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Reverse Engineering ISC controllers

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started after lunch I regard like to welcome Jesse exomes going through talk reverse-engineering IC controllers you and so hello everybody hope you all had a good lunch my name's jesse exon and a couple years ago I went out to try to build a processor out entirely 74 100 logic chips thinking was a good idea and 3 years later I don't have a processor and I'm talking to you about reverse engineering in system controller up in system program in system configuration trollers so seriously something went wrong in the middle the so today over time a couple
things 1st the intro to what I got started in this and my build a processor that quite literally and inflames uh and um the work in my work in reverse engineering the additional and and Xilinx Gtech controller and firmware as well as some implementation of FIR 1 other things on that way and for the then basal learnings from set to don't talk about so my my proposition for a better way to interface to these types of devices and then hope will have some time to questions and I was told by the recounting to try to make it this accessible and since I was my 1st part reverse injuring project to some people I find some some the pieces completely of basic but I hope that's very useful for the people who need it and the end goal I believe will help most people in the room
so be 0 will I saw up again the
so I took to the cause classical the years ago the the and learn but logic gates decided that I want to build process with that to the course class on it and computer architecture by David Winslow very the classroom interested in how that part of that stuff works and and I found that other people have built such devices computers entirely built on these discrete chips so I looked up what they did and everyone pretty much considered it novel and almost ridiculous that anyone had done it I and even the people who designed it basically said yeah was a waste of time boards huge power-hungry harder modify everyone suggest FPGA so immediately on the path to the PGA but anyone who's worked with FBGs enough knows that they are their own problem the so to get
started I purchased a Xilinx Spartan 3 Development Board condition what I've had he the GNP is to which is enough to build so pretty much a full computer they can go on the internet and but do normal stuff we expect them to but it also has a built-in játék controller so you can just plug USB into it and program the device I don't know agitate was at time but this this was quite and this is quite nice as everyone who 1st if these boards assert with when he lied examples with schematic capture that end up being a disaster because the tools are not made for that and I bumped into an HDL no From
there started doing little projects as most people who try it PGs to learned about pretty quickly the big differences between CPU's and FPGA is and then immediately ran into a problem and I was only really able to do any of my programming work on Windows because the axons tools of the time I see i didn't really behave well of Linux have technically it does but I was only able to see it actually working on Cent OS running kernels 2 . 5 or older after you load a proprietary binary blob into the kernel and the the whole thing so I wasn't particularly interested in that so instead I found that they had live USB driver and was excited but they weren't loading the the so I Os trace
the path s the impact process and found that it was trying to live USB directly by itself felling l d do it and is loading it from an old sent to us location of live USB which had since been replaced by an l shortcut by which is just basically text it was manually that file importing it and this failing of course so I thought if I l preloaded would work and it did 1 5 times because of race conditions ever in the software so the I was thinking maybe I could look into this and try to try to fix it but there's obviously no source available for it and if I try to reverse engineer to fix what was happening is part of the 15 gigabytes office suite it's written a combination of C + + . net and Java so I did that did not want touch this and you know unified did won't touch it be against the you so consider switching other vendors my friends Iousy explained that even though the exact problems of facing on common across all vendors they all basically equally suck in the tool so was all let down for the moment but it didn't matter because shortly after that and I want to work my board to plug in my TOEFL power supply into my fault 5 all board and I blew the whole thing so 0
if anyone's interested in how to waste 300 dollars very quickly I have some experience on that team so I was out of order and a planned
at that point I was just really frustrated so that the PC other some money in some a bit of a plan and got several different visual boards and that's what I was used to using and 2 different levels in the hopes that I could make a better tool team that work all these boards on and maybe I could start with the lowest level 1 and work my way up in complexity assuming that this is the simplest and the oldest 1 was the easiest to work on but sometimes I some assumptions so
I had a whole range of Russian at this point from my completely rebuilding the on FPGA synthesis and place out and thought of building my own FPGA but I was just pissed so I said I found that the flashing programs are just as well as having those problems with the actual loading of the of the program onto the chip and I wanted to work with Linux and since only mass division boards I want that to work so a set out to build my own tools and I needed to know a couple things to do that 1st of how do you talk to these chips directly and since I had this board with this little magic chip on it How do I get that board to talk to the chip and do the things that actually are needed to program the so for
those who are not familiar so be very quick overview j tag I thought when I heard about it there was only a system for programming chips but without very quickly that time I was wrong and that the great EV blogs had amazing beyond that help me a lot pretty much when you're testing also board had put a pin everything 1 to check to make sure that was not sure it's between the board and I was getting impossible for I packages that held the pens on the bottom so instead it was proposed to Paul that circuitry inside the chip and have appealed reported state via serial this turned out to be very extensible and the vendors jumped on this very quickly as a bus that they could put anything in the the the benefits is the times important things really put in there that you only need 1 applied to debug your board flash aboard a check for a couple of manufacturing defects of unplugged the issue is that on all this all these new features came around after the Gtech proposals made like mostly flash and system so there's no real support for and was wild west of everybody doing whatever they wanted on the plus side as about Detective chips and of it's a bit of a mess people who know it but it has a good caught I'm and finally was researching this silent about this the G. take initialization process which was necessary for the the I want to see what this
