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The dynamics/development of a free software project in statistical computing: R

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and we have no the last presentation for this morning they dynamic development all the
result project in that it computing I it prevented by the chronic good chronic from the beginning of advocate of
economic and didn't administration we begin that the morning everyone I would like to thank the organisers for inviting me to come here so it's returning to the country and they have to worry about the development of ah for those who don't know are an open-source flexible and extensible environment for data analysis visualization it of course all that have very good interface to the graph system and that much of the money will be talking about later in this conference and I am and I'm not going to tell you so much about what our and so but will probably claim have How came into being and what were the prick prerequisites for it coming into being and actually not successful and also they have to worry about what the application of what some of the implications of having fairly successful open source true for general purpose of most of the people data analysis can be so the outline of this talk is confused everyone by not starting interesting things about operate on the same thing but it and then they think about and then I will make it here very subjective
comments about that the implications in the area that we are concerned with teaching research and they can make if you environment for data analysis and graphics that have been developed that were really into you know the lab primarily by John Chambers always with certain quarters for the more than 25 years if that is the most difficult part of the package is made out the macro language sort of wrapped around fortran subroutines whereas most of the people packages never that some them did and what you see in the slide is sort of an indication of how things happen things started them and that that that the fork friends subroutine library interface they macros system on proprietary operating them later on portable versions were being written interface language was designed all that historical interest mostly on then from something happened books were being written about the language and books have always marked for them the development of mild then 1 of the other language the book I did include virtue by the color of the of the envelope so there's a brown box should be somewhere in there is this little book like within window can be sort of mock and version 3 and 3 and something else in and that's where of in the book there is a fairly comprehensive description of the the state of the languages that by the book the most important milestones are what is now referred to as this version 3 in blue book the blue sort of get rid of all the formally macro and the kind of thing introduce a highly flexible functional language for 8 an hour and visualization the language on this language and that they had to move move or think about it later on sort of fundamentally focused on the idea that everything should be an object in language of the few few more things about that later on of FIL up to this point I haven't said anything about there being a difficult to them the tension that made in the early nineties were list here toward enhanced things language with features that make the people now convenience 8 types for representing information in a way that that nations with typically 1 represent that people rectangle layout for analyzing data of a different structure at the time for holding categorical information were being added end mechanism for were sort of specializing in computations they dominated by world with added people this batch mechanism learning other than fully functional object on the and most importantly there was a give formal annotation for describing the physical models with that all that right in the green book results in the white book the green book that sort of take things a bit further provide totally redesigned model for doing but would at the connection class and connections can be files or pipe or socket and readers and writers to all the people fairly general level and then another object In 1998 the year Association for Computing Machinery but gave the aristocracy water John Chambers who has been the driving source between the behind the development of the for the that cretaceous there read you want for the at the moment is that about the way people and let me just a minute later anything have what everything it can to to put into the picture the him award has also been given to you languages such as head pose great and the unit them so sort of but the picture of what a great thing it could possibly be of a key thing going by the name of it's also a language that sort of a core of the system is that the method that is a general purpose in mind for data analysis that languages have poor is a language in which everything is a first-class object that is represented in the language functions are objects of the language that can be computed on of so that a very strict sense of object orientation it's probably not the usual + + job kind of thing that that people with people that think about it more and imperative principle of computation should always be made reusable complications with the results of computations should always be acceptable within them and complications are typically not done so there's a side-effect of making print of graphs some and to illustrate that hopefully not computer even if you if program things in the language and you read that to the interpreter it the problem of parsing and evaluating transparently happens within language so the whole parse tree actually in object in the language that can be act this through the usual manipulations of subscript so here is simple example suppose you have a variable collect and you have to it and then you compute find that when you read that in but I sort of lines the result of reading