Bestand wählen
Merken

Vintage Computing for Trusted Radiation Measurements and a World Free of Nuclear Weapons

Zitierlink des Filmsegments
Embed Code

Automatisierte Medienanalyse

Beta
Erkannte Entitäten
Sprachtranskript
thank if it
were the the and and he and now we're going to do is an even bigger even for a round of applause for Alexandra Moritz was going to talk about the utility of nuclear weapons you I have you think you thanks and things everyone for joining us I'm Alex and this is more and there's just that this is the talk about nuclear weapons but both Moritz and I and also our our colleagues back in princeton and spend most of our time trying to get rid of them but so far we have made much progress especially lately I find 2017 was a particularly difficult that years but in this business that you're in for the long haul and you have to be persistent and you want to be ready and when their new opportunities for a confidence-building arms control and the their and the disarmament initiatives now and for this talk now about what's relevant is that any new initiative to word of further reductions in the nuclear arsenals will have to rely on robust verification mechanisms and as you will hopefully see today are there effect verification of will have to rely on trusted radiation measurements and after 25 years of finding the in this area no winning technology has has emerged and ultimately it boils down to a lack of trust in the electronics that is being used for these applications as some words and I thought well but perhaps vintage computing platforms may offer and in new answer to 1 gram not to provide an an answer to to this challenge and as we brought some gear and hopefully will and demo it in in a couple of minutes and the but before I get to this let me just briefly
summarize our where we are today with regards to nuclear weapons on the
remain at this the women about 15 thousand nuclear weapons today are more than 90 per cent of them are owned by the US and Russia and then you see you know 7 other nuclear-weapon states in the world it's unfortunate these numbers actually haven't come down by much over the last 15 or 20 years or so and you know by any meaning from standard it's you know it's a it's a gigantic number the
new this year was on the North Korean of last latest tests and in September from what where an off Korea for the very 1st time I conducted a test a large nuclear weapons tests 250 thousand tons of TNT equivalent and we believe that this was a two-stage thermonuclear weapon and it's significant in many ways but because of 3 only tests that you know 5 or 6 that the weapons before that and and it's certainly now has a is a credible nuclear capability and also the the the made the means to deliver argument this weapon we call it the peanut here you can see this typical shape for two-stage weapon with a primary and a secondary
and now in the interest of time I will not allow walk you through the global consequences of a of a nuclear war or even a limited 1 and they're pretty good or bad as you might imagine how and personally I believe in even a single Maclay explosion and in a major city of what's you know in many ways the the end of the world as we kind of don't know it and and not in a in a good way obviously with the 2 kilotonnes explosion you could wipe out an entire city in in an instant I'm
now lately there has been no you know quite some you know loose talk about in using nuclear weapons and again we have seen this and you know 20 30 years or so and there is talk in Washington about the preventive and nuclear war against North Korea arm and that this you know that disturbing and I'm afraid there will be no more of this in in 2018 and display the search media kind of summarizes the situation quite well you can't use the 20 20 election if there is no the 20 20 of however they have
also been some positive developments this year but only in the summer of 122 nations at the UN in New York a negotiated in nuclear weapons ban treaty on which places nuclear weapons for the very 1st time in the same category as biological weapons chemical weapons our cluster munitions and and landmines for obvious reasons the weapon states did not participate in these negotiations but you know the ideas they will you know join along the way
and since we're here in Germany and I'm in a citizen of Germany just as more it's but it's worth mentioning that Germany to have voted against the resolution but in in 20 16 to start negotiations on on such a treaty I I don't wanna be you know well understood too much I personally believe that this is a mistake but it would be the right thing to do all over Germany to join this treaty and it would be particularly different but difficult for work for Germany to do so I had
been just throughout close on this and get that's just earlier this month and this is you know it is a big deal but I can the international campaign to abolish nuclear weapons received the Nobel Peace Prize but just for this for this reason to facilitate the negotiations of of this treaty and you can see some of the key folks who've been involved in kind of make this uh treaty possible so this is really a 1 of the highlights of of this year now but
it's coming back to the purpose on the topic of this part so what is to be verified I already mentioned it's not it's going to be critical to have verification mechanism in place it's particularly important also for the ban treaty where you try to verify you know the numbers 0 and the United States for example has actually made the point that the ban treaty cannot be verified and for this reason it should be in a boycott about which is nonsense of course but you you get the idea people to take the verification question very seriously come now to kind of highlighted
illustrates would involve so we have this cartoon here of the fiction of the weapon states are has a bunch of given the facilities some of the most civilian on and you may find them in other countries to enrichment plants reactors and so on some of them are military from India highlighted here in blue and know the difference the main difference between weapons that in a non-word considers that the weapons they you know has nuclear weapons and they move around the weapons complex right and so they're trying to do is confirm certain constraints on these on these weapons limits on the number again on the number again could be 0 and the important challenges that you have to resolve when you you know when you try to verify such a treaty and I highlight them he on this 1 on this cartoon we could give talks about any 1 of them but that today we want to talk about 1 specific 1 that's typically considered all 1 of the maybe the most difficult 1 to answer to address and which is confirming the authenticity of a nuclear weapon so in a sense the scenario is you know the you've counterpart the Russians Americans whoever shows up and says look that we have 100 nuclear weapons here we want to attend this map them and what to get credit for the for this right be what kind of have these reductions on the books and how do you make sure that whatever they present to you is actually a nuclear weapon or a bunch of nuclear weapons that's the challenge and that's what you're trying to solve today with a
vintage verification so as to how they do that now so the 1st thing we need