board does when I talk to it and it should do from reading the j type docs so got my scope which is possible my prize possession and produce the state machine control line of j tag and the clock and used vigilance a digits custom UI program because of sick of looking at it as nexus tools to just initialize the board and check what's there captured the layout was captured waveform compared to the documentation expected it reset transmit transition to state readout 3 2 bits of data perfect I know how that works good ball that is good you into a working
yeah now this whole thing on here and in figure out a control at but it was all done by USB so I could have a couple options either they're trying to break open firmware but I don't like cutting open ships because I've I don't want to burn off my hands and I don't really want openable isophote was running this because it was very big as well so instead of found use Wireshark this is the capsule the B packets and work quite well so I have
this little test and set up the that I could use vision tools or on Xilinx tools to send commands to my board to send commands to the chip capture the grants to the board and capture the resulting waveforms on the chip of and immediately I need I felt the need to do a replay attack to make sure that this work again and that didn't have some sort of crazy like time signature on packets but when you're dealing with a bit microcontrollers in terms of no 1 really has room for that so that was that was looking replying packets work so now should be of make program that does it myself the the 1st course
and know what they did that it took a lot of reading of Libya's the specification to understand the packets so if anyone's interested in learning more about USB these are the resources that are most helpful for me but once I had all the packets captured in Wireshark I took them out by the command ideas and made a big table of them said how many times they appeared list them off mote wrote descriptions of how I sold used theories about it but my 1st mistake was I started writing down what I think they did explicitly and not pointing out where I didn't know like where where my theory was supported and the so you race observations in a in lieu of facts that only come up with so for beginners doing this I don't deal with fax they're misleading deal observations and remember that what you don't know is just as important as what you know but after that and and replace reordering things are moving stuff changing that's just seeing what happened worked really well for figuring out with these commands do in filling out my table on is pretty much impossible to get 100 per cent accuracy because even if you had the source of the system the company could change it 1 their extended but the you know I got I got pretty pre-sell on friends I had but the Pacers long down I still was
missing a couple bits and I didn't know all the commands because I had seen all of them then I found out by chance that the dual actually not only provides the gooey but STK but what's the right my and C programs that explicitly call the commands of the board so I could escape most of that stuff but it was useful at this was in here now with this I was able to monitor the use my same test bench engines run each individual command see what send and better fill my my documentation and also cumulative of variable names that I just in passing on or you can have a consistent naming convention for that helped a lot 1 In the infamous I learned about a ton of new commands that I didn't know and am to go check where my theories were correct and wrong and that helped a lot so there were several more
messages that were in this division protocol that I had no idea what they're doing and the big it they were all in the initialization sequence when the board 1st started up so I can't really get them to appear in many different ways to do most of them were in fact just I reads from the board where it sent back empty strings of a fixed with and it can tell what they were but the most annoying ones with these E 8 NEC messages I thought that the sequence would go to the computer would send the board and he message with the 2 by random number but I do know where it came from then the computer would read for number off of the chip user of the device that he sequence and then right 0 back is another 2 bytes to 0 0 that to machine and cleared out the and every time the data was written in the dialog was right was completely random I had no idea what it was so I I out approach a little program I wrote that use the digital library and I think also use them for the Visual Studio at some point for some reason but it had a decent about the sometimes so accepted that and 1st hearing into his address space radically randomization and all my breakpoints kept being deleted retiree ran the program and being a new but I was at the time I just Capri making my breakpoints every time but anyone who runs and this you can disable that just don't do that production so inside the library I stepped into the initialization functions for the board and immediately I was faced with just hundreds of hundreds of functions where everything was being jumped in uh executed but based on calculated addresses I tell couldn't tell unless you ran the program so I I had to actually divided in static analysis was based there for me at my school for that point um but as I messed as I walked through it finally found the Windows code for messing with USB and it called 88 and provided the number the lower 16 bits of the attack on the part of the core of the computer confuse me kept going so that the EC method regret back 4 bytes X or the 2 guys that was sent to the chip the 1st time in X so that result with every single thing that came back and then chapter that was equal to the string DG and steps along an estimate so confusing then I realize that my friend on IRC was right if you see a bunch of Eq source it's usually just trying to confuse you and was just an just OEM verification completely unnecessary during the war normally but now document so on and there was a couple the like but I'll blog at moment there but this a the ones after changes in me so certainly project and slightly in spite of Digimon a dense program and I just call adapt the game to and that could actually there will get have applied Lincoln it but a conversion of packets I had in the list to Python functions and then wrote a little mean function that called a long sequence and replaying I was just producing the packets with the same code about to do so With this I was able to talk to the chip and send arbitrary had commands to it but this is far from programming it on the looking ahead a program and I