that in and of object that have been matter that can back up with new and that the that it actually if you look further down here to live with length 1 and the 1st element is the function the 2nd element of the given topic friction that I can do about that and it starts with a lot an index so it's really the usual kind of prefix with like with like representation of of a part 3 everything even functions even expressions on functions are visible as part of language of you've seen that the other languages got to address that around 1920 thick uh what's in a pretty useful state at around 85 86 The is when someone but that I but Martin then at the University of why should you not that it's a great thing to have an it would actually great more people will start using it by then the code heading the the mean of the lab used to be shared with other departments that were interested in accessing the code that sort ring the bell of sort of of unique came into being and you know that dating he he had all the people who write greatcoat but sort of about failed marketing and at that worked a bit differently and guy came up and I thought it would be a great idea he could try to market the product it was founded a little company called then called political
sciences and started to of people like me from the and add value to the product by providing more documentation by enhancing the debate with them about toolbox and so on and this value added products that they normally in he knows that could be called the company is but added that define this and purchased by MathSoft has recently musical being the merged into a company called cycle so I get plus the the value added product based upon their language I In addition to that there have been In the 2nd half of the 18th a large user community in very that departments mostly predicament places where what being actively marketed so that it was available in and there are very a highly comprehend this collection of add on functionality available through central repository mechanism that lie about kind but time object it about 300 entries of varying actuality some of the entries are actually I would call rather dormant some of them have been integrated into the this so there's many language there is a lot of user-contributed code available through the other mechanism the commercial closed was source value-added product being the part 1 is where In 1990 to to guide guiding and the University of Auckland started to what we now call the art project and uh from 1 of the original paper on the main motivation in doing that wasn't trying to use that but the validity of the mutations build small test that which could be used to try out the material from I would to go environment might be so when they really did was but the thing book on the better look at the code there to figure out how to write English interpreter then because they were trained that position they thought would actually a great thing is the thing that was being interpreted did not happen usually in the it's sort of it's annoying people with not me but simple fact and I feel they plot it would be nice craps to use the impact on top of the list the reason why this is doable so the illustrated by this 1 example about the part 3 that I showed you a couple minutes ago because essentially what you mean is that the way of who would like to find a vector to was represented in that language man rewriting it and find out and then you have the function was applied to the vector and 2 and if you sort of really write that in the usual way about notation you see that if you have a little better prepared a sort of happily deals with the impact the nose as transforming but will be picked up and all of that so this simple part that would be written then you can provided implementation of the other language by actually the core having the simplest to that is what they did in our I would have to make that of the we choosing and base and that was out of convenience never motivated by the idea of sort of actually providing a full featured reimplementation open-source revision of the language in fact when rough artwork 1st versions of our will be made available by that light in 1983 they were closed source that going in the sense that only binary versions were being made available and don't ask me about which platforms interestingly most about actually started out on America only shop many knock on wood assumed that they also the lyrics version of and then what happens with people were having something like this bit interpreter so people started encouraging them to actually really lost code possible as well and that happened to me later at 1 other sources you can be at what productive that just having a binary problem realized already have here soon as rather restaurant Robert had the honor and productive sources of and information accessible to the to the public what happened was that people but actually going started in the products but because they had access to resources they could sort of by-products and provide patches for fixing them and send e-mail just being helpful enhancement of trying to start because of that and also what usually happens in back to the sources and often Robert made into model they took a couple of people who have probably not in the mood by sending e-mails with patches and suggestions that look I if here so so great I actually do get good yourself really those but they did was they said of those who sort of knowing mode to probably be make part of the core development team that really bad for and they did that and about 1998 mind there was a decrease in the previous part time but provided right act to couple people nowadays because the nite pattern across the world I the formal recognition of the fact that development was no longer only being carried at the us another but by working who collectively develop a lot but is formally where has been represented by for the point I think you're really at the end of 1997 that that currently taken members including John Chambers primary source