to know and the the only thing we need to know is that that the glow weapons in of the weapon contains fissile material nuclear explosive material on and then I put in the numbers here are now on the screen typically 3 to 4 kilograms of plutonium for example i is strong enough for you you could expect this in a nuclear weapon in that that's about the amount of plutonium you would have been in and of I was told this is aluminum and and get and again anything else really doesn't matter that too much for purposes the key is it's plutonium or highly enriched uranium both of them are radioactive and we can use this to detect them from a distance but now the issue
is not so they have unique radiation signatures out but they are highly sensitive and they cannot be revealed 2 inspectors the only exception is really the 1 you see here on on the screen that this a bunch of US scientists actually some of our colleagues and and Princeton involve that to the Black Sea 1989 and and and made a measurement on Soviet at the time of the weapons and published the of the spectrum in in Science magazine and here you go it turns out you can actually learn quite a lot from this spectrum so that in the aftermath of this exercise a weapon states conclude whether this is we cannot really do this anymore this was kind of a bad call to go this way and also in so then a couple
of new concepts like that developed and will be implemented to be implemented 1 of them in this in this in this and get a box over there but the first 1 is OK I can't possibly show you the spectrum that you can't just sort so we have to kind of do it somewhat differently the 1st idea they came up with is the attitude approach you said OK you cannot look at this weapon work this component it's in the container but we can agree on certain that computes answers that done with the Russians and well you know we have plutonium you have plutonium that's not to do and both sides agree OK yes we can you can confirm that this plutonium in this container that's 1 that maybe there's a certain minimum mass it has to be more than 1 kilogram and we can do this also with radiation detection measurements more than 1 kilogram certain isotopic even the geometry of the size of the mass you can detect with radiation detection equipment so you make a list of adjectives 1 approach we don't really like it particularly much because it's on it's obvious how you would defeated but because you know if the if this threshold is set at 1 kilo I just need to presenting a 1 . 1 kilos it will always pass the test them that's 1 way to do it and the 2nd 1 is the 1 we're using here for this exercise of this experiment is the so-called template approach you do and acquire 1 radiation spectrum from what we call the golden what had reference items you on historic perhaps in some way on how and then when you know down the road to the other side shows up with the 2nd item you compare the 2 signatures against each other and if they match you say OK except the 1st 1 I will also accept the 2nd 1 so that the template approach and we'll do this and later in a in a moment so in both cases you do acquire sensitive information right I mean that that the British detectable see everything on what so what you need is a 3rd idea which is called an information barrier which is really just a and a piece of electronic equipment that would do the data analysis and then only display a kind of a red light green light in a pass fail go no-go result obtained will not display the actual spectrum and that's of the main idea of an information gathering and coming back to you know why is this not such difficult job so the problem is how can both sides the inspector and the host team trust the technology at the same time OK so the the the the whole this word that this machine but accidentally released the secret right through some side channel or cell and the inspectors were that the mission action not doing anything meaningful and then I will just displayed in the result
that the host of wants to see right so this is actually something that the Russians go weapons experts said many years she was invited but to others it added the US so weapons that you know you have some machine that you know that's something I have no way of knowing that this is actually a genuine measurement so that essentially where we are today with the you know the the state of the technology of just of
wrap up here quickly before we move into the demo part you know why are they so hard already summarize some of this of the 1st this and it's very unusual for an experimental physicist or so that you actually don't know what you're looking at except for the fact that denotes the Tony myself along so you cannot reveal you not want to reveal about what's actually in the box on some information may be shared in advance but you certainly don't want to learn anything else during inspection the 2nd part is and and we're talking US Russia you know China and the rest of them but the adversary has the effect of infinite resources OK and the adversary maybe you know quite moderated to actually defeat or deceive your your system and just 1 data point that the US is currently somewhat refurbishing 1 US nuclear weapon the 61 much wealth and refurbishing that weapon costs more than 30 million dollars 1 weapon 30 million dollars which is more than the weight of gold of that and so the government is willing to pay 30 million dollars to refurbish 1 weapon you might imagine how many how much resources it may throw at you know the system they might actually you know past fake nuclear weapons and this is genuine and then finally and that's you know for this community and particularly the most difficult 1 origin know ironic once the host that has left the ownership of the inspection system before the measurement so they walk away and you know you don't know what they're doing with it and the inspector never again has access to the system after the measurement is complete because there may be some form of you know a classified information left in the system as a that's is being essentially why these inspections
are so hot and which is why we thought you know and we offer an alternative with but with vintage technologies now it's time for more it's hard to proceed here you don't so area is hard and if you look around who build such systems that actually have been less than 10 built in the world which is very few for 25 years of development I'm going to introduce 3 and then we're going to start up the the computer that we have set up this 1 is called trusted radiation identification system or structures built in the end of the last millenium by Sandia National Laboratories
and this is our looks like it's based on the template approach so it measures the sample and then compares this to an item you want to inspect for this user simple sodium iodide detectors radiation tech to text gamma rays it's it's very rough in the spectrum that it generates but it's good enough for the the purpose it runs from a 12 volt battery and it has some is called a trusted processor in this metal enclosure that actually 2 processes and some more hardware that's installed in there it doesn't have a green light but it has a display on a keypad so controlled by this keypad and you display the result from this place and this small little weird looking things on the left of the picture the so I've buttons and 1 of them is actually used to store the templated just in small memory things you can plot into stress of processes the so we