ran to the i tripoli 1532 also known as the boundary-scan Definition language specification against some the the motivation is because all the street had control all those Gtech take devices have such different control Pericles for just common operations this they all extended in different ways by then there's a long time ago the 13 let each of the vendors produce a file for each of the ships that specifies the order of commands that you have to run to device seems pretty straightforward you basically get a script like I want to flash it here's a big sequence of commands on the networked out pretty well at 1st but the DeMille was issues because they actually what strict enough in their their implementation of the standard the so to a major passes in BST a passes so I concluded that I needed to produce the the final and server running to some fusion have actually flush file Iousy again again and and silicon problems Dr. and own birth and who spoke a while ago about actually working with the same chip that high Hadamard might default of worked with the and Xilinx Core into he ah I presented them idea that I could just low these PSD of files everything will work any shutdown my night-vision pretty much immediately and educated me about how it actually worked in the case of this chip yes it's all specified in the files but the the judge pilot you get is actually a virtual memory space and every single bit has to be translated to a new location and then loaded in line at a time and those lines also had to be loaded in Gray code order which both of those things cannot be specified be steel specifications so it's almost useless which is a bit of a shame because it really tried so it seems a lot of more recent pro projects just going cluster pochette and just ignoring the BSU of files out right but in the cell sir running the code it flashed it having worked except sometimes it would be totally wrong I found out that bits that were supposed to be on Noland did nothing had a 2nd 1 September 0 things randomly failed it's great when you have hardware that you can't see would how it works inside so the you that is 1 vision bore down and I want to see if the other boards or similar most of my plan was that reach the boards had I want to talk to the board and then build program the chips so spot 3 east part 6 etc. as I when assuming that have pretty easy the in the so all for all the other boards ahead a hook them up and ran the same observations on them and found that the particles are basically identical but there was 1 little thing that was weird every time the sports ran these these newer boards ran they always seem to have this a 0 command being run and there was like kilobytes of it just tons and tons these commands so I am I did the thing anyone would do interface from something kind of scary I skip and the the board and work instead he would reply to its name when you asked and another identifier like serial number but it actually just wouldn't do anything that I tried running that that the capture of a 0 messages and it worked fine I at that point I was a little too dense to realize its firmware but picked up 3 quickly after that so the sum of all the boards of this is your message had a different use the controller chip acting as the size of the tight control and for the simple words I had it was a the objects before the the boys I think but what happened the but for the boards that were pretty requiring a 0 messages it was always the Cyprus easy USPS x 2 chips which go people have talked to here have all just go up and get that so I it is the 1 you would from where that time and like well disability it something else because they don't wanna see this
so internal gets in the other controllers that are available originally I only went to target boards had built in controllers but at a time when people I realize that no one's really uses them must adjust testing something and everyone whose religion work has these controllers and plugs in and does whatever they wanted reverse an existing machine the controller so thought OK but simple and this to so I also found that there was often a single controller more per then the and I purchased a couple controllers and want to use them with my chips and found that it wasn't violence it wasn't working the signing ships start looking why there no descriptions and do that found out it's entirely because the same lack of documentation these these visual boards effects these controllers and the the people of the documentation other countries and make it and the only in the country that make it only 1 support the chips so the end result is you can only use a controller and a chip and a piece of software gather laws the same brand it on the same brand names and which fill ridiculously silly to me since it's all based on standards just with extra little layers of crap wrapped around it and I just don't think that a lot bigger
fashion statements what we need in engineering of this actually took me like an hour to make some and and up what I considered going to slide like this no way so and so that the set of locking only better defenders because the Xilinx assigned the controller and it's 200 dollars it's only 1 little work well you have used to have that you have to pay tuition dollars in your company you probably don't mind it but if you are a hobbyist to reverse engineer trying to break open ex-boxer of something then that gets you can be quite expensive quite fast so because I have Xilinx chips and I was able to watch the Xilinx software talk to thank trip over the Xilinx box all parts the outfit matching I decided spies islands controller 1 from China but cheaper and so that so this
is the Xilinx platform cable USB which for some reason is used in the end but never that was it will figure it out and so modern programming on Windows because that's where I worked and it had um kinds of problems replaying the packets so I played in go to the report of the Monitoring stuff capture the packets called rent in what Linux didn't work was responding so
I'm back to Windows I'm onto the packets that went to its simplest plugged in I found mory's 0 messages I open up the box and looked at it of bridging Cyprus easy USB effects to they're literally everywhere the so this point it was clear I need to start messing from so just a brief introduction so people know how this guy works these ships usually only programmed with their 2 USB device 80 and then you're ready they appear to the computer and say hi and and this and the driver will take it and say on initialize device Synote a 0 messages tell to turn on that'll disconnected itself USB terms of on and appears at different device the purpose of this is that you always have the firmware that works with your driving of have to do with legacy or in incompatible versions so every time this including at flash of the firmware and that's the role of the Xilinx kernel driver that only worked with 2nd Linux 2 . 5 so it was interesting that and look for a more open solutions they found fx load which is an open tool that is able to talk to his chips and send them information of a USB flash them and I hope that up with you dealt with some rules I have documents from I get help so plug it in and you take from or file out of the same it's a repository tree thing and we're in a location the plug-in in the device like turns on its flashes from so I could work