behind the development of the language and for that matter times the development actually fewer chaos because most of the people who work together never met so no 1 knew what was really going on at work at present we well we had the 1st meeting in 1999 out where we about the core developers met for the 1st time in order to start changing their idea is that a follow-up meeting on that and we're not trying to me on a more regular basis like 1 year data meetings is really not because worst approach so productive that these meetings that probably need 1 might break afterward in order to recover of what we're currently doing that and this also touches upon the issue of finding where sort of finding that a lot of people are quite happy about what we're doing but they would like to give the money In particular for doing things that it called funding through find find funding organizations plot obtained for which is like setting up and running a repository management laughter so or narrow and the profits tablishing it Foundation and the usual meritocracy style like Apache Foundation as already done that are not that they basically could quickly their core members but it's legal entity that 1 can give money to and so we can use that for organizing conferences for public paying of interactive features in Britain along subsidizing in for find time for people to do the room sort
of day-to-day operations in running their their their their resources and that should not really be done by recording of and to see if you about October or it's really 188 utility if you more think that later on it you not all a popular operating system platforms to the Unix Linux the 32 bit Windows Mac plastic could also the on and then both the unique environment in both also some functionality that uses the native make good article environment the dialog standardized product in the sense that it requires on and I there's the 89 or inside the compiler fortunately them compiler make pearl but we not typically used in the availability of you who were piling at the only if you wanna effectual build a lot from sources were to run on the thing next basically self contained this work trying to provide everything we need it we need to and functionality we try to do do it in a closed late in the sense that we can do it with within the language the Finnish language cell or by using the Fortran C + + code and I which are utility into which which can be interesting of deed 1 . 0 release of very likely from looking at 29 of for every about them should have the that the happened there every 1 year if you think about it written there should be a that's why we picked it up so of did everything over the years saying that it's written in the blue book there was a valid blue-and-white book actually that it so would really and implementation of the other language versions later on added connections so that so we enhanced graphics functionality the 1 can say that are right now and the think of version 1 . 6 will be released by the end of the this month and certainly and that is the reference implementation of the language heated tensions between the R implementation and the originally conceived the last implementations for those of you care about it because the American get important in in which such as the it would all that come up in the top level frame in are you know what sort of where things were defined in walk through environment that you would do for most recently implementations anyway you during the next generation of are currently planned for that people to the forward being the well contain various things that I've probably the wanna that read to explicitly now FIL look at probably think that this is is only about computer science which is mostly that is because when I think about without saying anything out really refer to the data of the baby and basically interpret for the language if the runtimes them I and interpret the language and produces graphical output and the mechanism for extending the through the language or interface thing languages such as you what that's what it is that of course that but not necessarily offering this go functionality In the course and while to when thinking about the future it is really about how to build such as and how to make it more sensible Our red then had to and various kinds of critical functionalities to me that had gone through stages 1 2 4 in the current understanding forget that it will never be necessary wide because John Chambers will not writing a book about it and there was certainly operating in a way that is really this solution 5 computer but we're trying to do is try to provide updates basis only I give it the thumbs political functionality that would make but be perfectly happy how and we rely on the fact that every user contributed held that may even provide he'd go functionality such as initial that exploit sample or would graph survival that sort of thing recursive partitioning method that sort of and those are available as user-contributed engines so the development model really is that there is a core group that developed cause I think and there is a highly active highly skilled in the community that sort of and it in a position to contribute if legal functionality when it comes to turning the core functionalities he in 80 rather comprehensive package for the people data not graph a the challenging and the question is how can actually work and we feel that the reason why they work because we have a very and think people this and functionality this call packaging sort of pattern after the packaging mechanisms that exist in the limit distribution I'm a bit different what really does goes to have a little bit of mad formation in a very simple text file and we are currently subdirectory for our coding for documentation sources and the code and so on and that may sound rather simple but the fact that 1 can easily create a purchase tension has certainly meant that the user community has been rather in core encouraged to provide also means that because this pension profits to