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This is NOT a proposal about mass surveillance!

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the it want to use to talk about a topic strongly influence how we percept at this might seem like an obvious statement but when we look at the news and what's happening in the last years this is something which is so true we just think about it seriously matter model was this is something we the count true words have a lot of meaning when you think gets from what's happening there it has a lot to do with speech these are are is a linguistic student and she would talk to us exactly about this topic she would tell us how words can be used to shape our perception of a certain topic in this case so the slope of charges of the UK a charter which forces I speak to the case you're browser history this is Gary so please wait can leave there was a big round of applause and I think OK so let's begin act of faith and the sound and linguists want him to my talk this is not a proposal about mass surveillance analyzing the terminology of the UK since this chart so many people interested in linguistics so late in the day of this amazing thank you very much for attending my talk and I hope all of you had a wonderful Congress of all of many linguists in the audience 1 of i in Lisa more yet and the like nice very nice OK come on let's give
some in the stock and then to take a closer look at the simplest shut and it's terminology from the corpus linguistic point of view so is the Investigatory Powers Act also known as the most out of ELM it is the new legislation which extends the surveillance powers of the state and it would allow the security agencies to keep so-called internet connection records for up to 1 year and to have mobile phones and laptops on a large scale without any suspicion it was period known as the investigatory powers milk and to make it a bit clearer appeal is along which has only been proposed but has not passed them both Houses of Parliament the investigatory powers Bill has received royal assent and was made into an act in November 2006 2 it is nicknamed charges due to the extensive surveillance to get a bit of history 1st term's inverse chatter has been around for a while and it is not new at all it is used further communication state of built previously had a previous surveillance bill and a newspaper article refers to this bill as the most draconian keys of surveillance derivation ever proposed in a democracy wow that's this bill was blocked in 2018 by a new bill as we can see is on the way so I'm now going to talk briefly about methods I used to give you uh and oppression of what I was doing from as I want to find out how certain expressions I use in parliamentary debates and in the media coverage on my focus will be on the context of certain words and words as you know do not stand on its own but always have a context around it to explain the meaning and to give an impression of what the word is actually about the OK so I'm going to make use of methods of corpus linguistics voice corpus linguistics and corpus linguistics is the study of language based on examples of real life languages what is relied language well history by articles these letters and student essays transcripts of spoken data and so on corpus is a collection of machine readable texts and corpora can come in various sizes ranging from several thousands to millions or even billions of words to give an example of Wikipedia everybody knows it can also be regarded as a corpus and contains around 1 . 9 billion versus really a large corpus there is a British National Corpus is a bit smaller and contains around 100 million words of wise corpus linguistics useful well it allows you to work with large amounts of data and linguistics examinations of and carried out using software for example and Kong in my case and it allows you to work with amounts of data units which would take years to analyze by hand and you can just do it with a click a lot easier only that why is also useful well it helps to reduce researcher bias that means that there is a tendency that researchers tend to pay more attention to things they encountered an earlier stage of research them at a later stage and if you're working with millions of words it's a lot harder to be biased the body results compared to only work with let's say 2 or 3 newspaper articles Pörtschach analyzed by hand it can OK this analysis I used 2 methods of Corpuslinguistics concordance analysis and collocation analysis both methods have very useful to examine the context of curious in the corpus but a k concordance analysis gives you several words around the the key greedy researching for and the span of words can be adjusted and usually it's around 5 words the the side of the keyboard so this is a screenshot
from the corpus analysis program I use in the middle of the Indian script you can see by the data this is my unit which ended at the very bottom you can see and and allows you to to analyze 3 levels that is in this case 1 word to the left of the you want is threat section and the 2nd and the 3rd for it to boot right of which you you can see in green and so triple and in this version it so it alphabetically than you can scroll down and have a look at the all the concordances some all the context around about the 2nd method
used is called collocation analysis and this method is very useful to examine the connotations and associations between words and their relation to other words is crucial for understanding the meaning of a word we already have that and the collocation is defined as the above frequent co-occurrence of 2 works within a predetermined span once again it's usually around 5 words the the size of the search to be just a few make the span large you might have been 2 of 3 different 2 of 3 sentences but which are not even related to keyword anymore and to give an example the 2 strongest collocations and the British National Corpus for use of orange and lemon so and in order to indicate the strength of a collocation mutual information is used it's calculated based on the expected probability of 2 words appearing in the original their relative frequencies and the overall size of the corpus then you compare the expected probability and the observed probability and this difference is translated into a number and the higher the number of the string of the collocation but if you use a corpus analysis program all the system for you here's a screenshot
