The HLF Portraits: Juris Hartmanis

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The HLF Portraits: Juris Hartmanis
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2019
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English

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Subject Area
State of matter Prisoner's dilemma Multiplication sign Independence (probability theory) Division (mathematics) Staff (military) Mereology Operator (mathematics) Musical ensemble Family Set theory Maß <Mathematik> Physical system
Axiom of choice Building Transportation theory (mathematics) State of matter Decision theory Blind spot (vehicle) Multiplication sign Frequency Mathematics Extension (kinesiology) Hydraulic jump Social class Physical system Time zone Process (computing) Rational number Military base Forcing (mathematics) Projective plane Moment (mathematics) Basis <Mathematik> Division (mathematics) Radical (chemistry) Right angle Figurate number Mathematician Family
Computer programming Greatest element Finitismus Confidence interval Latin square Multiplication sign Direction (geometry) Decision theory Blind spot (vehicle) Student's t-test Element (mathematics) Goodness of fit Mathematics Lattice (group) Körper <Algebra> Position operator Partition (number theory) Social class Time zone Process (computing) Physicalism Volume (thermodynamics) Dirac delta function Faculty (division) Degree (graph theory) Dean number Universe (mathematics) Einbettung <Mathematik> Right angle Mathematician
Geometry Point (geometry) Sine Functional (mathematics) Group action Observational study Divisor Multiplication sign Decision theory Sheaf (mathematics) Student's t-test Inverse element 2 (number) Hypothesis Rekursiv aufzählbare Menge Mathematics Goodness of fit Lattice (group) Term (mathematics) Different (Kate Ryan album) Square number Theorem Körper <Algebra> Partition (number theory) Set theory Condition number Social class Physical system Covering space Addition Multiplication Projective plane Model theory Neighbourhood (graph theory) Computability Line (geometry) Calculus Degree (graph theory) Curvature Logic Universe (mathematics) Einbettung <Mathematik> Gravitation Right angle Mathematical object Resultant Maß <Mathematik>
Point (geometry) Computer programming Complex (psychology) Functional (mathematics) Group action Diagonal Multiplication sign Direction (geometry) Theory Different (Kate Ryan album) Operator (mathematics) Matrix (mathematics) Theorem Körper <Algebra> Partial derivative Stability theory Condition number Model theory Exponentiation Moment (mathematics) Computability Limit (category theory) Evolute Axiom Measurement Category of being Cube Right angle Mathematician Sinc function
Computer programming Closed set Multiplication sign Decision theory Physicalism Hypothesis Wave packet Mathematics Goodness of fit Different (Kate Ryan album) Operator (mathematics) Universe (mathematics) Körper <Algebra> Spacetime
[Music] professor may we begin into latvia of your childhood you are eight years old tell me something about your family your parents the circumstances of your childhood well I was born in Latvia and I make years old now yes I have been fortunate to be born in a prominent Latvian family my father is the chief of staff of luck in the army very prominent family he is also a graduate from that Russian military school from the time in Latvia was under Russian / Russian influence and if you wanted to join the military it had to be a Russian military he served a short while in a Russian division and then entered and the high Russian Academy Norfolk and was it already Soviet Russia or was this before this is Cyrus stars were Saudis and he graduated was a I guess a pearl until lieutenant with specialty in staff or staff work does that mean managerial skills this is Italy's that operation part understand and assigned to the whole unit this was 1918 when World War one broke and he had made a good career up till then and then he was in the Russian army which entered Germany the Russian campaign was total disaster they used their railroad system so efficiently and so fast that they manners should defeat two Russian armies not divisions these were armies so your your father is fighting with the losers my father's fighting with losers he gets captured by the Germans and spends several years in as a German prisoner of war by the way I said it was 1918 it was 1914 when 740 when the war broke understood III because we don't have very much time let me get you born so he's gonna have to leave captivity and make his way back to love you yes yeah nothing I on portal also inject cleaner that the German treatment or captured officers was very good and so he that was a time of education for him before I did he really hadn't had very much higher education no and that Italy was gonna graduate school war when the war ended prisoners were released he returned returned to Latvia which in 1918 declared its independence and operated as a sovereign country he joins likely an army which was fighting remnants of German and Russian units who were in London for his service charge the war he was given awarded a nice country estate called Weston was a lovely manor house nicely maintained and nice park setting and this is a Pharma construe we spent our winters in Riga going to school I was ending attending French li same as that my sister was two years old her first video is four years old we spent winter santino as I said and summers total interior state and that was just have a wonderful world and there was all usually thrown in a governess for a while for of this summer to learn French and German and the German will come into very good use in your life but Zuzu so you are speaking Latvian in the family yes but you are being trained in French and German in the school the language was there was no foreign language I guess so the school was life dr. Eiffel in life nothing yes because we are really looking into the history of your mind I wonder what kind of an educational emphasis there was when you were in those that first school mostly the humanities was there