standardize there for universities fairly trivial to they can't even in moline update data packages via the World Wide Web Logs was already referred to it without this property is a quick trivial everything happens with any the other language or things like the Infotron it's a bit more challenging for packages innovative graph example because that means that the or extensions requires the availability of functionality that sort of outside of the scope if it because we do this by using typical Unix file configure sort a mechanism that had installed on the 1st thing you need to be checked for the availability of additional features that for compiling for example or at runtime of of therefore a cell to make life easier for the user great to have binary packages something like graph available for that long and then sort of create interface package to the operating systems native acting mechanism both the thing that is being tried interface and the thing that is paid it sort of users them and made commitment of the other thing is so we have packages impact and
create impact the reason to there also leading to act we have a system that called the Comprehensive R Archive Network of the land In the recorded course of the month the pattern the but all have to be a lot smart to come up with great I through the UN that at the center of pottery we currently distributed out and the packages there are other package repositories and particle 1 that sort of thing the general killed by informatics single by conductors of the 20 and 20 more coming up but the popular book data now analysis have occurred in packages and that sort of only explain a little bit of that and actually here the other interfaces for they quickly or relational database management system that you would care about we have packages for sort of making things into origin investigating interface various people packages begin with external and so on the crucial thing about this repository management the middle that had which is in the I really like place in the sense that there is a daily process it very fine In volatility and correct measures in a rather free then the parenting in the repository but we have tools for who when they enter diet quality assurance and control that in particular that's the way our documentation the work document all little functions and now we have examples in order of indicate the use and design principle that we adopt a long time ago is that all packages must be able to run their example FIL as soon as you start writing documentation and actually created to our code that can be be done for for cell it's being we call it could consistent and help consistency in the mind of you can also provide variant of the I have been for example you can provide hopes for regression testing all that could we could they think that that idea the graph community it as in the same way as we are interested in this sort of doing regression has been or certification testing for graphical output that's something that we still don't really know how to that we have some of you will that you if you change the computational engine you can compare numbers figure out whether work fine not if you use something geographically and then you need a way of sort of automatically comparing graphical output that turned out to be much harder and 1 of the things that were currently working on whenever we have we kind all packages must have the quality assurance process and it's not there Hilbert sort of peripheral route removed from the light you of the repository actually um the people run the oxide much worse than that of sort of really try to track things on a daily basis and in a sort of semi automated process effect of that is that end users can rely on packages on the whole a part of being alive living there here the key word but there are no dormant packages that something becomes dormant in the maintainer heuristics but of course there and the politicians processes packages removed from view I what earlier I admit in my pocket when you make a few remarks on the implications of some of the implications of our would like to point out the federal open source in the final curtain all prominent upbringing platforms make it under field tools for teaching but then there you can have the same working environment this home as in the university computer labs thermal light being restrictions whatsoever for example my current flow of the the University of Economics and Business Administration going to about 3 thousand per year and about 18 months they graduate that 5 years of if in the process of switching mode that there's this article teachings away from if you have to on 1 of the reasons is because there is against to that was quite a bit of a challenge on the ah people actually because when you the vector of transition people are usually used to having a great deal of and now you confront them with something that is the quality and while you're think which from a pedagogy from pedagogical point of view is actually much more useful because if you I think think command line to it 3 times in the basically another thing and all it will also would have gotten the basic idea is to use lead them through for a collection of points with profits from their lot right after I strategy there is to sort of it was actually in the Windows equally people talk to each other and active people that the other but they hadn't really and so they can talk about this we can go on having a command line interface and it actually students that might here in the inferred 1st your 1st Italy and have no problem getting used to the stage command probably the goal of the details of which in operations and so on there were confused but it could anything in excel the confused as well I cannot be part I the 2nd thing I want to say is this something that all through the nite fit in with with think market is the fact that you have a comprehensive open-source environment for data now analysis but within position to after the growth of what I referred to as a reproducible research I do a lot of application work with medical doctors technical standards for doing things going out medical papers is that sort of describe the data that then you say well connected to the so that the volume and the fact that you M. even if you reviews such a publication is the best you can do is to believe that what is reported it's reported to with you have no way that thing the data typically and even people tell you which dropped from that we use but they don't give you data they might as well and that's it old at times wrote a really make a difference I if you have an open source environment should probably from out to begin the game of data if the use nor sort of they 1 really describe in with the manager and no one's going to want to reduce anyway even if they send you very fast so you would probably need to spend a couple of 10 thousand euros wire that so even if people start and code and data