with and 1 x now start messing the protocol and see what I can do it and the 1st thing to note is that it's very different in addition particle the digital protocol had um will which a tag has 2 wires in most you wanna write to and when you wanna read 2 o'clock and the way the additional protocol would have it is functions like right T and that's 1 of the pens but that would hold TDI swore at 1 location or hold the other 1 location or right TI and that's already TMS and to meteoric or so just pretty much every combination you could think of all those things d Xilinx protocol had just 1 j tegulated message as always really big me they did have a bunch of other little setting them commands did things like found 1 set speed and a couple other things like that but is 1 big command actually specified all of the states is when you should clock when you should write when should right when you should read for every single state transition all the time in chunks of 16 bits I so this was just very different than what I expected and as Canada's help from an open an old document for sure I can't find the died this presentation but they had done some crack descriptions of the fall of the format of the data which saved me a lot time but they they had as amusing thing of thinking that when you sent and when set the count of that bits you're sending to divisible by 4 that the device would freeze when really it was just 0 indexed so in a sense for the telling of 5 there's is expecting another chunk 16 bits never centered so added that to the documentation at least I hope someone else so now we extend this peace that argumentation speed settings in of and Belize used only and verification of overseen literally just takes bite and foot backwards and the way they do it to check that it's valid if they do every single byte they could be sent this in 0 and 1 this 2 I guess that secure but underlined or inside some of functional so and so and then went to myself retiring for the digit stuff and the OK Labs controllers should be you to switch it up and through my API at a state machine so I could easily say things like j tag transition to state instead of saying 1 1 0 1 0 1 what whatever and that little Michael the cochlea bodies you to work with so we also found that the abstractions of built were all based on the visual functions so I had the radio right t I write TI TMS all that those things that are implemented and then when I tried to build the driver for the design controller I was basically takings 1 message it handled which was universal and is putting in to each of these weird restrictions OK well on puts zeros for all this I guess because it's right TTI I and I don't really think much about this at the time the that being a bit of a bit of a pain the because I'm my I started I was able to flash finally the chip using both controllers I found that people took about the same amount of time which was concerning because the date July controller on Windows talk something I have the numbers exactly but like 15 times longer than the Xilinx once and if they're both going the same speed that i've clearly done something wrong so did another look at the Xilinx cables some messages that were being spit out of impact of lines tool and found that the way I was doing it is I was sending a little tiny messages 1 at a time there were doing tiny bits of j tie operations were Xilinx was taking all the data and turning into his big of messages that could and flushing what's their realize that my my model of this just wasn't supporting that so I need to look in better ways to do it but before I started signing anything I should look at other controllers and make sure don't make the same mistake
so I got to other controllers 1 terror which ended up being kind of not that special it's it works it's fine it's just it was an interesting wasn't what I was looking for and then I found open j tag which broke all my expectations and I really respect that these people are doing they're they're making the open hardware játék controllers mostly targeted at open-source developers so that you can easily work with the system without having to know all that the little details that I'm explicitly they have to deal with here on the way they do that is all the state machine transitions that I was keeping track of the board itself keeps track of that and instead of telling it send the steam experts to transition the state machine clocks and all that you kindly ask it with through FTI messages think 2 to just set the state and will do that for you so With this meant is I had several different controllers over here that's on that all give a very fine grained control over bits at different levels of granularity of the actual packet size and then this other controller which gave you know granularity but this high-level operation the so and
see that there's 3 types the but I can really group those and 2 types of the signing Stygian alter controller are at the individual bits they specify and this open J. tight control and maybe some other ones alright all these high-level commands and currently the way my my system was built so I physically could not handle the open Gtech controller because everything I was doing was in terms of a bit transitions and it just you would like trying to convert the bits and back it was in a work right so I service pattern come and this is 4 types of stuff like higher-level operations flashing the chip individual J. Tang operations like I'm writing individual commands which are made up of a state machine control changes which are made up of bit manipulations and so on should control easily resolve to rewrites rewriting the use of it resolve to see machine changes same machines in G tag tiepins in excetera but it doesn't go backwards so start feeling it was a compiler and that maybe I could write could of some sort of Gruber compiler optimizes thing for this citing this section goes north