any science no it wasn't French for the same sorry I should have said fringe it was a foreign language right and I wasn't the friend to say because my father was graduate from the superior occulta care he and my wife my mother yes spent two years in Paris he was in the same class as far the cold so I have all the pictures great military figures yeah yes your father and Charles ago yes so that also dates him yes but also affects the life around you what would I begin to wonder because it will be so important later in your life is is there an interest in science either in your fat layer in the schools is there an interest in technology at home is there anything that is not only the humanities well my father father very very strongly believed in education and so that even quite a young age clearly I was planning to be a military officer ah what natural what death of course well anyway so life was wonderful right unfortunately roughly when I was 12 years old okay very important age yes all this changed as we all know that Hitler wanted to attack Poland and to have to keep the Russians from getting involved on the Polish side they concluded the Ribbentrop but if the great non-aggression pact joined exactly which divided Poland between Russia and Germany the agreement is holding Hitler's agreement that Stalin has a free hand in the Baltic yes and Latvia is one of the three Baltic countries along the coast of the Baltic Sea yes so this was a disaster this was a disaster first the Russians requested basis for Air Force and naval forces for their naval forces and my father had the misfortune of being asked to be zalaya zone between the Russian forces and the Latvian governments right they would assume maybe his sympathy to a Russian because he had been in a Russian military College yes and served in the Russian ah exactly so they would have thought he would be a good bridge I don't know yeah of course how they made this decision this choice was made but anyway for him actually it was a bitter pill well when his job ended he went in retirement and where was arrested he went out to less than in winter in the orphan or estate and now was arrested yes and we did not know what happened to him except that he had been sent to Moscow well we had no information whatsoever for me it was really a great help that if ours I'm not know what happened to my father yes it would have been project yes devastating yeah only when the Soviet Union collapsed and the KGB files and so on became often did we found the exact date when he was tried and convicted and shortly after that executed in must but she did not know as a child I didn't know only when the Soviet Union collapsed yes so again because I want to begin to develop your life this tragic moment your father disappears the family does your education will stop in the war No so anyway father is gone les Turner is nationalized or whatever yes they asked my mother to sign it over and they was Dutch price whatever and she said I'm not signing anything I mean this is silly what what you offering me no it's not money wasn't offered but I don't even know why she had to start she didn't yes on so less than I was gone otherwise the news of my mother and my sister yes not me we are on the list to be deported to Siberia I was very offended that you were not listed anywhere it's a war went very well in Poland but the Russians and shortly after they got their bases and so on simply occupied I think all of the Baltic countries but lightly I was asking for it schools went on I learned about the
glories of what the Soviet Union is and learn some Russian yes those nice things because there were still some French lessons but not the frame per se became public school extent 49 and we were thrown out of the big building there's the Institute generally say used to be would you see why I'm interested in whether you are getting any mathematics and science at this time because at least the Russian system had that in rust-red clearly as I didn't know much plans to change things I must comment that in all my education wherever I was met was in three different countries the teachers per good very good actually and so that the teaching of mathematics was good and while interest in history was breakin even though the times are so difficult and in a way tragic death um I'm wondering whether when something like a mentor enters your life when when does somebody begin to discover your talents is it this early still in Latvia that somebody some teacher sees you as maybe a mathematician of the future or something like that or are you not exceptional at this at this stage I don't think I was exceptional as my friend so much was going on into this that school was the least of it yeah yeah yeah history was overwhelming yes well I'm off the year later Hitler attacks Germany of soy that's a little human yes and you're always a matter of weeks Germans are in the deagle B&R under German occupation just leaving Russian occupation clearly if you were Jewish life was horrible but otherwise Germans were far more rational the Soviets and the Soviets in administrating they elected as a last year administration run the country as long as you delivered food quarters and so on radicals and school continues French Russian aroused his German isn't is it which delighted me because you already had soldiers yes and also your mother and your sister are no longer threatened by going to Siberia yes but it's strange is that you can avail for more worried about it huh which isn't clear to me fatalism well so now it's 1943 let us say I mean just to pick up a period of the German occupation well at 43 that war wasn't going terribly well for the German Nazi but if your jump from 1944 then the war isn't going well at all and we are on our continent state which was the return so less than it was once for a year Russian now was a turn and was being worked and food rations not what that whatever was demanded delivered food might have been thought everything was rationed