and they have been used for running the code and the data was stored closed form on only commercially available to the research would not be reproducible if you have an opening environment it's open source people given the data and this is is what happens for example in some areas bioinformatics some of the key human genomic data sets that are reported in nature and also because typically available via the web now it now typically not made available the feel that with the system such as ours of 1 can really change the way publications that publications are not new papers anymore but there's a very sort of like documents that have had the data and the code integrated and if 1 component is missing it's not of paper anymore going out there and you know what's going on in also come up with a very simple way of sort of integrating code and data all this we ball it would 8 of the language and the because of you call this thing we and he will have and it's a very convenient way of combining complications in that language and right but occasionally this is sort of what it looks like so this is a big related because you hear the culture but just data that and then performs head in depending on what we call the output of the would be part of the document but that subsequently created yeah output could be and you should have a word picture like what it could also be graphical would in be put into figure that would automatically be included but the great thing mean that the middle paper by actually submitting such an integrated document it also means that if you do your analysis and people any more data that better you simply regenerate documents without having to sort of manually Riedewald wall computation I I'm not I'm sure whether I understand how graph work understand what is just is the general mechanism is about combining that can be interpreted in kind of and documentation preferably make but might also be something else what open source of word at the other end and to have a way of sort of of creating the final document is a mixture of profit things very markup for the documentation and running the code that produces an output to be integrated into the into other I would like it was found that 1 the need to protect the at with the URL for later on and found that 1 people often ask what is that only got because there is a lot of people are what about our what they mean it in their commercial port and we know and many people do read that are called team quite happy about that because we really only doing the programming awarded by but that didn't but that bonds really really what it is clear that an open-source environment such as ah he even also commercial support can get the fact that we have the open-source environment that we can actually really doing that we can share our research which results in a strongly reproducible way and they're not precluded from the the need of having companies that want to use the prior I'll be able to call phone number that would provide them with held back 24 hours it and Italy not because of the mailing list don't work following work better and better 1 but but this is not really the is an open source environment due to make significant inroads into the real world is that you get when the commercial support we actually would be extremely happy with unified whole word spot to offer services and validated solutions they are clearly your and that's what customer you would do with a great favor by actually sending them e-mail and projecting but bundle of leaves them there not but of and only 1 big problem problem it's not open source but it's really than the GPL In similar problems for the Linux kernel there has been a discussion on knowing interview will fall that the the source device drivers for special ed on hardware that sort of loaded module on top of the linear kernel a little thing in this great company should actually do that there's nothing wrong with what clear whether with public life actually allows for that 1 of the formulation then there's rather you linking to something a clear whether the linking in the binary ling call whether an environment that sort of interpret all link at the problem and something that without communication about open source we need to be extremely where we need to find ways of providing 8 environment comprehend that they may be for in a very strict and such of treatments being represented by GPL but we are we also need to find ways brothers who sort of provide value added products when adding value not only pretty printing the manuals and growing things on the TV and then shipping that within 24 hours but actually by bending the key functionality sort of like that were mentioned in the previous 2 talks that there was a commercially available closed source marginal bad then the graph functionality should you be happy about that firstly we wouldn't see anything wrong we would think that the the selection make a living out of doing that it's not clear whether this is actually legally possible so that when you write the farming about your freaking you data I can feel mention the fact that yeah like family and all that we need to make a living out of graph that is really any number on June powerful system for data graph that make sense with pension they were not I'm not going to like 1 of the source and the GPL other families in the work controlled and in a very strong sense of I've indicated that not because it means that you can use it for teaching the students will actually come and your do that so you have to do more work at the future research it means that eventually people could start asking you to and you the used for writing a paper terms of making a research reproducible that also various aspects of related to demonstrations carefully to be considered this is the sort of like the harmonic all hello World War I and the and people were injured as thank you representation