0 3 2 1 but I'd like to have better was billing and purple refers to read barriers where it actually needs to get them back to do something to determine what to say next so the packet action has to be sent there and flushed so the top if people if think actually you can see that calls I don't really pay too much attention to all the bits of the top because that's not what this talk is for but we can resolve it to the layer 3 right below it which has the purpose saying read the 1st reset and read the 1st idea of a device check the 2nd device ID excetera then enabled in system configuration register and then select the flashlight and read line now that those are the operation that is better but it's above it described on and we can resolve this down to a lower level this can be seen reset command then shift to the data register state reregister eccentric cetera it we can know that even lower to level 1 of right TMS that writing master radio but those right masses despite being 2 different logical operations a really doing the same thing so group them as you can see below it with the right he masses collapsed so and by doing this were actually able to take several of that incidents URI were able to take what would normally be they wanted 20 messages or something and convert it into here is 1 2 3 4 messages in 5 and for the Xilinx controller since it had such a general purpose and protocol was actually would just be 3 messages I tried this and you about after building this system and ran as fast as a Xilinx programmers did so Xilinx suffered it when using the silence program on the of so very briefly on this on the point of it is to take all the commands that right writing in using in when you say you need a transition state don't run it added to Q and flush later on the flushing happens you have the option of resolving down to whatever the messages that control you have selected actually understands and then and optimize it does and optimization pass over and runs out I don't think that 1st of this would be worth it but it turns out that the the speed of messing with like a kilobyte of data and moving around memory even in Python is significantly faster than the time it takes to send packets to USB so whatever optimizations we can do here with the use of a lot the the so I had that and the
control of the system's working fast worked well for multiple different controllers and I was some pre satisfies my result at this point but then I want to show someone and I remembered overlooking the sea and to get this firmware and then you have to get these Jedec files and then you get this far you know that you need to download the Xilinx tools to we can pull these 3 files out the I and again I quit literally the way you were supposed to get that from or image is download 16 years 15 years of files to copyedit 21 . 8 killed by file because that's happening here to be real so I was sick of this I want you to be of use my work without having to bend over backwards so I thought maybe we should just opened source the firmware at these controllers so
1st thing and it is on hello this is actually right er wherever I think I might have dodged a bullet but the EFF this talk to me and said that help me out having problems um the basically I I agree to the Euler when I download the tool but I didn't want opens open up there from your files so I did a google search for the from or file name and and all sorts of FTP repositories just blinded the old versions so I don't know enough about the law to know that matters the least I feel like I can all the hello have planar layers don't just e-mail me segments so the baby I know that I had from a file and I knew roughly with the the X 2 was which of and that that anyone is no it's an 80 51 microcontroller from 95 or something I I found a schematic of the actual control box I had on some German sites you can also I don't know where they got it but I'm really happy to have so schematic and you with the chips were roughly and I renew this but the 2nd that I just the standard view is also where I was working with the site as trying to program the site of the Xilinx corner to chip and it turns out the boxes using a program and has a hardware accelerator that is the same chat so it's just fx twos NC PIL these at the same time all over the place so I guess I should be thankful so and for you to actually how the software works I point out that the way this works for the hardware than white it'll be so fast is that all the data that comes down to USB is piped into the chip and moved over to am a general-purpose file you like scripting interface on this ship and it is able to run forms against the sorry in the ethics to chip the USB 1 and stable to run from waveforms with a state machine against whatever the chip is attached to this case the Cp the so it literally takes a 16 bits of data we send over USB groups and takes 1 of 116 big repair time puts on 16 that set mode enables it and clocks until it says it's not so to the CBO these actually doing the individual j type work but this still interfaces between the and F X 2 and C CPL-V the that's doing hardware acceleration that we have to understand OK I guess that was that so a
couple of brief points on the side on the FX to architecture and mostly for people who haven't had to deal with any ethics to chips themselves particularly people who have an entity with any m very old microcontrollers this was a very big learning expenses its Intel 80 51 based which is Harvard architecture there's there's been a couple talks on that but no 1 really mention what it is so give a couple points on separate memory spaces for code and data but if it is you can't like overwrite code because the physically can't write to the current separate memory so that memory space usually we only some and also there has to be given instructions for each memory so that you read which adds complexity but it's it's not too bad I guess this particular chip has a whopping 256 bytes for its stack and then includes the memory mapped registers are 0 2 or 8 so it's it's really not a whole in much and because of this there is almost no 1 on local variables in this entire program everything's global because they don't have any place to put it on this chip is the only 51 core attached to a USB cord that takes up about twice as much space and Incirlik on the net and it is completely aware how talk USB itself and optionally can pass data to the microcontroller through shared memory do and with interrupts on which was very fascinating go call fascinating how they cut the interrupts working and and then there's this GPA of waveform thing which is that scripted state machine that you're able passage that of and you can literally take like 30 2 groups of 16 bits or more and say OK come on in put this in this buffer do get to that go and the process you can use to something else while the hardware but went to the state and does all these complicated complicated request so I I see what you said the team I OK and because there's so much hardware like acceleration stuff trying to registers triggering events all processor reading the manuals absolutely necessary for this chip so loaded and aII pro ended it supported at the ED 51 supported by ADA the but it doesn't have a decompose support which would have a nice but in which that amendment I had to do a bit more digging to get stuff working at the time as you started this and idea 6 . 5 to not have easier easy USB X to options when you were in the wrong you just had to manually map all the memory and specify everything which of a couple hours at least on look clean 6 6 6 6 that and add a bunch more data but they don't have all supporters the weird stuff did with interrupts but that's just that it just takes than ourselves such a bad and could spend the 0 right others lack of interrupts meant that there's tons of could all of the system that was just a all the file that were just unknown blobs because the jumps to from only 1 place which was interrupted was not detected so just so as an no entry point in the sense that the