and you can see that conquered collocations of surveillance and of this is quite unusual that so many words have the same value same NMI value you can see in this section which steps statistics can can and usually articles prepositions etc. are not taken into consideration use their frequency is evenly distributed across the corpus OK so in my analysis I use
to call for the Investigatory Powers Act corpus and the news on the web corpus
so the investigatory powers a corpus was compiled by searching for all the expression ch circuitry powers built on Hansard the official documentation of parliamentary debates and my corpus consists of 63 debates some written statements and the final legal texts of the investigatory powers and so it has a size of 1 million and 60 thousand 290 words so it's a relative small problems but still it's lot it's large enough to show some parents and it's not too small to not be able to do an analysis a 2nd
corpus is an online corpus called news on the web and it consists of newspaper articles from the English speaking world and it was started in 2010 and it is updated every 24 hours so it is the most recent COP is you can find pictures that covers all the articles until yesterday and in order to be able to compare the 2 corpora by restricted the time span of researchers to the time span of the parliamentary debates that is from July 2004 achieving until November 2006 on in all in this time span I was interested at the core this hatched forward billion 350 million birds so it is roughly 4 thousand times larger than the investigatory powers of corpus the so with such a vast amount of data you know of course can do a lot of different analysis and this talk I will pick out 3 key words and this is going to be terms snoopers mass surveillance everyone's favorite and bought thank you let's begin so in order to find
out what's to new means I consult a dictionary and in the Oxford English Dictionary to snoop is defined as the price analysis 1 need not be concerned with keep that in mind for but please so let's have a look at the concordance also
usually as as you see on the screen shot you have 50 or even 100 concordances but this talk I will only give you that a small excerpt so In my view it will not out completely the lazy label of some this chart I was not going to use the phrase in this shot of the pictures it is counterproductive nor was it going to use the phrase mass surveillance I was about to attack him for the Fraser the shards of what he managed to get out in time I also hope that the politically loaded and seriously misleading phrase supercharger has been removed from our lexicon snooping depends on the populist phrase simplest shot so what is striking about the expressions in this shadow is that is accompanied by a diary a form of direct negations or another form of denunciation but disapproval such as lazy label misleading phrase populace phrase conspiracy theories and so on and so forth and all these things as invalidating criticism of the bill In addition it conveys the message that everybody who refers to the bill as a sum of the shutter is neither a trustworthy nor informed nor appreciate the work of security agencies and you have a wonderful quote for you In my view displays the label
build a snoopers shot or a plant from US surveillance in fact disbursed lazy it is insulting to people who work at the police and the security services so they you've Bill Embleton to snoop is highly undesirable remember the definition it implies that the government overstepped its bounds and that the bill would realize this activities which otherwise unacceptable the strongest collocates snow this charter that label phrase and called and all this suggests that a snoopers charter and the general nature of the bill about 2 entirely different things to supercharger is nothing but a hollow phrase and it makes an element significance so let's have a look at how shatters use in the newspaper corpus reintroduce the beefed-up version of the supercharger the supercharges discredited unlawful entry to all suspects that saying that the bill is neither a Norplant from a surveillance renewed efforts to pass supercharger bill of increased surveillance parlance the Home Secretary will try to speak and have bill of fare revived the 1st half of OK so roughly 1 thing said of the concordances mention that the investigatory powers still is named supercharger and more than one-third mentions the existence of a previous inputs charter the communication statable and to be honest this is how I knew about this communication sustainable because I did some research only due to reading about it on the newspaper not by doing research on parliamentary debates corpus so this is why newspapers reported about renewed efforts to reintroduce the beefed-up region of the service charge so as a consequence the negative overtone of the previous communications data Bill is transferred to the current In addition it is pointed out that the bill made to seem less unpleasant but it actually is the Home Secretary will try to sweeten the pill of her revived in this chart of so so this shatter Pirelli appears with the negation and newspaper articles and if it does appear with indicate negation is a quote from the parliamentary debates and the strongest collocates of superstars our so called me and don't so the what can we learn from the concordances about this expression so in investigatory powers that corpus 75 just send 75 per cent of the occurrences are negated or contain some form of disapproval of denunciation various and now corpus determines how the negated the 3 