and then that comes from that you concluded that that at
the end and in heaven control but I had to little remarked and I and what not to do with the removal of the Antarctic statistic approach but as he to alleviate the problem and use them scientific whom that written a total at 1 package for it but the who didn't publish it yet because they're but they don't want it to put it under moonlight because it had good commercial right I think that and the has a yeah there are certain things that have been and that was the 1st remark and they didn't much in the you spoke about their competitive advantage because of and at all at all and packages so you need Ed there is a problem that this deleted packages for then subject for a company if you want to compute hand him during that t ed package that here in the package there Ching some tickets and the a public good then but that that not all than integrity phone because he had that there may be such a problem that you but thanks for a market that the model basically early agrees with what I the viability of providing value-added solution I instance we don't know what and that of commercial extensions there are some we have haven't been able to regret because we're actually programs that this not lawyers and that is the problem that carefully to be considered here think graph people or community will find themselves in a similar situation we have a interpreter on the to assess the feasibility of commercial closed sort extensions of sort of you could be interpreted as the provide that have been used to under the GPL I don't think there would be problem this was the if you I did people become saving GPL'd conviction principle and everything is in a way that person in the back but if someone looks into 1 problem and comes up with 1 solution and someone looks into similar problem comes up with no solution I think what happens is because we're trying to keep the repository life that probably not always match theory think the various approaches but it's important to see what the next generation to what we see is that most people realize that they have worked on similar issues and someone will come in and say OK if the if the problems are important enough to come in and say OK but this is really what the basic structure is so that's sort of a data structure that I wanna do my complications upon the X generation thing we sort of abstract the data structure before sort of have a better and more general approach to the really kind of thing FIL what we're not doing is we're not actively forcing people to sort of create made a packages we are aware the proliferation of small packages in repository create potential huge problems for the user could community because you have if the package me and you know what they're doing fine if you have wanted 15 500 if no idea of finding out but they're doing we find that the right approach to that would be to have some sort of look at query kind of interface small primers for all these tools to sort of indicate what they're doing the work was trying to keep things modular rather than creating model the thing structure that's really the way our government was compared with a vengeance and we're not trying to manage extensions on
Monday and then the product of the stomach to thank you for the inspired talk and how you worked toward toll free fall for it is important for a teaching and research and how you and enjoyed the freedom and together to a lot of the together to to form of course to take the development of the self a need for you we solution teaching into your own hands but secondly you have to correct some of the mistakes you made about the young we the light and playing and about the the the the upper conception there are quite many of them and maybe a canon dread some of them later in detail only let me just point out that I if we got them right and learning and the it has been developed over last 10 years that can need to actually protect that freedom only that you can gain than that of known to have invented for and there are some restrictions on the light from being especially to keep that freedom in the future and there are many this also he that proprietary software it means you have to be kept at a certain distance only the dual general public life all well for some mixture and it is so complicated because the Americans get so complicated and not on purpose by the tree itself suffered from the from and the free up and Fondation we'd like to have commercial support and commercial activity along pre thought and the freedom of the formation the like people to earn money with we got the but if you allow vendors to make sort proprietary again and and the freedom and all the advantages that you demonstrated with the other project of only by the