Russian Lords and it was wonderful to have less than this was a working farm yes yes well anyway so war doesn't go well we start hearing artillery duels in less than yeah a German division takes over our manor house and we only give enough left a few rooms at the end which are easily closed off and the officers are very gallant and very respectful that you my father was a general and so life is okay but you know that and you can hear artillery you couldn't hear small arms yet and anyway the general German General in whites my mother in and says through and around in since are not going well for us I will supply you transportation to vents fills the only Harbor which was still open and I should believe on such-and-such a day so we all get backed in last wagon and we drive to the harbor try the German trust from driver they should have use the lightly and whom but no exactly husband is there get lost our ship leaves without you filters well for calls and so on there will be another ship a day or two later another ship arrived another ship arrives you're on it we get on the ship and it's going to journey certainly uh in supposed to go to New Orleans because the and some people sorry
no it's sorry it's going to all first I'm sweating sweaty pyramid ship and we had a reasonably good friend a lefty and worn a dancing party member chemistry professor in motherboard when he visited us in less than he said to my mother if you ever are in trouble come from our own account it's a lovely University how old are you now this is 45 with our middle school middle school okay you're a bottom in middle school yes vehicle ownership landon dancing what and by the way that was well organized raddion watch them all Marburg my air volume articles we have a friend there yes a distinguished professor yes oh yes my mother had a recommendation letter from the commanding general yes I know people my time through Berlin which was but really at portal shot it was devastated totally yes the bad news Street sometime just a rebel kind of flatten down and no I was impressed home the chimneys they're still standing in many horses or one or two walls but nothing else anyway they go to Marburg had a one-room apartment which the professor organized and we get a permit to stay many refugees were not given permission permission sustained on short-term oil later well Christmas and all that gases and Elaine may 45 the Americans occupied liberate whatever your preferences and again I was in the midst of this chaotic history I still want to educate you are you placed in a good situation for education yet or do worse Marquart is in University City but schools but not yet open in Germany but in a displaced persons form a lesbian high school orphans usual Latvian high school in barber no in tech mode that injury in Germany yes and very nice but it seems a British occupation zone my mother is still in my pores so you're separated they are separated and processing the occupation zones is not easy yes so there is Latin School in Hana I get in that school I choose to give up our tent and need and have physics and chemistry without guidance this is your own impulse yes that's my sister who didn't think I could make it in Latin or ha ha so as the secondary a consolation prize she said go into physics or in chemistry no I well at that time the atomic bomb and so on physics was great so at Marburg I finished a lot in high school and not physics students and you're qualified I mean you you take it early enough so that you have a future in it you can go to university in physics well say there admitted me and I'm a physics student an element in time professor sorry could these were the German professors that stayed still have positions or were these all other professors who had come in well no these are German professors they were still in place yes yes and your German is excellent oh by then by then y'all so you are now studying physics in German in Margaret young now again I I'm still looking for the emergence of the very very good technology and scientist and mathematician when does he show up do we discover him at university he knows him you were confident yes yes whether I really had a reason to be oh no sometimes confidence is enough to push yes so you know anyway so clearly we wanna get out of Germany right Germany was a sad place at that just when they left they introduced their homes reform and Germany really started picking up but we went to United States again we have the friend sponsor us before I let you go I wanna know did you graduate no why you didn't get your degree no no I I got my four diploma I went in and took the exams which was certainly because I was there only two and a half years okay something semesters right so you would have certainly some university education yes no degree but it was time to leave and you had the opportunity to build in that it's relieved we have my own ship trouble we are on a nice open removal some tighter or somebody a troopship you have nice layered Bob bunks this and a big storm hits and the B deck of the ship cracks well I watched a very innocent play you can see because the crack advances I'm surely we were not supposed to be there a bunch of sailors and officers and what