like about the trace system is it's very simple and it's detector has set up it's passive and use this low resolution measurements you don't generate too much information that might then be given to someone you don't want to give and it's also use a strong campaign indicating enclosure so Sandia National barges actually a pretty good and doing using from a variety of purposes so this is this man's metal box inside of this in actually divided into sites by big metal plate on 1 side is called the outside the US as called the black side and they only communicates through 3 small holes by optical means of actually completely and electrically separated there at sites handles the gasifier data and the black side that deals with the display and then the keypad you and they also added a special temporal boards in the size he sees someone drilled a hole into this and make eddy current measurements before and after the measurement to see if someone has deal of this metal enclosure and then the last thing we like for the last of the last in this slide it it's it's actually pretty fast so that you can measure a template or an inspection 32 60 seconds and then you take the spectrum condense down to 16 numbers only the 16 numbers are used to compare it and to another item by simple statistical tests they also some things that we
don't like so we don't like that it actually is very complex hardware in this is only in a 586 name decay 5 processor inside on PC 1 of 4 form factors board it still has 4 million transistors that you would need to verify it to make sure it actually does what it's supposed to do they also uses an FPGA for the data analysis and there's actually 2 of these processor boards inside 1 on the right side 1 and the blacks also we don't really
like that it's it's a system built only by an interim state in the United States and its its main focus was to ensure that no information easily but they actually also said that this was the main focus of the had a hard time kind of proving to side that wants to inspect the system actually not just only shows a green light or a good sign on the display when it when it's asked
the a 2nd system that's more recent build actually by an interrupt and stay the United Kingdom and then on the drop in states Norway they came together in the UK no initiative for about 10 years and they did 2 things 1 was they they simulated disarmament of nuclear up and it as a kind of you life action role place of actually walked around with warheads and measurement devices my words with fake awards measurement devices and source to try to figure out why this is hard but they'll stability information
variance and this is how it looks like this is this search iteration they had to the built before 1 by UK and 1 by noise and then they go will be that many goals to do this so they wanted to have a simple device as simple as possible they wanted to learn to use off-the-shelf hardware they wanted to have a modular CCC's divided and only by geometry but also by color into additional board analog border low-voltage board and the high-voltage they want also to operate from battery this operates from batteries that's independent of Apollo supply um and I wanted to be very robust um for use and they wanted to be very clear by using it so they came up with these 3 buttons and then in the middle of the circles are greener ladies and the other ones are so there's actually green lights um but they set out to to use the attribute approach so that the dating to the template approach but that tried to use the attribute approach and the attributes they picked for this device and add the presence of plutonium a material that we can use in Europe and stand ratio between 2 specific I suppose of photon and 1 component to 39 and 1 turn into 5 that 240 side and in this ratio was erm you know buffers and social they would show a green light we like about this is the key operation of
procedures they had this very simple user interfaces think this is not that important but if you have a nuclear war than the 1 you want to make sure that everyone knows what's happening in there should be no confusion about anything that the they also had a comprehensive documentation you can download schematics bill of materials and the software that ran on the machine on on their website it took them caught in a couple of years but then it's published now and we actually learned a lot from this end and last but not least the most upon this is actually a joint design effort between nuclear-weapon states and a state that does not have access to the weapons and they were aware of this and um analyzed also what problems they had doing this
same here we don't like that much but the system is based on the attribute approach which in general is it's harder because you not only have to make sure that 2 things are equal but you actually have to identify things from everything else and so they use the high purity germanium detectors similarly gamma detectors about um give you a finer spectrum which they need but it also requires the call by nitrogen liquid nitrogen to be very cold it's not easy to do in the field they also need a very complex algorithm in the box to say OK this plutonium present or there's no proton present and they have the same problem as before they of course used is that there is no real open and chip but they use a close should and for the data analysis they limited themselves also too simple to the at media 25 16 8 bit microcontroller for data analysis um we looked at the schematics we also found this a T tiny microcontroller on the so called analog born 1st surprise what this was but they said they use it for timing issues but just a place we wouldn't expect any digital analyzes this shows good is this was for us the 1st example circuit note that there might be something going on ways there microcontroller when should be and that both the flash that public could store images so that might be the problem the set example we call
information very experimental or IBX something we built a we built 2 years ago we mostly billet because it looks good
and also because we wanted something to you tutoring and kind of a prototype to actually see what problems could we have and that as a mean to teach people to how you would use this and how you would it's also template approach it can store up to street templates and then measure an item and so on it's 1 of the street and place and it also uses a sodium iodide crystal crystal scintillator as the true
system uh this is our looks like from the inside we try to make it very transparent helps achieve its and cheap in in quotation marks is less than a thousand dollars and the left that is a single board computer on the right side there is a custom-made board on the right picture you see when it when it measure something and
we also in ascends ran into the same problem we we use a complex chip so we use this for goal-directed tire which is nice because it has this fast analog input we use for for data acquisition but the can only do this if you have an an FPGA basically because the 14 bit on a 25 million samples per 2nd need to be processed fast and if you have a proper process we run a full Linux stack for now because it was just the simplest thing to do so then we took a step back as Alex said so again what what else can
we we came up with the idea here let's try it again if should do the same list will have whether that is old units called the vintage verification as the name we came up for it what would you do that you take the