possible entirely lacks reference to previous inverse charter but in the newspaper corpus many references are given to the previous the chapter and the parliamentary debates criticism is used to refer to people using the term whereas in the newspaper corpus criticism is directed at the implications of bill so all in all the trees in the stratosphere and with negative associations from the previous communications available and as a consequence is is strictly avoided in the parliamentary debates and if it is used at all it is negated OK so the 2nd term I had a look at this from must surveillance it is not important is it not important for us to continue to reassure the public that this is not a proposal from a surveillance and to restate the essential need for the you not accept that the bill is a plant from US surveillance neither is this charter Norplant from mass surveillance as the charter for the planned for mass surveillance neither is this shot and Norplant from a surveillance so altogether the term of surveillance does not appear very often throughout the entire corpus about 28 times 4 million words that's not a lot the and know of 50 % of these occurrences from negation appears from several instances mentions cubist charge and mass surveillance in 1 negated sentence in order to suggest that both parents are equally enetic beta describe the investigatory powers bill strongest collocates of mast surveillance on plant charger and of course not OK so and here's some excerpts from then used on the web corpus open court hearing into whether gchq alleged master valence of private communication breaks human right lost Major use technology companies suffering from the fallout of the and as a smart surveillance programs under criticism for its muscle and practices reports about the and as a smart surveillance programs carrying out mass surveillance as the critics have played so the concordances reveal strong negative connotation of mass surveillance it ranges from breaking human rights laws to even the nuclear fallout and by drawing these comparisons it is implied that the consequences are harmful long-lasting and not easily to overcome so must surveillance is dangerous this is a message and this is only an excerpt but other concordances mention must surveillance in the same breath 1st war crimes and totalitarian institutions such as the Nazis and the East German secret police some articles refer directly to Muslims as book collection a negative growth weaving their way out by calling must surveillance teams like Paul collection very few instances bring out must surveillance and a negated sentence that most of these instances the quotes from politicians going from the debates regarding the investigatory powers strong as collocates of mass surveillance or Temple of G C is the vicious which stands for a New Zealand's government communications security borrow and gchq so muscle and ends is inevitably leading to modern governments and the surveillance programs and if you omit acronyms features they do not really count as lexical words and the most the strongest collocates far-out revelations indiscriminate and interception what can we learn from the components of well in the parliamentary debates and over 50 % of the occurrences must surveillance is negated and now it is half negated and now corpus also reveals the full extent of mass surveillance and negative connotations so the last term I'm going to have a look at is what data and once again I consult dictionary to find out more about this so in the Oxford English Dictionary Boggess defined as a great show considerable while you amounts the collective must for any object it's usually
used in the context of carbon commerce in like heats without a package and so on so let's have a look at the concordance
the ability to acquire but there's necessary the ability to collect bobtail it's essential the build supervisors entirely the ability to collect more data despite his attempts to conceal acitivities the agencies were able to use spot data to identify that he had recently traveled to European countries In power source services to access and analyze of data a tool that has become more important than ever before so in the context of what they can be spilled up into 3 major sections the majority of the concordances as we've seen in this in this excerpt stresses the necessity and proportionality of what their a common strategy is to this incidence of when and how might that have proved useful 16 per cent refers to about that on a rather neutral contract text that means stating amendments which refer to all data and only 12 per cent mentioned but they the critical context and exemplify those 3 abstract term and its indiscriminate approach by referring to make a
mess of combating hamster but of course assessed using such vivid imagery this undesired so so
have a look at the following code I appreciate the baht Paul is a controversial but I am absolutely sure that we do not conduct loss of that and we did not conduct data harvesting in this country it simply does not happen the use of what powers is not for that purpose but for the purpose of examining materials even though that may be done in what is done in a way that does not amount to the generalized harvesting of data for the examination it simply is not says his degree of hot so that the speaker does not clearly defined what distinguishes data harvesting from of the use of Bob powers for the purpose of examining materials involves Everybody