just makes a big cross on the deck they don't meet the hand of the crack and they drill and the drill a nice hole and the crack goes around it finally half one third right the crack enters that and you know stops because it now can open and close and as later was reported this was touch and go anyway so we cannot continue very far we have another ship stand war with us because in New York in New York budget time there is no tentacle ships of ours and we park across them and they just said go to your bunks go to your numbered bunks we all basically walk over and because in your leans there we blow on a train and go to Kansas City which was a destination this is where the Latvian friendly yes yes and what was his position in society another professor or businessman in lap and Latvia he was an architect okay and it was a young a young couple in rural they say very late thirties and he was working in an architectural firm so not yet American success but coming yes so you have uh you know I'm consumed by your education so what happens to you as a as a mind okay University of Kansas City gives me fellowship in physics that's the problem University of concept is now University of Missouri at is it they looked at my student both and come home clothes that I have a bachelor's to be no I'm not sure how one does that in two and a half years but they say I'm here the fellowship finally recognize that cookie I recognize that unfortunately oh good there is no graduate program in facilities so there is one in mathematics you will be happy in mathematics another accident in your life really if there had been a physics faculty you would have stayed in physics oh yes no question absolutely but you are forced now to specialize in mathematics okay a year later I have a master's degree in let panics in mathematics and now comes the decision what do I do now and I said yeah surely my father would say get a PhD yes so I applied to your schools was work in Kansas City I've worked as a chauffeur just the chauffeur doctor hashing there's wives mother the church and so on and I said oh I know how to drive but I don't have a driver's license doctor my finger former dean of the Kansas Medical School so don't worry about that did I boring no all right throw the lady without a license its own driver sighs look they hear things like that when I mentioned that to some American friends they were not terribly surprised anyway so I have a master's degree yes and I apply through several schools including including Caltech people said a flight to Caltech a flight or counseling person this is a long shot I mean Caltech it's it's the height they not only gave me a teaching assistantship and 19 to get there I said those people understand what symptoms I applied also to the your no no no Lincoln University thing yeah anyway which is well known melodies nobly known agricultural school and why would you apply to that ah I brought Jennifer because our president had a degree from failure yes and since our we were somewhat so my wife's through marriage related to the president so he came for Christmases and things like that and I heard lots about this universe Lincoln no Nebraska whatever University but I saw president Wow totally admitted yes but was there a chance you would go there instead of Caltech no if I wouldn't have been felt that they ever have probably bought University of Kansas okay let's strike the market so Caltech admit you in mathematics and that's the specialty of you declare no no what do they admit Ewan what graduate well I said I wanted to get a PhD in mathematics or physics dr. physics a lot but my background and wisely decided that I knew more mathematics and physics so they directed you they said I don't know how they chose but they said you will be very happy as they went mathematician and they were right they were right 40s later I had a PhD my first job for such Cornell I'm not going to let you take your first job until you tell me what direction in mathematics did you go for your PhD what what were you choosing is your field within mathematics Oh interesting my advisor is dilt was Bill worse famous lattice simile and he gives me a problem the embedding problem for partition lattices partitions for lattices show that every other lattice finite classes can be embedded picked as a sub lattice from the partitions
and I can only say one thing that is a was a bitch of a problem and I smelled that pretty early that it's gonna be tough slugging and partitions are six very divider set and this totally disjoint sets and I love and worked business and finally said what the hell why don't allow at least one point together for that just thought of folks in your own and Sunday again it's a lattice and the same ending problem nobody has worked well two things I solve the embedding problem for that and then I realize what mathematical object insists that only more porn between two of its sets oh that's a geometry if two points are together it's a line yeah and so then I haven't even invent any theorem for the lattice of lattice of geometries and now it has a framework and a few more theorems about lattices of geometries on they'll worship every thickness and that meant somebody typed and it's a sin 24 of a cover page dissertation the brilliant solution totally totally my invention of the problem and the techniques to solve it so this looks like a promising career act to me really said that Caltech teeth taught me hmm how did you research not my lifetime not fine am I just having it happen imposing an impossible problem for you to solve no no no partition invented problem remained unsolved for several decades I kept reading physical or mathematical if you fearful that somebody will solve it missing a year or two so now I will let you graduate before your graduate degree your doctorate you have it after this remarkable thesis so where do you go next well it's very interesting in many things things just happen what I had to take and so on you know the Germans and the Russians middle is the world and I was trying to get notifications you need a career - Oh young and I was gonna have an academic career no question you know the question you got going to the University permanently okay and uh professor war Walker from Cornell just happened to visit Caltech they were just happened to mention to students who packed their cars titles my mother miss me and me to fall for Kansas City in the mathematics department as instructors which is the first step on the ladder yes yes but you're not there long we spend I spent on two days two days oh sorry the two years two years two years and go to Cornell have a great time there what do they invite you to teach me there's a new troops they had converted calculus from big blasts to classes of 20 and we got two of those two classes of 20 to teach calculus first year second year was already more selective