firmware I primary point that the this is the so there was lot of other blogs even after I got all the interrupts working particularly after is this guy which was really confusing and it's a call to a function that intermediate is followed by unusable garbage has very confused by this because am expecting it to go to the next In a function would start more confusing to me the UN the code right after this plot were all stubs that were not referenced by anything so everything somewhere here but the yes so open up that function and
the 1st thing he did was pop twice off the stack which was very weird because nothing was pushed to the stack then after talking dioecy people for a while and realizing how much of a new by was I realize solutions popping up in the return register so the return address which was
appointed here so is using the the return address to get the location of the member of the data structure parts to
produce would end up being a switch statement end there's a lot of this type stuff on easily but architectures this is part of the standard Cale library for every time you switch it builds the set structure so the constant capital area that because I'm actually the person helping with that
is that presented here the mystical the no option into that too fast In some component in the about so this other we're kill compiler
artifacts that sound i'm because it's fascinating to me the if you're trying to do with the C. pointer all it's a will it's see assume during 1 constant architecture first one const memory space but that's pretty much impossible when you're dealing with these types of Harvard architecture with multiple different systems you can have an address 0 or 1 in 3 different memory spaces so have the pointer 0 where you point and kill solution that appear in a lot of people solution is to actually pointers 3 bytes despite being a 16 bit memory space and 1 of those bytes as a number to specify what segment to use and then the part the the pointers instead of just being done with move are actually handled by entire functions dedicated parts the structure and of course since 8 bit system 32 and that has to be done as functions so which is always kept using fine there's some really weird places of like seeing it do 32 bit lecture a redshift 8 times and then an and operation low 8 bits to pull out the lower bite when it's literally just for the bit registers naked is grabbed the 2nd register without like I think 500 instructions but that's what compilers do particularly lowly optimize compilers for systems that helped him principal popular in the so if any of you doing verse inside of at I don't know I
Ch
the it's up but if any of you are doing the
work in small chips particularly old ones and you have have lot experience with it expect things to look like they make no sense and usually that means it's a and it compiler optimization or lack of organization or just part of the standard library that handwritten so looking to this code I was able to find a couple things about this controller originally and uh that the Xilinx control originally thought you could send out of 16 bit register how many bits you're going to transition 1 packet and found out that the action hijacked an unused 8 bit field from 1 or the other US beef fields of against and actually at 20 bits the 24 bit register count which means that you can send up to 16 million sentences announcement 16 but transitions in a single request this controller so if you have a system where writing to a large chip and you don't need to read back stuff to determine what in the next it's possible the program holds several controllers with 1 ball USB message so people telling his controls over and you die and action so I'll looking to here I found some new commands and um also stand ahead initializer CPL the upgraded system so have tried readings from rough that probably locked it would be nice to be able to to free that as well the have interesting Henry told you that to so so there's 1 more unknown binary blood and from or end of sentence 16 bytes long so in a 16 bit address space that's actually kind of big so and into again this because all the GPA of stuff those learning the wave forms to talk to the 2nd chapter were reading from RAM addresses the uninitialized well-attended statically so that they can get anything out of it so what did the 761 by things
and here's the here's the actual interrupt the start function split into 2 pieces the the green part is the main loop that runs for the entirety of the prior of the the defies running normally the red stuff is initialization this big loop here actually reference that large bloggers data and looked over incrementing the address 1 at a time and reading the data out so I took it and I to a memory space and a couple memory spaces in Python just Gray that could hold stuff dictionary whenever and implemented this branching logic that's here in Python and covered all the bytes over to it ran it and extracted a bunch of on turns out there doing this because in Harvard and Harvard architecture you can't initialize memory with the program because that memory ost all written at runtime so instead compress it intimate into code and run it but again because of magic compiler nonsense I I think they could have just have as code and run it directly of codons compressing here but at whatever the compiler 1 to do so
I took those blobs of data and I want to understand how these chips were talking so it took come looked up Cyprus's website and they actually have tools for developers to build these waveforms and they can exports and of the form as a C file and you can import of C file that same form to reproduce the waveform and work on it so produced a compound the default 1 copy of the Dalai I read out of 1 of the pieces used for the GPA data structure and loaded N and then I have the way that's actually used to communicate between the 2 checks there's several of them and they're used in many places in many different ways but this is the primary 1 used for the the standard unit operations for writing bids system and and the events of I have primitive they need to start working on from 1 and a salad system works and similar chapter talking Anderson USB messages so go the How can you