knows this man and he talks about the whole thing in the following way the power of holding 2 contradictory beliefs in one's mind simultaneously and accepting both of them so what what does this tell us this unshakeable faith in the good intentions of mass surveillance makes people actually believe that measures which correspond to the definition of mass surveillance are actually not lost somewhere and so maybe there are other things to worry about than Russian what's tone of and there's a general tendency of redefining must surveillance as spot data collection and this aims at redirecting I 10 attentions from the master data which means in other words it directs attention from the term which denotes a large group of people or items to turn which 2 nodes something very abstract and the personalized so but placing surveillance with collection further disguises the ongoing process collectors of varying neutral and fuzzy term just think about people collecting stamps coins or stuff like this various surveillance is very straightforward and unambiguous alcohol involved maybe remember the definition it's usually use to denote merchandise and this linking further emphasizes the personalization it is constantly stressed in the Investigatory Powers Act that must surveillance and about data collection are not to be created collection of blog data most of which had never even register it is not constitute mass surveillance often unfortunately it and we cannot allow graphs from the debates what constitutes mass surveillance if not the collection of communication data involved and this is also throughout the entire corpus there is a prevalence to refer to the Investigatory Powers Bill and its measures in terms of what they not all of them but rather than saying what they actually are own strings collocates of about data are Thomas analyze and collection to no
heavily at the concordance been news on the web a year ago a presidential advisory board and privacy concluded that the about data collection was legal and unproductive and it was already faced by data collection of a different kind as demonstrated by the hike and theft of millions of talk to customers if you are looking for a clear and comprehensive guide to how communications have been intercepted from cable cutting in the 1st world war to about data collection exposed by it's not and this is it had use recent attacks to argue for a broader surveillance and bought data-gathering but data collection you lawful nor effective so as you can see the context of both data in the news on the web corpus is very diverse the majority of concordances refers to this disclosures body use a freedom Act some articles express very critical attitude and actually traits blog data with mass surveillance is a quote but their attention when anyone else would call must but the collection is referred to as an evil love for more effective assistance from the excerpts several articles highlight the utility of our data is uh gchq analyst trawling about data spotted suspicious activity which turned out to be a Syrian jihadi come it's only a very small number of 2 out of a hundred concordances of the articles refer directly to the Investigatory Powers will and this actually surprised me the strongest collocates squared gchq and say and once again this indicates that data is linked to modern governments similarly as small surveillance disregarding acronyms in our data most strongly collocated with interception collection and interference
the In the industry powers Act the majority of concordances highlighted the importance and necessity of all data the errors in the newspaper corpus the majority of concordances refer to this node relations or the use a freedom Act and in the parliamentary debates we have this tendency of redefining must surveillance this about data about data collection of so to give a short summary the sniffer Saturn must balance where the 2 key words which reduces the most diversity and their use in 2 completely different land race and the 2 corpora superstratum last surveillance were also the to least frequent keywords in the investigatory powers build and the 2 most frequent keywords in the news on web corpus so as I pointed out before is a general prevalence to refer to the Investigatory Powers Act and its measures in terms of what they not off and as a consequence of the debates that are no longer constrained with the nature of these things we just things only defined X negative or still and in the industry powers that you have a strong tendency for rather nondescript terms parts and the news and web corpus where a stronger prevalence for negatively connoted words such as muscle and and this might be rooted in the nature of the 2 sphere so I had a look at the form of a newspaper or has an interest in translating the language into language its readers understand where is the political languages often designed to disguise unpleasant facts so last but not least so I did a lot of reading 1 of compiling this analysis and a lot of reading through all sorts of debates and I compiled so the top 3 of my favorite quotes from these debates when you already know so I sincerely hope that as the book proceeds we have a way to go yet we will explain that we do not conduct must surveillance in the UK and indeed it is not done and the user collection of like biplanar most of which I never in red does not constitute must surveillance and this and 2nd 1 however and easy we may feel about internet connection records of semantic Lawrence but does not compared to the infinitely greater on these we also feel about our intelligence agencies have been unable to use those tools to keep us safe the and once again the sum of the power folding 2 contradictory beliefs in one's mind simultaneously and accepting both of them to tell the the red lies quality annually leaving them to forget any factor that has become inconvenient and then when it becomes necessary again to draw it back from oblivion for just as long as it is needed to deny the existence of objective reality and all the while still take account of the reality which 1 denies all this is indispensably necessary and I appreciate the baht pause a controversial but I'm absolutely sure that we do not conduct data harvesting this country it simply does not happen the use of about policy is not for that purpose but for the purpose of examining materials given blow that may be some box or it is done in a way that does not amount to the generalized harvesting of data for the examination it simply is not so a