best of all worlds and you try to build a trust through simplicity and probably also serves to obsolescence and we use a simple detector system again sodium iodide um it's widely available and gives you the low resolution spectrum and then we use vintage computing platforms we use an apple 2 in this case which is it is relatively old it has been reverse-engineered even if the specs have been published and not all of them and it has been risen good that scores the open source that's what I call it and it's unlikely someone had a backdoor in switch in this system for 2 years ago for the case that might be useful for verification it today so we think this is not a very likely and another thing I want to use this is you would like to use in the y or y be bring your own information their approach where you the host country and inspecting country would go together and shop for hardware they see you on ebay or go somewhere and taken and use this and as the
processes of the apple 2 disease the 64 to something we also like very much it still has fewer transistors than the energy weapons in the world we hope to changes for the nuclear-weapons there's only 3 thousand 510 transistors runs usually in 1 megahertz has 56 instructions but there is an abundant number of these devices built so the numbers vary depending you ask people say they have been billions of these trips actually made and they have been made from 1975 and they're made more or less until today and these a 5 ships now we actually I had to attend to play with and and some of them also in these arcade machines and then another is living in you see his kids testing our verification processes if they were good or bad and they also in the effort
to it's the forties anniversary this year are also available to so the computers older than I am and that made it a fun project to to develop a radiation measurement of cards for this and why we use
that I what would use an apple if you look at Apple today's using what's what's the benefit of of something with an apple that the when this was developed and I was actually
I think probably the last time that ability or the ability to use extended system uh 1 and then the company policy over uh seamless end to end user experience so when they developed this device their 1st home actually came in an enclosure and the 2 Steve Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak had a fight about how many extensions slots this device should have wasn't so it should have 8 slots that people could do whatever they like you know they could build cards they could build things and they could probably verify nuclear warheads at some point the job said they should you only need to you 1 for a printer and 1 for modem that's enough people want do more with that so we are happy that was
named 1 and you can see this on the on the main but this is the main board of an of an Apple 2 E which is kind of a slightly more advanced version of the apple 2 but in this case for many years and it's from 82 yes and is of automated you this is the board that's actually on display here on the on the table and has these 8 expansion slots they also has some time in a standard computer hardware has a 64 two-processor and has a ROM and RAM so we can start using without building own computers in Serie of course you could just take the 65 at 2 and then take some RAM some Roman put this together and make the same measurement but that would be a step further than just developing cards for for the apple to and with that I think it's time
to fix you turn on for the 1st time with I hope it works with the um Commission actually and see this in but there's a kind of before produces not inserted the service and the floppy disk was missing in the few
yeah yeah OK so
we go so we at 1st we need to grant the high voltage uh the detector typically on the on the order of a thousand wants in words is going to walk you through I know that the details of the boards so another hypothesis up and then we can acquire at the 1st template so our really fortunate to have friends from both from a broader scale a small calibration source so that we can sit in front of the detector and so you know we can actually get a signal and so we play the
template and here we go of course in the reaction measurement citing you wouldn't see this fact and this is the thing if you want to have quantifiable but we saw it you know it's more useful to show to be clear that this 2 device actually acquiring data so this is a cobalt 60 source for those of you out and you know why are out in this business and people like cobalt 60 I mean if you like radioactive sources I guess because it says it has these 2 peaks that you can see in and helps you really understand you know the the sensitivity of the resolution of all of the detector anyway this going to count until 2 of them to the 17th counts I guess it so we then go back to the the mainstream of 3 let this run in the background we come back to this after a while um probably Alex actually has to him to push a button on the computer to do this for in this 1 issue the detector has to warm up a little bit so ideally would have to wait 5 minutes or so to stabilize the high voltage so we'll see how we're doing will be doing on the on the on the verification and inspection in a few minutes OK what just
happen not just a very quick Physics 101 I we have gamma rays coming from this source that's 1 type of radiation and the gamma had a scintillation crystal so that's something as this shiny blue things so it's this material that absorbs discovery from the radiation source and it emits other photons but photons that are more like American signed the light and it emits about 38 thousand photons for a single gamma rays with the energy of 1 immunity and these piece of 1 . 2 maybe in 1 point I always forget the excitement about the bus 1 mean so all these photons emitted in the crystal and then they hit this photocathode which sits at the end of the the crystal and they produce electrons and these electrons then get amplified with something called a photomultiplier tubes which is achieved where the electrons get accelerated from the cash just to what's the an hour and on the way they had these curve um surfaces which are called by now it's whatever they have 1 of these they produce more electrons and when they end up at the end of the day in day 1 electron from the start is 10 million electrons on the analysis of very very efficient amplifier for small signals and then the amount charge with a lot of evidence but as we saw In the demo it needs high voltage
and so we we designed and high-voltage forward
1st and we cheated a little bit of this year and we use the C A. arcane I module which produces the high-voltage for us we give this 12 also and said voltage between 0 and 2 . 6 loss and from this it makes proportional uh 1 can hold up to 1 . 6 kilos of 1006 and what we do want to play with this voltages so uh starting to you know do you electronics and so we use this model but to replace this we build a very simple digital to analog converter which you can see in the middle of this and add to our network and this gives of this the set uh and it raises this over time to protect the scintillator and then of course we have to build and data
acquisition board board that takes the electrons that that sits on the and I would
