could be at and then it happened that after the conference all the activities were sidetracked by other developments this will the efforts to bring unique code
uh no bring us into unique coach Barbara has given some talked about this at previous conferences so basically the world's 1st for research work to collect what constitutes the moth lived for all what are all the symbols that should be encoded then the Committee will of get the sum of accepted parents I I think it was Starting from unique at 3 . 2 that must was included has been since then the loss related projects to developed a set of reference formant based on the unique at last encourages speaks for this project was of driven by a group of scientific publishers mistakes group the and they finally you released the 1st beta of in the end of the Prof here this be expected to be a 2nd beta sometime this year so they have not all the building blocks ready of all the groups that are in unit code last with the question of how the funds should be organize to make it usable and how to provide take support for it that has happened such 3 all the time when the take community will sort of waiting for the sticks forms to be finished the outside developments have moved on Microsoft this put put so much
support into office 2007 and they did so by 2 extending OpenType font technology what Microsoft is 1 of the companies controlling the OpenType specifications so they basically created a new table which has all of the information about my the and they are commissioned the development of a fond come where mask singular he about it in the following talk and will quite impressive what they've done and turns out that many of the concepts the use of word then to the based on ideas from text they follow the model of take full many ideas and suspended still considered in experimental and not officially published this already sort of a defacto standard widely deployed to installations of Microsoft Office it has been shown that the independent font developments like the alarm mouth formed supported by the Fund for much further font editor is also supported by 1 of the mutations see taste the so what if you should this current
situation if you take has started to support OpenType Martha thing since the end of last year some time and it will become available to the public arena widely pretty through with take life 2008 well today has already been available with here take left level but not having them off the board at that time and what do I think is still under development but it's likely to develop some support open time off of love so the probably get support for open plant laughter and then you take engines pretty soon the question is no what about support forms the it's like agreement that's OpenType masters the way to go for the new take and as for the new 1 so it turns out that font encoding becomes along issue if we adopt unit mouth and open that we do not need anymore you want encodings it's just a question of dealing with the font technology and understanding what it all means to develop an open must find so we're going to some of the details
long . 4 months from Reno most of you know some things about it developed jointly by Adobe and Microsoft the it might suggest opened by the name but it of actually when the control the specification look much different than the previous 1 form of through try the cost have 1 things based on many of the content of the post and true to form we use the table structure from through to the end of the encoding is based on unique codes uh and the interesting thing is the addition of a new table them after false soft for software which doesn't know aborted just another option table becomes only meaningful if you have software which knows how to interpret the table so what's in it
the in global parameters which are sort of comparable to the font dimension registers in the take must form things like that the spacing off-peak operators and fraction of the elements of the subscripts and superscripts most of the some of the open type parameters factor diary correspondence through the taste parameters some of the are generalizations that there you have something in and take that that's a hard wired limit that it gets smaller than this but if you look at me moving over 3 times and the use of something like that and the OpenType you have new parameter we're going buy a specify how much you will use this case unfortunately there are few cases where a the takes parmiter doesn't have a direct correspondence in open so the mutation engines which you wouldn't write a mapping of the require from work robs us of what sequence of that sort and In addition to the global parameters you also have to group specific information the take must form in the TF and 5 this also previously encoded in a rather complicated way but by overloading the meaning of some few that well with this the position where the super subscript goes the with class I tell a correction of EC troops where the superscript grows and things like that this has been uh cleaned out that the they provide a structure over all those things that can be described clearly there are also some generalization of the concepts and take your only of the superscript and subscript on the right hand side and the thought of the horizontal displacement and then it opened up you can define a captain position as they it is also on the left side of the road good for certain characters is moved in with much lower moved all that much so this is 1 part of it another part of the