pass this space so certainly toolchain and bought a couple boards because it actually use this device for debugging because it has only a light out and I don't wanna displays flights at myself or dividing it turns out I had to do that later but I don't wanna do really on so I got a couple development boards on including Cyprus's official l board which they won a decisive 600 box but found ebay for 150 settlers has great on I used STC see the small the device C compiler for this I found a great library called called ethics to live by I cannot pronounce that but the if you ever do fx stuff open source very good on 1st tested adjusting lights the blank to forget the chain chain working at start beginning USB and their usage of descriptor tables are awful on I don't like working with them but they're a necessary finally got USB matches working on and stuff and termites on and off that the binding working up made basic transfer the being the controller was pretty satisfied with this and then started working on the actual device
which of course have the problem of only having a blinking light and you speak commands so there a couple . 2 hours running code and having a blink at different speeds tell me what part was in the code the you and the voting and method whatever normal to buying stuff In result is
actually worked and I have an open-source version of the Cyprus sort the Xilinx ethics to from where that you guys can use if you want as well as documentation how to use it I think this is pretty cool because a seal of people doing things like buying bust pirates and other tools on for various things a lot of people have the center controllers and these guys can actually just talk TreeTagger SPI with these commands and all you to do is know how they work and how the framework so
and little pieces any left on us I have a couple and cook on known commands this piece over here is the G 10 operations this piece right here is magic and it doesn't seem to do anything I mean it literally is reading dresses from parts of what seemed be addresses from RAM based on the things of the message that you send in the USB so I think it's a huge dividing structure but I'm not sure on so I needed some test to its entirely written stuff for Hargrave don't haven't had experience from writing test for that and found out that the US the type commands are actually the same as the SPI commands if dealing with impact again on 0 I went back to my daughter to 6 months because I had a job and a random thing I hate me and then I rewrote them all and then I went back another 6 months later I looked to me it just keeps repeating if you has to look at them please be gentle they're there they work but the so improving the docks is it is something that's nice and I was considering since if once I get this testing in and and know what works for people in production not just me I think that we can I call the packages into an open-source from our Bobby the distributed and in a something and some
of the EasyServer quickly I opened up the the Atlas test for conditional and got its far by reading stuff sent over look over USB with uh where shot decompose that figure out how work but in the moment the set that it this cool features in their hand so do very quickly run through
this and the Knox's lot find really useful but I think the the j tag compiler thing that I I came up with is actually more useful
on particularly open-source tools because tolls like an open OCD and uh so if you're doing other projects all implement their own control support and it's all completely unique I and incompatible with each other and they don't all have the same controllers and they built the 1st way I did it where it's completely unable to take control the hardware to onto
the hardware so if you buy Xilinx's new 200 dollar controller i is going to behave just as well as the 1 you bought for like 5 bucks the and I believe this is because that the focus of open source tools and proprietary systems are different the open-source people just want to work and because they're trying to get something done they just 1 of B will plug in their work and as a matter of so is considering a free but the proprietary tools wanna be able say where the fastest so they put all the work into that but since they put that work in there we should be able to utilize it to the and as for CDs an amazing tool but there's a lot of technical debt is anyone to mess with that I'm so branch at the bugger but many of my friends fruit lovingly that promise lovingly as some force obsessive compulsive disorder because of the ridiculous amount can of configuration options you have provided to get to work we should have to deal with this because of it this self was originally written in the early nineties and now we have like auto-detected USB in applying for detecting of a network in all the stuff that should just detect these devices and yeah so my my proposition is that the of a library that actually does the stuff I was talking about compiling and commands and probably in the plus and so I have all the specification how should work just need get someone who's interested and willing to talk with me through this I can design the interface of the actually API and but it should be allowed by the controls where showed it should no common Hastings good all should be will come with its open-source firmware and program should be of individually access each layer so if you wanna send a direct messages to the low-level layers get exact control by all means you can send higher messages compile them for you then of course is a bit of a problem of the Treasure similar luminescence to high control it just won't but that's the price to pay and if we have this library up projects like and some surfacing from project ice storm and so anybody wants to build new systems to program syntactic ships don't have to think about control is that all of them stability in uh abstraction for this alright come interfaces maybe we could have like common command line arguments for specifying the stuff they just pass through to the back and library so every open tool it's working on this that uses this library doesn't have to do with these controllers can only what this 1 of programs chips I so yeah I questions I have on this is like should be library service posterior service sometimes a dirty word but figuring out what language it should be probably C + + as thinking see because I thought maybe should go in the kernel but then I think there's no reason on end because these controllers are actually will support more than just j tag which a publisher mentioned earlier that's why column and system configuration colors because it works with tag and SPI and I'd see all these different things we should have an interface that can grab these these devices and present all the features they have and you can grab the the JDA you face of the FBI and the group's work and and that so if anyone is interested in that and neither wants to talk to me about it or is interested in using it and to bring it to look into a product once it's actually working I would absolutely love some talk about that because I it is figure out how should be built at some together come and since I have no time left I want to thank them manic inferences which dental care of you for and inviting me to come here and talk a doctor and use only bird for just helping the social according to stuff Datacom who's here as well for everything 51 later he told me I John masters for help in running the silicon quantum unity and causal component for being a great community and and then lastly my good friend Micropolis who want help me turn this talk in a somewhat coherent thing instead of an artistic mass and the girlfriend Caitlin who listen to every version this talk and so sigh and all my friends you give me inputs and help me actually get the um you can proposal working so that is it and I would say questions but I