have the this into this BNC connector on the left uh process it's how would come to that in a 2nd and then give it to you an analog to digital converter we use a 12 bit Flash ADC that has like you in a big bus interface because the 64 over to only has 8 bit data interface and we have some control logic and we actually also have a some ladies red to yellow green and some blue ones but we decided for the seminary would not use them so in the um analog as part of the board on the left 1st you get
the signal it's preamplifier that doesn't mean it's amplified that it's something that sits in front of the amplifier and it takes the charges and converts them into a voltage pulse by a charge-sensitive op-amp circuit initiates a fast-rising pulse it decays slowly over time so the
next thing we do use differentiate signal by differentiating up on stage and so the the shorter but then it gets inverted the user inverting stage these inverting stage that
to further back out and also use the term parts to just again because depending on on the build actually and the resources you use that you always have to adjust the signals so if it's in the ADC a voltage
range than we do some pulse-shaping it's to be noticed here that actually this sculpture this shot so also spelled it's it takes a much wider time range and you see that the rise time of the polis analysis slower and we did this to detect this policies units of fast-rising we now have a relatively slow rising posts and there we see
this in the biggest and most confusing stage is the peak detect hold area and also that the ADC timing and will go through the resource code from this in detail the yellow line is the line of the action of the output of number 1 on the previous slide of the charge collecting op-amps stage the blue line and this is what the key detect and hold circuit actually gives to the ADC and you see this is very nice because it rises up to the peak and then it holds the voltage of a peak around give the ADC time to convert this and I forgot to mention of course that the height of the peak is actually proportional to the energy of the gamma ray that we detected earlier so we hold the small this for a while and then we use the purple which is a digital signal produced by a comparatively we say OK when it raises above a certain level then we should probably start this conversion and then we wait a little while and the signal is is flat and then we emit the green additional signal to the ADC Secondary Consort the convergence and then if you look far to the the right of the picture you see here that the signal goes down again and this is actually the time when the ADC has on the conversion takes about 10 to 15 microseconds and the apple 2 has red the 2 words from the ADC and store them in channel in memory and also increase the total counter that counts the total number of events so it didn't some logic and the whole process only takes about 60 microseconds and a few members of 1 megahertz CPU and Italy's like 40 microseconds for the processing and means is actually 40 2 clock cycles um and I guess if people would look at this in might even come up with the fast assembler code but that's a reasonable time we're surprisingly and how how fast we could actually become sample signals
and before your back to to another demo just um few lessons I learned that are many people in this room have built hardware probably wouldn't know that if you that I am a physicist I did simulations most of my time before started doing this so then Bill hardware and set out to do however for a
machine that is older than me so how would you do that you actually start reading actual books so this uh this manuals online but the best thing and it for this project was to go on a bookstore and you know by all books they there should cheap and the describe a lot of things that happen in this sample to uh and also to a general things about electronics the and then you have to design
something then is to try and have to repeat the the best thing I figured I was when I and deliberate board doesn't work this is the bread always sort of the the ADC card and where the work the busses just take a new 1 and then start again and then you know probably works that and you have better ideas are you more weight because the next day and lasts for
this it's important and it keeps you motivated to choose a real world problem and this could be anything from you know changing the Edo turning on and off the light in your room uh watering plants the you know having Apollo Guidance System flight to the Moon or getting rid of nuclear weapons and 1 of the benefits of working on getting rid of nuclear weapons the benefit actually in disadvantaged the last year was bad and there were many sleepless nights worrying about what Trump and conjunction might do so they can that could actually at least work on something that might be useful they you to try this for yourself and the software for the apple to is online there's also in repository for the hardware if you don't happen to happen have an amplitude which is probably likely and is also a repository which has an emulator for the apple to know where at at some special emulation for the county built so you can actually test out the software loading the disk that we did just on you know Linux computer and now we go back to another them on can
a switch back to the we go OK so here's a template and so we could either now inspect the valid item and not touch anything or if we had a 2nd item we on the 2nd source we could you know kind of trying to make the fake weapons but that the let's do an inspection him that you haven't touched
on the source life you watch me in the meantime I actually acquired a 2nd template a kind of you doing it again hoping that the guy voltage on but did stabilize and in the meantime and so now inspecting we haven't changed the warhead so to speak so we hope in the past but I can't promise and what do we have a 2nd radioactive source in the audience we see and hear it you go this and we we were 1 of of friends was kind enough to bring it 1 along and I can tell you internationally a travel with redirect resources not recommended as we try to find them in in Germany there of course from the Bahamas and had but just wait until this 1 finishes taken daily when the when you start calling your friends and you look I I need a reactive radioactive source that wanna take into light switch to the Congress people tell you look you know I'm sorry I can't help you with that and so but some do and so thanks for that so here we go again the code actually most of the the the software does the display which would be in the in the final version of the software so to speak right now and how many bytes we have 2 thousand it's too enough kilobytes but most of this is to display strings you see in the recorded to displaced stuff again and modems there so the people to check
OK past and chi-square statistic chi hex 12 of which will see that's actually pretty good and so now I have the 2nd source are that we just throw at you know somewhere on the table and let's run another inspection I hit the
3 and I found out well you can actually I guess if you watch the previous 1 carefully you can already see there's a new peak and mean showing up on the left side so yeah I really should fail but that but no hear anything to add in the meantime other way we can you and do the the announcement that the the the after this talk there will be other talk so we have to leave the stage quickly but if you want to have a closer look at the device that we going over to the C C L and will be at the uh the form Informatica sit area which is on the 1st level we just set up there so you want to have a closer look at this naive you invited to come over and see and we might not bring their resources just give you in just bring the device and just 1 thing in in case I forget it at the very end Mina and i've wrapped up in a moment but the 1 thing I think that the diff that definitely show with this kind of and is you them 1 megahertz processors actually you know fast enough to do this right I mean we get about 2 thousand counts per 2nd so which is actually not about number 2 for this type of application and that's you know that's the 1 megahertz chip this just enough so here we go all out it's complete I had at the check