few birds and the gamma field if you really interested in corpus linguistics I would recommend Mr. Paul Baker and pretty much everything is written and fishermen to play around with the corpus is so you can find on line in in our corpus yeah OK any
questions thank you thank you I have had his face and so is that is method number 1 more thank you all the you also the change in time of the of fluids so this is basically used to promote flows of users but something like the plants used in those so we can drew me uh voting for of Whitehall perceive something qualitatively new which is that set of positive corporate contributions but in the in in the discussion came that everybody knew what of argument is there and not in the change in the voting in the so you remove you prefer discussion have from what I know the terminology has not changed so I did not take a closer look at this 1st simplest up accused so in the 2nd simplest shall the 1 I was talking about is a modern version of the 1st simplest shudder but from what I know the terminology has not changed it was always called about data blog data collection but the interception stuff like this thank you I think this is number and when you do the so in the law in the loss you search for the term investigatory powers let em but when users and online newspaper use of false and post-shock my was introduce some kind of bias the thing is you if you can solve this some hands so this documentation of parliamentary debates and the debates are only found if you enter the official term it but the thing is that you in if you look for newspaper articles and then a a a the this sorry can you have the question again so basically what he considered searching for investigatory policy in the newspapers as well to see whether them that these articles maybe have a different language about the then the article containing superstructure which devoted to remind us that there are no gender as the number 1 to get the right campaigns against the sky parasites that's part as a member of the rights of the analysis wanting call 1 we have the the emotional side column you recommends that we can actually improve likes we lost the people that of the UCI by campaigns would like point of view against the speaker's charter and we may see how the practice of science in but we still laws and you have the advice how we can do that who has a very tricky question of i found many articles saying that many UK citizens don't even know what the surface charges and I think a lot was done to me that these debates have been have been going on for almost 2 years of female as been done to you and disguise the ongoing processes of what is actually being discussed by the analyzes on behalf of I Mr. sometimes the red line that had an uncertainty into 2 curves uses as a basis for next time to make it out of his way how how county lately have also requests from the signal and at some from the internet yes we do uh what wheels to did you want to did you use also could shown in the largest and say credible and for the called 2nd part myself I use the open-source tool called and and conquer a and C C 0 and C and if you search for it you can find it and download it and the based call this comes with a built-in tool you just enter search terms of the you interested on the web site and it has its own analysis tool but there are all sorts of concordance programs a thing the most known 1 is called wordsmith bought some it's not free from 1 another the the microphone number 1 you analysis Lisa on my 1st part of the question would be similar to the last 1 so what narratives can when he used to attack the discourse on such surveillance questions but I'm gap and the 2nd part of my question so as a kind of uh another term that is very interesting in this discourages cost of security because security most often is used in a way that it had like there's a terror terrorist attack so we need more security so we want to it but it can also be used in a way of of this the of the vessel The Powers Act introduces restriction on encryption and which we can cite you security are all collective security in the air and so on the on maybe I was interested in the use of security in this particular uh tremendous cost thank you intend to and well as as I said before if you have such a large corpus you can run endless analysis uh I thought about doing security 1 thing that is always the same and it was not a striking features is used over and over again and I don't want to take out a more specific term I thought you cute and you could focus on groups they use it for this and adjectives I mean if you if you're in the UK and search for it online and and and the figure on analysis centers have a look and if even if you have a look at a couple of concordances you can quite quickly get an idea of how this word is used so that I can say that the Knight of for this talk I think there's another 1 afterwards it said the Lenny side and was amazing so I I I I I thank what to watch
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel This is NOT a proposal about mass surveillance!
Untertitel Analysing the terminology of the UK’s Snooper’s Charter
Serientitel 34th Chaos Communication Congress
Autor Lisa
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 4.0 International:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/34882
Herausgeber Chaos Computer Club e.V.
Erscheinungsjahr 2017
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract In November 2016 the UK has passed the Investigatory Powers Act (aka Snooper’s Charter). This act unprecedentedly extends surveillance powers of the state – p.e. legalising the hacking of devices or forcing Internet Service Providers to collect web browsing histories – one does not even need to be suspected of a crime. This talk investigates the choice of words of the parliamentary debates and reveals how euphemistic and understating terminology discloses the extent of surveillance and justifies the causeless intrusion into everyone’s privacy.
Schlagwörter Ethics, Society & Politics

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