and at that time bill was mentioned manager from GE Research Lab who was looking for people to he really was looking for computer scientists but he didn't know it would he thought with it with the term computer scientist even be common at this point no no so he wouldn't even have had the phrase really oh he wouldn't have even had the phrase I want a computer scientist well the unit he was given to manage he named information studies section it just and it was mostly information but there were Shannon's information theory and the success in World War two yes this radar and depth ography and all kinds of if you're bitten look profoundly enough that no hard enough it looked like information but it was digital and it was computation right so he said there's this guy and it's just what you looking for why are you tempted you wanna university career as a researcher what are they offering you that lures you outside of academia I spend a summer at the GE recent file that did it that did it well what were the conditions that appealed to you what was well I wrote up a research paper during the summers there it's not that Bravo insane I did but they were are so many interesting problems and we you know one for just field that there are things which need to be formalized we're supposed to be the Masters of abstraction right well computer science was then already stocked in little blossoms hope you came up and I accepted the genome I spent there 70 years is this the first year there is in 1958 maybe something like that the late 50s I'm I'm just
interested in just in terms of the history of knowledge where computers are so Oh anyway it's the fifties I sort of calculated but on my fingers but when actually I can look and see it was 58 yes 58 and you'll be there seven years and these are good a shape really your intellectual life and reputation yes forever well actually our putting a warn contribution which any news for that work Nick Stearns was done at GE visa funds so bring me to the point of that amazing insight which led to your award you were there for some years where is your curiosity taking you know yes in general a General Electric yes well our the work which we did which was really exciting and so on is you know there is a Turing machine which Turing defined and showed which is hurdle already had in a sense any sufficiently complex mathematical system away from the addition and multiplication and logical decisions or will always have serums theorems which are true but not proven in that system you define your system and I will write the owner still theorem which has no proof in second very important result and to worry use the machine for to show that this is a case he basically showed that you cannot figure out whether a Torah machine will ever hold on any input or whether it will hold on summon those there will be always some theorem which you cannot through and fix turns reset and at one point really concentrating on what or indeed the Turing machine and in no time at all we could prove all kinds of undecidability results and we started looking as our drunkard is this model what happens if I give you more capes yes nothing what if I allow you to I mean nothing changes if I give you a touring machine in the channel runs around or not flat tape I'm flat yeah probably a little bit faster you can confuse hmm faster okay what the projection machine in other ways and we can always prove that roughly within a square of the time which will continuously no you can do it on the new model and so visible so that's a good model let everybody think per visit they still will be roughly in the same neighborhood it's been not only that we could prove all kinds of lovely things how much we can get these differences that most of them can be the inverse or compressed if you just tinker visa problems and we boldly declared divide gravitational complexity of algorithms what is it it is a set of all algorithms which you can compute in a given bound like n square that means that when the problem is n long it will take you n square steps so give me a function and the glass will be all the computations which can be done in this time yes small changes no effect yet those the machine can import in the machine and so
basically it's a rocket and put model for complexity it gives you a direct definition so every algorithm you performs you may not know what the time is but you can prove some time then you have at least that color information yes for example I don't think we even have a final bound how fast matrices can be multiplying each cube is what a school child would give you an algorithm but it's less than that it's not fuel needed this and so there are famous names attached but smaller a smaller exponent and so on you you publish very soon after your conclusions about this yes I'll put your work with a Turing machine and so forth it's it's received is revolutionary or at least groundbreaking yes you can have and two views oh yes it's diagonalization again you know shortly we had invent sense but now we have to have machines which run in a certain time to mimic whatever bound you want and then you can prove that if I give you a little bit more leaves computing gives us you'll get something else well lots of interesting theorems there but you know in his engines touring award lecture down on thought since I'm historian lectures that once we read our paper that you know cannot I don't know exactly what I mean I have it nobody essentially that you can never think the same way yes I think that's what he was celebrating in your insight yes so you create do we say a field a whole new direction by this a field a field which you name yes you call it you talk on educational complexity yes I think there's another school and again on the the innocent in this matter but there's another school I took the same timer later which is more likely called the abstract computer complexity as opposed to what your you were doing can you describe the difference manner all bomb huh yes it me half a model or the other one and you can tinker visit and so on nobody writes Turin mission programs they write real programs because I know there's always a compiler it which will translate in the horrible yes language but because programming and warning machine to do something it's really implementing the algorithm that somehow the touring machine was sitting around and people have not realized or not really what we said long this is a very stable model in tour dimly satisfying properties and every algorithm can be problem limit origin so there is blood saying down from under the influence of Raven my phone even oh that MIT crew was very knowledgeable in recursive function see linger touring computability is the essence but clearly before porn machine was invented such computable things were defined abstractly and so Blum gives two very