and it failed and if you see the the hits were here is really pretty significant have 1 of the machine language coding and all day of the switch back to the main screen OK as I had I
could very briefly in this it to a 3 hour slides explain what the code is actually doing which is at the beauty of the template approach and its by its inspired by trees
are so here's a real world spectrum and all you know looking a little fancier than the ones you just saw but basically the same thing imagine in yellow is a valid item and oranges the invalid item so here we have we see there is 1 area where they can have different on but otherwise they look you know pretty similar but the 1st thing we do is we
divided up into a number of bins are small number we pick 12 but you know there's nothing special about about 12 of small number and then we take the average
counts in these things it's a very very low resolution spectrum i histogram if you will of of this of this radiation spectrum and then we just compare our universe orange and and take the chi-square statistic for you know 12 11 degrees of freedom and the nice thing is that you know the the Croatian up their idea you need to subtract 2 numbers that multiply the difference and divide by another number and you do this 12 times even in machine language you know it's pretty straightforward and easy to implement
and when you do this for the for this particular example of what you get for valid item on a chi square of around 10 you see know distribution you do not know definately what is green what is red pass and fail and if you take the
orange 1 which you know I wasn't quite it wasn't very different but in terms of the chi-square it you know it looks drastically different but so and you're done you have a pass fail all algorithm that pretty simple
so wrapping up you know where do we go from
here so what you know can we can we actually turn this into a viable device for trusted measurements in a medium with the help of this community here so there's a bunch of things obviously there would have to do a you know revising the software on the hardware clean up the code there's a few things that we actually haven't done yet subtract the background are you know correctly detected drift and so on but replace the high-voltage module in a pretty straightforward we also probably want to a package of the board and what the whole equipment in there you know some type of series enclosure so that's robust against your tempest attacks and and and so on but the 1 thing that is probably the most important 1 everything kind of hinges on on that particular 1 for this particular idea is you can be actually proof of that the the processor in this apple 2 of the 65 through to its authentic genuine but this 1 is actually was pulled from the Tempest machine that you saw earlier on on the picture there can be proved that the processor is you know that it's the real deal of because if we can't then we haven't really you know of
1 a lot of so the amplitude
board to know what's next
masterpiece more should already people have done amazing things with these 65 were to our you the visual signals 65 at 2 . on the use of very high resolution optical images of the of die and built a consistent with simulation of the 65 or into our it's kind of destructive analysis what we hope will be able to do is or be asked her can we do this in a non-destructive way are not the simulation that the imaging of the chips so that you can actually confirm the architecture the original art and architecture of of the chip because you want to use the chip afterwards but obviously and we hope we can they take advantage of the fact that the the the chip is profit made with Unite micron technology it's huge are compared to what we use today it only has 30 500 500 transistor and it's very very they'll understood so what we think there may be
per unit several options to do this I mentioned a high-resolution X-ray microscopy yeah ideally the nation could aged at the chip of you know what the package of the chip using some forensic techniques so that would be fantastic proof of provenance of off the chip or perhaps even some logic testing but to confirm the original architecture of the chip again and we hope we can you know leverage in some way the deep understanding of the 65 would to you at the at transistor level of for this for this purpose I think that's
all uh we have found now we have posted everything on that integer verification don't work out the slides decoded the hardware on the hardware designs and as more it's mentioned would be outside if you're interested in you know demo the hardware and with that I guess we happier to take questions if OK so we have some time for questions so please come closer to the microphones raise your hand and will take the 1st 1 from the mike number 5 right right and 1 question and you said that you need to verify that you this month and it can you look
this afterwards often you use that used for the measurement into the structure of the analysis of Loos uh it's a good question my I think my answer would be out probably not stand that because the damage would be already done in a in a way that's also why you know the and choose approaches where you put 10 on the table and you know just pick 1 and inspect the others at home may not be good enough for this type of application of the your your you know the other side would say look is that this is you know after the fact you learned already a weapon design and it's kind of too so ideally we we want to do it but before we actually use it for the inspection of the thank you Mao on number 1 on the list I think the top of my question was about the you you would say that you were concerned about side-channel potentially we using information about the structure or you're processing awareness and wondering how you address that with 60 but what you as for the question we we we see from your and the we we we we haven't solved this in detail and then of course you would have many citations in the 65 which is um but is that's my main man assumption is that if you can you can run it from a battery in in an enclosure that is Rs resistant enough so that the system would be simple enough that people would know all the flaws in and protect against all of the ways you can actually get into this system and ways if you take a modern which it even it's a simple to use and that that many of the talks you always find out afterward that actually there's a way to to listen to what the chip is doing and with a 64 2 people have tried to do this for 40 years we this makes it security and not a full proof of course but it makes secure than when you choose so the microphone number 3 great talk with great toys and the mean what you do what you did is you read gamma spectroscopy of available with much lower or cheaper simple equipment and other people and you also have an idea where to get this season