think I'm of
Hausdorff-Dimension
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Physikalisches System
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Computer
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Eins
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Hadamard-Matrix
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Zeichenkette
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Gray-Code
Elektronische Bibliothek
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Implementierung
Zellularer Automat
Zahlenbereich
Google Chrome
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Division
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Message-Passing
Zufallszahlen
Software
Spieltheorie
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Programmbibliothek
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Mereologie
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Compiler
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Kernel <Informatik>
Bit
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Kombinatorische Gruppentheorie
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Eins
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Google Chrome
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Physikalisches System
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Compiler
Benutzerführung
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Bit
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Inzidenzalgebra
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Druckertreiber
Gerade
Feuchteleitung
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Ruhmasse
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Quellcode
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Exzentrizität
Rechter Winkel
Festspeicher
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Adressraum
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Bit
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Intel
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Code
Schnittstelle
ATM
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Dokumentenserver
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Mikrocontroller
Ebener Graph
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Konfiguration <Informatik>
Festspeicher
Aggregatzustand
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Gewicht <Mathematik>
Zustandsmaschine
Quader
ROM <Informatik>
Google Chrome
Interrupt <Informatik>
Code
Prädikatenlogik erster Stufe
Physikalisches System
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Variable
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Modallogik
URL
Hardware
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Computerarchitektur
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Dongle
Web log
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Google Chrome
Code
Interrupt <Informatik>
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Code
Adressraum
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Winkel
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Keller <Informatik>
Funktion <Mathematik>
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Firmware
Ein-Ausgabe
Parametersystem
p-Block
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Compiler
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URL
p-Block
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Datentyp
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p-Block
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Datensichtgerät
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Unendlichkeit
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Template
Analysis
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Druckertreiber
Softwaretest
Peripheres Gerät
Hardware
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Dateiformat
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Menge
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Konditionszahl
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Hill-Differentialgleichung
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Term
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Bit
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Protokoll <Datenverarbeitungssystem>
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A-posteriori-Wahrscheinlichkeit
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Datennetz
Physikalischer Effekt
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Ähnlichkeitsgeometrie
Biprodukt
Konfiguration <Informatik>
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Forcing
Ein-Ausgabe
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Message-Passing
Schnittstelle
Stabilitätstheorie <Logik>
Google Chrome
Programmbibliothek
Quantisierung <Physik>
Zusammenhängender Graph
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Konfigurationsraum
Hilfesystem
Open Source
Verzweigendes Programm
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Physikalisches System
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Kantenfärbung
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Humanoider Roboter
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Chipkarte
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Information
Analysis
Computeranimation
Verdünnung <Bildverarbeitung>
Axiom
Digitalsignal
Gamecontroller
Code
Anwendungssoftware
Computersicherheit
Statistische Analyse
Vorlesung/Konferenz
Druckertreiber
Hacker
Internetworking
Dichte <Stochastik>
Elektronischer Programmführer
Reverse Engineering
Dualitätssatz
Spieltheorie
Debugging
Digitalfilter
Rekursiver Abstieg
Software
Systemidentifikation
Home location register
Formale Semantik
Social Engineering <Sicherheit>
Virtuelle Maschine
Gebäude <Mathematik>
Ablaufverfolgung
Dienst <Informatik>
Nummerung
ROM <Informatik>
Physikalisches System
Systemprogrammierung
Open Source
Iteration
Datennetz
Virtuelle Realität
Ordnungsreduktion
Tamagotchi
Transaktionsverwaltung
Stochastische Abhängigkeit
Hardware
Binärdaten
Programm
Ortsoperator
Verschiebungsoperator
Binärcode
Architektur <Informatik>
Gasströmung
Menge
Zeichenkette
Software Radio
Flash-Speicher
Hintertür <Informatik>
Innerer Punkt
Avatar <Informatik>

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Reverse Engineering ISC controllers
Serientitel REcon 2016
Teil 19
Anzahl der Teile 20
Autor Exum, Jessy Diamond
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 4.0 International:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/32751
Herausgeber REcon
Erscheinungsjahr 2016
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Schlagwörter diamondman

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