simple axioms what is a computational complexity measure and what it is basically I'll give you a touring machine what is it it can be partial that it doesn't compute anything for certain just run forever yeah so you know we're just like our model okay it doesn't hold okay then if these are stamps or runs forever that's in the model right and he gives these two actions and then anything satisfies them is a complex tape measure so I'm not sure he says that this works for partial phone sorry his valet well it's valid for partial functions he gives you say a Torah machine and says it will hold for all in for today and it doesn't look at all of the machine how long it works he just says it defines a function and I give another function you give that function and I give you another function no conditions are more computability really on this guy for any X I give you and I mean an idea you can test whether it has stopped in any operations you can't do that here yes we have this Python verges this does and you can answer well if it effectively stops you know in in partial functions so that's a complexity measure this gives not function that is what you are interested in and they are related if this stops so does this one so that the two approaches to complexity computer complexity are really they're compatible I mean audiences are not competing visions well it's certainly computing in style but the thing is here you can invent all kinds of weird things and here oh no love did some very clever things kind of weird things so not really applicable in that's right cific use what you can just say make this Ettore machine and this time a porn machine whole thing yes and you go from our us sorry you're right back where we are yes so high because you have such a rich career and we don't have very much time I want to first ask you at this stage are you beginning to call yourself a computer scientists and not a mathematician this is terminology but it's also marks moments in the evolution of a field well I sure I made a living vini of computer science that's what I need at the point at the lab when you have come up with this insight are you still calling yourself a mathematician or are you beginning to say I'm a computer theorist I was that research mathematician out of research methods that does my title another very important stage in your career and that's why I'm using terminology as a transition is your invitation to come to Cornell after this extraordinary career a G to come to Cornell and essentially create a department no no ok tell me
they have created it there ok that's why I came because they had a million dollars from sloan foundation still train computer science for the growing need in universities so Sloane was farsighted was this the first department so-called no nor several universities I would guess Carnegie Mellon maybe or maybe Varley are clearly MIT didn't have it called computer science but it was Electrical Engineering yes and that was computer science but Cornell was through Sloan was prepared to call it the department of computer science they had decided that that's what this one's going to be called and they invited you yeah and you decided to come why same guy Bob Walker who initially got you interested in Cornell yeah and then since you may be able to GE brought you back to Cornell young well and you have you hesitated or I mean you were in at all research paradise he he called me and I said yours we starting a new computer science department they would like to talk to you I said ok and earlier neither here that week or two late and I don't know and you have it left well bargain here but for now visiting and it looked so clean the math department was strongly for it physics didn't know what computer science was this and why should there be telescope science this Oh the closes my assistant Lord for three hours a week and yes and it was horrible programs anyway but the university held to this I mean it wasn't a controversial decision to establish I don't know what kind of fights but there look at the time you came but mathematics operations research we're all for it strongly and Dean Schultz very clever Dean said I have space for them they had space because they're just abolished technical drawing and so often Hall top floating it not all of it either but top floor became miss large classrooms which be carved up quickly you needed for yourself and this will conclude our discussion but I think it's important to underscore you need it for yourself a notion of what would advance the field and what was just there of maybe a trick that could be demonstrated yes because it's it's sometimes a difference hard to hard to see yes and basically it seems to me that yours has been a career of looking at that at the essence of the question it's not fair to say rather than the the trick pony of it well you know some very clever tricks in an operating system I would accept if I would understand well as somebody said assuming your designer for time program which is twice as fast as a fastest one available is that the thesis good question what's the answer just by itself no but explanation why is it faster it's a thesis thank you very much
you you
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