of loss and sodium iodide the insulated materials so that uh you could do different spectroscopy applications at all and you can actually orders sodium iodide crystals on ebay or online and they've freely where which everyone wants them and they're not even expensive and you get the whole set of uh foot soul with the photomultiplier which need to be a light uh has to be blocked out this way so the shiny so all the light that is inside stays inside and no light from outside hits the folic acid in by these things actually hold on eBay for from you know a couple of a couple of you know 10 20 100 depending on where you get this from dollars or euros that also does that also also like to right poisoned season the iodide and I'll tell you build uh I guess for another haven't checked style and you know but the distance and this is why we like these detectors and really there's nothing more abundant than they at this type of detector you you can you can you can find the money back and they're really affordable thank you your more questions about the microphones it good and microphone 3 if you only have you gotten in touch with walls of all and you wanted to you to have me with Steve Wozniak then uh not yet maybe after the stock and they know literally if you know when we finish this project you could you know kind of just a few hours ago so this but now we have something that actually works and I'm not actually would ask him but the hope you'll like it will be thanks to few more questions you still have a little bit of time maybe for war more question can run more inspections if you want and yeah OK don't someone from microphone Wong so think much would talk maybe a very the question but what is the secret of the spectrum what can we learn from the spectrum it's not receive of coca cola I guess and then have to go back
to all the way to the beginning of but you know I mean you could make the argument I think it's a it's a valid 1 I mean something especially from another weapons in you you should ask you know and you know what's the what's the big deal about your secret you know it would be so much easier and that's that's a true statement obvious statement if you revealed the secret and you know we would have to protect our and you know it's always worth asking you know what exactly do we have to protect it we uh and another kind of a middle ground here is we believe that these 12 numbers but they may be just on the edge where uh weapon segments in looking at what these 12 numbers for the you know the template for this part the weapon types we might as well put them out there and do we don't have to protect the temple that would be a big deal but in general the idea of the of the of the concert concern would be that you as you can actually learn how you know what is the design of that particular weapons and you know that they are weapons of unit people tried to defend against them and so that you know the your adversary might learn exactly you know how you design your weapon and may actually come up with an idea to defeated and again I'm not subscribing to this you know you point but you know that's obviously something that people would bring up and you know about weapons states have invested billions and of dollars into this technology and now because they think they need it and they will protect the secret about the question about revealing the secret is a very important 1 of and you know we should just take it at face value yes you know we we have to protect you know every secret that you say is a and I think the argument if if you actually give us enough if you be more transparent about certain things are the verification pockets so much easier and maybe less intrusive and it could be women at the end of the day but of course there is a for corpora called also pretty important so never mind and with that and it was all of us and they are all the time unfortunately but give a huge round of applause for more and more and few if few stop to be is
a ng yeah the if you and the but the it it can pull the but but a
Soundverarbeitung
Kraftfahrzeugmechatroniker
Programmverifikation
Softwarewerkzeug
Kartesische Koordinaten
Unrundheit
Temperaturstrahlung
Systemplattform
Ordnungsreduktion
Freeware
Flächeninhalt
Arithmetische Folge
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Gamecontroller
Wort <Informatik>
Messprozess
Softwaretest
Arithmetisches Mittel
Parametersystem
Shape <Informatik>
Zahlenbereich
Äquivalenzklasse
Standardabweichung
Aggregatzustand
Hypermedia
Einfache Genauigkeit
CIL
Kategorie <Mathematik>
Softwareentwickler
Aggregatzustand
Kraftfahrzeugmechatroniker
Punkt
Mereologie
Programmverifikation
Zahlenbereich
Abgeschlossene Menge
Bildschirmsymbol
Nebenbedingung
Subtraktion
Programmverifikation
Programmverifikation
Zahlenbereich
Komplex <Algebra>
Ordnungsreduktion
Mapping <Computergraphik>
Freeware
Rechter Winkel
Inverser Limes
Authentifikation
Aggregatzustand
Mittelwert
Eindeutigkeit
Zahlenbereich
Systemaufruf
Ausnahmebehandlung
Temperaturstrahlung
Elektronische Unterschrift
Punktspektrum
Temperaturstrahlung
Abstand
Eindeutigkeit
Schlüsselverwaltung
Airy-Funktion
Touchscreen
Aggregatzustand
Resultante
Sensitivitätsanalyse
Quader
Momentenproblem
Extrempunkt
Datenanalyse
Gruppenoperation
Programmverifikation
Zellularer Automat
Euler-Winkel
Räumliche Anordnung
Punktspektrum
Template
Systemprogrammierung
Virtuelle Maschine
Temperaturstrahlung
Elektronische Unterschrift
Charakteristisches Polynom
Prozess <Informatik>
Spektrum <Mathematik>
Seitenkanalattacke
Zusammenhängender Graph
Einflussgröße
Expertensystem
Feuchteleitung
Softwaretest
Expertensystem
Schwellwertverfahren
Schlüsselverwaltung
Einfach zusammenhängender Raum
Ruhmasse
Mailing-Liste
Temperaturstrahlung
Elektronische Unterschrift
Quick-Sort
Rechter Winkel
Attributierte Grammatik
Wort <Informatik>
Information
Message-Passing
Aggregatzustand
Systemidentifikation
Demo <Programm>
Punkt
Gewicht <Mathematik>
Quader
NP-hartes Problem
Information
Unendlichkeit
Physikalisches System
Temperaturstrahlung
Bildschirmmaske
Äußere Algebra eines Moduls
Softwareentwickler
Datenstruktur
Einflussgröße
Soundverarbeitung
Perspektive
Experimentalphysik
Systemidentifikation
Temperaturstrahlung
Physikalisches System
Unendlichkeit
Flächeninhalt
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Mereologie
Information
Systemidentifikation
Resultante
Web Site
Prozess <Physik>
Quader
Datensichtgerät
Zahlenbereich
Punktspektrum
Technische Optik
Whiteboard
Datensichtgerät
Physikalisches System
Temperaturstrahlung
Exakter Test
Konsistenz <Informatik>
Standardabweichung
Spannungsmessung <Mechanik>
Stichprobenumfang
Coprozessor
Einflussgröße
Bildauflösung
SISP
Hardware
Template
Zwei
Bildauflösung
Temperaturstrahlung
Physikalisches System
Spirale
Coprozessor
Arithmetisches Mittel
Rechenschieber
Whiteboard
Festspeicher
Messprozess
Information
Normalspannung
Zentraleinheit
Varietät <Mathematik>
NP-hartes Problem
Hardware
Datenanalyse
Datensichtgerät
Bereichsschätzung
Systemplattform
Digitalisierung
Physikalisches System
Fokalpunkt
Whiteboard
Systemprogrammierung
Formfaktor
Whiteboard
Field programmable gate array
Komplex <Algebra>
Vorzeichen <Mathematik>
Coprozessor
Information
Hardware
Aggregatzustand
Addition
Videospiel
Stabilitätstheorie <Logik>
Hardware
Kreisfläche
Gruppenoperation
Geräusch
Iteration
Quellcode
Physikalisches System
Information
Räumliche Anordnung
Whiteboard
Hoax
Eins
Feuchteleitung
Whiteboard
Analogieschluss
Zusammenhängender Graph
Wort <Informatik>
Kantenfärbung