future of the horizontal and vertical construction this sort of like the extended groups in must extension for font intake here for of the situation of 1 called point and it points to a serious off mixed larger lives and at the end you have the option of recipe how to construct an extensible symbol this metrics that and metrics inferior supports these in general but that would be used in a very restricted context so taking it expects to have 2 sides of the co-operators supports multiple sides of the individuals but also on the and and optionally inextendible version but for white excellent itself several horizontal science but no it's sensible version in open type this is generalized a bit they could have called that covariant construction of horizontal variance and construction this applicable also to things like an oval breaks you can define an extendable overgrazed on a brace as the good with several sizes and extends road construction or you can construct long error arrows so this way the and so from the technical point the take forms all the variance you still have slots in the form table in open to that of the the glyph name it has a good name which exist indirectly which doesn't have a direct slot in the form table may be mapped to the Private Use Area for technical reasons so the another thing the mask
alphabet intake traditional take engines they're organized 216 families of 8 bit forms you have usually 1 alphabets per family and then the rest of the slots futurists the glyphs receive a geometric symbols the and then you have this mask called which controls how the system will behave earth for the geometric symbols you have a fixed code in a fixed family and for the alphabetic letters the f the fixed code related to the font but said the which changeable the family so if you switch from the Roman to in italic to a script font its performs which unique encodes the basic er idea if that's so different meanings of some was was a different meaning have different plots so therefore reserved and the 2nd plane many many slots for alphabet in various shapes so the the geometric symbols are in the phase plane and alphabetic letters the that slots in the secondary plane and switching alphabet now becomes switching coat positions within 1 big font which is sort of requires a lot of work at a micro level if you look at the unit code must package each by the Robertson Richards which stuff that already linear obsessing about the
optical sizes the must family consists of 3 form flow of of floated that's resizes funds coming from work metaphor and design usually have 3 optical fibers adjusted for readability in the smaller sizes and for PostScript through of usually 1 divine fires and managers scaled Don butts become a problematic to retreat in the smallest size so in open must this all packaged within 1 big font and is and of a soft font substitution that the triggered with feature tagsets this seems like the 10 . 7 point of the 5 . 4 and all packaged in 1 and it's just the the optical replacements so if you want to build something like that it's comes bit complicated for the frontiers either Ulm but ssh from the take point of view of I basically you still notes we form with thus there is the question of whether you note 3 different font instances are using you loading the same formed with 3 different feature sets so yeah OK
important features and 1 full summary
OK we have 1 question is what would be the future of last fall's alert unit could last has already over replace the need for new formed encodings OpenType seems to be the best candidate for all of the font technology the take already in the supports the would is likely to follow it and 1 of the questions is what happens about the development of new forms of some indication that of they want to do must form Fullerton modern and take gyre but the notes and not specific now when it will happen and how long it should take this certainly many challenges evolve for the font developers the so 1st of
all it's the scope of the project the have many new symbols uh to design and many different laughter alphabet to packaged into 1 informant the fund would be very big would extend across multiple 16 bit plane you can just go into 16 bit slot enough the wall and that's you have to package MOSES the various divided into 1 4 you have to pay each suffice variance also extend the good live in the same form q of take its optical variance then you have to figure out which 2 to meet how to create a the parameters in the market table and Jose correspond to the fundamental parameters of how to intrude uh crude all this you specific uh metrics of to replace the things that were previously hidden in the tf and fields both crude develops a vertical and horizontal constructions all the the font substitution for optical sizes so if we want to do a OpenType Maass forms for that and what take drive there's a lot of work on it and it takes would be a lot of work even to figure out how it all works out to do it but which what we can say of that's a of previous conference in Cork in 1990 was the beginning of the many developments in the area of text so maybe with a bit people of luck we may see the beginning of a new development of In the area of must form for this but don't know if you were works out we show the hit OK if without our I then I had the this is the kind thing I media and I'm not OK and so this it is the more that you have to with the In this this and which would be a the name of the of the of the kind of like little that of a little in the area of the the the the the the the the the the the the the the the the the the kind of thing a theory of the of the of the of the of of the year the same year time of the need for the development of the of the of the of the of of this and that the mind and the the the the the I want you all to of you know you still have a lot of you the we read at the micro level and no should use it form we need them but said that this is that the mother tongue with the he and his