understanding that but I'm concerned about is that we can easily transfer to the graph situations that among road a module offer dimensional dynamic visualization kind of want to sell that commercially modular random topic graph I'm not sure that it legally possible provided that class only really under the terms of the GPL yeah like to make money but the right to make money out of billing collections that have denied it printed out books and stuff like that make money out consulting but they don't like to make money out of the license revenue but if there is 1 commercially available moduli does not take away the freedom of the base interpreted as and I'm only trying to raise the point here I don't have an answer I don't even know whether I want to them I am obviously you can cheat as much as you want the weather is really the basis and this will become much attention department vital scaling down up on the basis and you can try try to make people pay that not only what we intend to to to do however what we're trying to or at least trying to help others think about in the think on similar need here is if there was a commercially funded project and what is wrong about people want for a very highly specialized applications probably only 100 people in the whole world are gonna use their specialized 3 menus of up of development we need to think about whether it's actually that it like revenue from the the GPL is not meant for dealing with that what last but the show the that but OK but that think they experience a conductor in that you have you know I mean that this quantity and quality of and if you don't function so the adaptive of endangerment in an ugly have been but doesn't produce but a good example that we showed that the you can be paid at a consultant you can that developing a distorted will become a consultant and they're not they're giving so much important to the software interface has been geared diffusion bioinformatics giving the together as long so much more in the numerous sources and the initial to could be the interface to the instances and at university and that again meaning important environmental engineering unification of a culture in your research science for nothing matters to but 0 yeah now at the end of this morning
set who you're recommending here but that miracle
command all the speaker to the hearer it here to load their presentations in and the OK you
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Flächeninhalt
Dreiecksfreier Graph
Mereologie
Basisvektor
Speicherabzug
Stapelverarbeitung
Distributionstheorie
Compiler
t-Test
Service provider
Hinterlegungsverfahren <Kryptologie>
Lineare Regression
Mustersprache
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Schnittstelle
Softwaretest
Ereignisdatenanalyse
Addition
Kraftfahrzeugmechatroniker
Sichtenkonzept
Kategorie <Mathematik>
Güte der Anpassung
Biprodukt
Generator <Informatik>
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Programmierumgebung
Fitnessfunktion
Subtraktion
Systemplattform
Informationsmodellierung
Spieltheorie
Vererbungshierarchie
Spezifisches Volumen
Maßerweiterung
Informatik
Konfigurationsraum
Peripheres Gerät
Analysis
Soundverarbeitung
Videospiel
Open Source
Softwarewerkzeug
Rechenzeit
Elektronische Publikation
Partitionsfunktion
Datenfluss
EINKAUF <Programm>
Gamecontroller
Wort <Informatik>
Partikelsystem
Rekursive Funktion
Bit
Prozess <Physik>
Punkt
Web log
Formale Sprache
Gruppenkeim
Versionsverwaltung
Kartesische Koordinaten
Binärcode
Übergang
Eins
Temperaturstrahlung
Umweltinformatik
Datenmanagement
Bildschirmfenster
Einflussgröße
Funktion <Mathematik>
Nichtlinearer Operator
Lineares Funktional
ATM
Dokumentenserver
Physikalischer Effekt
Heuristik
Systemaufruf
Betriebssystem
Quellcode
Softwarewartung
Datenfeld
Strategisches Spiel
Dateiformat
Standardabweichung
Thumbnail
Ortsoperator
Rahmenproblem
Gruppenoperation
Zellularer Automat
Implementierung
Zahlenbereich
Technische Informatik
Code
Stichprobenumfang
Inverser Limes
Softwareentwickler
Grundraum
Widerspruchsfreiheit
Einfach zusammenhängender Raum
Relationale Datenbank
Digitales Zertifikat
Graph
Onlinecommunity
Einfache Genauigkeit
Routing
Physikalisches System
Vektorraum
Quick-Sort
Turing-Maschine
Basisvektor
Mereologie
Speicherabzug
Randverteilung
Resultante
Natürliche Zahl
Beschreibungssprache
Selbstrepräsentation
Formale Sprache
Programm
Familie <Mathematik>
t-Test
Computerunterstütztes Verfahren
Binärcode
Kernel <Informatik>
Trennschärfe <Statistik>
Vorlesung/Konferenz
E-Mail
Figurierte Zahl
Funktion <Mathematik>
Lineares Funktional
Kraftfahrzeugmechatroniker
Hardware
Systemaufruf
Ähnlichkeitsgeometrie
Quellcode
Biprodukt
Zusammengesetzte Verteilung
Dienst <Informatik>
Menge
Rechter Winkel
Schlüsselverwaltung
Programmierumgebung
Faserbündel
Telekommunikation
Zahlenbereich
Term
Code
Benutzerbeteiligung
Zusammenhängender Graph
Schreib-Lese-Kopf
Analysis
Leistung <Physik>
Videospiel
Graph
Open Source
Mailing-Liste
Physikalisches System
Binder <Informatik>
Modul
Quick-Sort
Druckertreiber
Flächeninhalt
Offene Menge
Last
Mereologie
Wort <Informatik>
Videospiel
Interpretierer
Statistik
Total <Mathematik>
Matching <Graphentheorie>
Graph
Dokumentenserver
Feasibility-Studie
Programm
Abfrage
Ähnlichkeitsgeometrie
Quick-Sort
Integral
Informationsmodellierung
Generator <Informatik>
Rechter Winkel
Gamecontroller
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Datenstruktur
Maßerweiterung
Schnittstelle
Instantiierung
Punkt
Klasse <Mathematik>
EDV-Beratung
Kartesische Koordinaten
Term
Netzwerktopologie
Methodenbank
Software
Randomisierung
Visualisierung
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Abstand
Softwareentwickler
Grundraum
Schnittstelle
Videospiel
Lineares Funktional
Graph
Diskretes System
Gibbs-Verteilung
Ähnlichkeitsgeometrie
Quellcode
Biprodukt
Modul
Quick-Sort
Zusammengesetzte Verteilung
Rechter Winkel
Basisvektor
Anpassung <Mathematik>
Dateiformat
Projektive Ebene
Programmierumgebung
Instantiierung
Menge
Vorlesung/Konferenz

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel The dynamics/development of a free software project in statistical computing: R
Serientitel Open source GIS - GRASS user conference 2002
Anzahl der Teile 45
Autor Hornik, Kurt
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - keine Bearbeitung 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk in unveränderter Form zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/21786
Herausgeber University of Trento
Erscheinungsjahr 2002
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik

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