Information
Tropfen
Analogieschluss
Varianz
Aggregatzustand
Attributierte Grammatik
Schnittstelle
Bit
Web Site
Quader
Datenanalyse
Abgeschlossene Menge
Kombinatorische Gruppentheorie
Punktspektrum
Physikalisches System
Flash-Speicher
Algorithmus
Software
Operations Research
Analogieschluss
Bildgebendes Verfahren
Attributierte Grammatik
Folge <Mathematik>
Algorithmus
Architektur <Informatik>
Benutzeroberfläche
Systemaufruf
Mikrocontroller
Physikalisches System
Algorithmische Programmiersprache
Datenfeld
Menge
Komplex <Algebra>
Digitaltechnik
Hypermedia
Modem
Attributierte Grammatik
Identifizierbarkeit
Messprozess
Aggregatzustand
Arithmetisches Mittel
Feuchteleitung
Einplatinen-Computer
Template
Physikalisches System
Information
Information
Whiteboard
Prototyping
Bit
Prozess <Physik>
Hintertür <Informatik>
Keller <Informatik>
Information
Punktspektrum
Systemplattform
Einheit <Mathematik>
Field programmable gate array
Stichprobenumfang
Analogieschluss
Hardware
Bildauflösung
Architektur <Informatik>
Hardware
Open Source
Programmverifikation
Stichprobe
Bildauflösung
Mailing-Liste
Physikalisches System
Spektralanalyse <Stochastik>
Ein-Ausgabe
Feuchteleitung
Analog-Digital-Umsetzer
Analogieschluss
Ein-Ausgabe
Datenerfassung
Information
Vierzig
Virtuelle Maschine
Energiedichte
Prozess <Physik>
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Mathematisierung
Programmverifikation
Zahlenbereich
Projektive Ebene
Abundante Zahl
Chipkarte
Peripheres Gerät
Punkt
Thread
Whiteboard
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Prozess <Informatik>
Logische Schaltung
Systemplattform
Physikalisches System
Maßerweiterung
Hacker
Chipkarte
Modem
Hardware
Datensichtgerät
Versionsverwaltung
Diskettenlaufwerk
Hauptplatine
Template
Whiteboard
Coprozessor
Dienst <Informatik>
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Booten
Wärmeausdehnung
Mini-Disc
Einflussgröße
Demo <Programm>
Tabelle <Informatik>
Standardabweichung
Zentrische Streckung
Template
Wort <Informatik>
Quellcode
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Statistische Hypothese
Whiteboard
Demo <Programm>
Bit
Sensitivitätsanalyse
Punkt
Template
Physikalismus
Programmverifikation
Einfache Genauigkeit
Quellcode
Zählen
Energiedichte
Temperaturstrahlung
Flächentheorie
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Datentyp
Bus <Informatik>
Booten
Mini-Disc
Kurvenanpassung
Einflussgröße
Demo <Programm>
Analysis
Bildauflösung
Feuchteleitung
Umsetzung <Informatik>
Bit
Informationsmodellierung
Whiteboard
Datennetz
Information
Analogieschluss
Umsetzung <Informatik>
Bit
Prozess <Physik>
Information
Mathematische Logik
Whiteboard
Eins
Arithmetisches Mittel
Flash-Speicher
Feuchteleitung
Puls <Technik>
Whiteboard
Analog-Digital-Umsetzer
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Digitaltechnik
Mereologie
Statistische Analyse
Gamecontroller
Bus <Informatik>
Digitale Signalverarbeitung
Analogieschluss
Schnittstelle
Reihe
Spannweite <Stochastik>
Einheit <Mathematik>
Whiteboard
Analog-Digital-Umsetzer
Mereologie
Digitale Signalverarbeitung
Polygon
Term
Analysis
Demo <Programm>
Umsetzung <Informatik>
Prozess <Physik>
Total <Mathematik>
Physiker
Gruppenoperation
Zahlenbereich
Zentraleinheit
Mathematische Logik
Code
Übergang
Diskrete Simulation
Stichprobenumfang
Digitale Signalverarbeitung
Gerade
Funktion <Mathematik>
Hardware
Assembler
Systemplattform
Ereignishorizont
Rechenschieber
Reihe
Energiedichte
Digitalsignal
Whiteboard
Flächeninhalt
Rechter Winkel
Festspeicher
Dreiecksfreier Graph
Digitaltechnik
Wort <Informatik>
Virtuelle Maschine
Gewicht <Mathematik>
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Stichprobenumfang
Systemplattform
Projektive Ebene
Whiteboard
Quick-Sort
Chipkarte
Open Source
Hardware
Dokumentenserver
Datenverarbeitungssystem
Software
Reelle Zahl
Mini-Disc
Systemplattform
Quellcode
Physikalisches System
Dynamisches RAM
Emulator
Demo <Programm>
Chi-Quadrat-Test
Videospiel
Sechsecknetz
Datensichtgerät
Template
Versionsverwaltung
Quellcode
Code
Modem
Software
Chi-Quadrat-Verteilung
Hilfesystem
Zeichenkette
Tabelle <Informatik>
Subtraktion
Momentenproblem
Zahlenbereich
Kartesische Koordinaten
Maschinensprache
Zählen
Übergang
Bildschirmmaske
Flächeninhalt
Rechter Winkel
Datentyp
Codierung
Coprozessor
Touchscreen
Binärdaten
Validität
Zahlenbereich
Temperaturstrahlung
Punktspektrum
Code
Eins
Netzwerktopologie
Rechenschieber
Flächeninhalt
Reelle Zahl
Mittelwert
Zahlenbereich
Binärdaten
Wissenschaftliches Rechnen
Chi-Quadrat-Test
Distributionstheorie
Subtraktion
Zahlenbereich
Statistische Hypothese
Temperaturstrahlung
Maschinensprache
Zählen
Punktspektrum
Ähnlichkeitsgeometrie
Teilbarkeit
Freiheitsgrad
Softwaretest
Standardabweichung
Zahlenbereich
Spektrum <Mathematik>
Statistische Analyse
Elektronischer Fingerabdruck
Grundraum
Bildauflösung
Chi-Quadrat-Test
Reihe
Assembler
Term
Modul
Ähnlichkeitsgeometrie
Whiteboard
Code
Virtuelle Maschine
Software
Algorithmus
Software
Code
Datentyp
Messprozess
Coprozessor
Message-Passing
Einflussgröße
Hilfesystem
Modul
Hardware
Bildgebendes Verfahren
Simulation
Computerarchitektur
Technische Optik
Bildgebendes Verfahren
Whiteboard
Analysis
Bildauflösung
Softwaretest
Demo <Programm>
Mathematische Logik
Architektur <Informatik>
Konfiguration <Informatik>
Hardware
Bildgebendes Verfahren
Logische Schaltung
Programmverifikation
Bildauflösung
Zahlenbereich
Mathematische Logik
Übergang
Konfiguration <Informatik>
Rechenschieber
Softwaretest
Einheit <Mathematik>
Maßstab
Rechter Winkel
Ganze Zahl
Beweistheorie
Ablöseblase
Computerarchitektur
Speichermodell
Beweistheorie
Maschinenschreiben
Einfügungsdämpfung
Bit
Mathematische Logik
Konfiguration <Informatik>
Prozess <Physik>
Bildgebendes Verfahren
Zahlenbereich
Statistische Hypothese
Kartesische Koordinaten
Punktspektrum
Softwaretest
Maßstab
Standardabweichung
Datentyp
Statistische Analyse
Abstand
Datenstruktur
Einflussgröße
Metropolitan area network
Analysis
Architektur <Informatik>
Computersicherheit
Logische Schaltung
Bildauflösung
Mailing-Liste
Temperaturstrahlung
Physikalisches System
Kontextbezogenes System
Menge
Beweistheorie
Projektive Ebene
Information
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Simulation
Beweistheorie
Lesen <Datenverarbeitung>
Tabelle <Informatik>
Parametersystem
Befehl <Informatik>
Punkt
JSON
Template
Programmverifikation
Zahlenbereich
Unrundheit
Hypermedia
Medianwert
Systemprogrammierung
Open Source
Einheit <Mathematik>
Datentyp
Mereologie
Aggregatzustand
Demo <Programm>

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Vintage Computing for Trusted Radiation Measurements and a World Free of Nuclear Weapons
Serientitel 34th Chaos Communication Congress
Autor Kütt, Moritz
Glaser, Alex
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 4.0 International:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/34833
Herausgeber Chaos Computer Club e.V.
Erscheinungsjahr 2017
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract Eliminating nuclear weapons will require trusted measurement systems to confirm authenticity of nuclear warheads prior to their dismantlement. A new idea for such an inspection system is to use vintage hardware (Apple IIe/6502) instead of modern microprocessors, reducing the attack surface through simplicity. In the talk, we present and demo a custom open hardware measurement system based on gamma spectroscopy.
Schlagwörter Hardware & Making

Zugehöriges Material

Folgende Ressource ist Begleitmaterial zum Video
Video wird in der folgenden Ressource zitiert

Ähnliche Filme

Loading...
Feedback