The HLF Portraits: Vinton Gray Cerf

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The HLF Portraits: Vinton Gray Cerf
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The Heidelberg Laureate Forum Foundation presents the HLF Portraits: Vinton Gray Cerf; ACM A.M. Turing Award, 2004 Recipients of the ACM A.M. Turing Award and the Abel Prize in discussion with Marc Pachter, Director Emeritus National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institute, about their lives, their research, their careers and the circumstances that led to the awards. Video interviews produced for the Heidelberg Laureate Forum Foundation by the Berlin photographer Peter Badge. The opinions expressed in this video do not necessarily reflect the views of the Heidelberg Laureate Forum Foundation or any other person or associated institution involved in the making and distribution of the video. Background: The Heidelberg Laureate Forum Foundation (HLFF) annually organizes the Heidelberg Laureate Forum (HLF), which is a networking event for mathematicians and computer scientists from all over the world. The HLFF was established and is funded by the German foundation the Klaus Tschira Stiftung (KTS), which promotes natural sciences, mathematics and computer science. The HLF is strongly supported by the award-granting institutions, the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM: ACM A.M. Turing Award, ACM Prize in Computing), the International Mathematical Union (IMU: Fields Medal, Nevanlinna Prize), and the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters (DNVA: Abel Prize). The Scientific Partners of the HLFF are the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) and Heidelberg University.

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a kind of the way that you really in so at the beginning of a little bit about the world in which or your parents facts it inflection excitement or lack of them around the home rejection to school telling what was that I feel that my world was World War Two I was born in 1943 in the middle of World War Two it yeah hostile in my father was disease in the Mediterranean my mother was living with her father but in favor and we stayed there for until the end of world war 2 in family picked up and moved to Los Angeles so for all practical purposes I look in the Los Angeles area largely in the San Fernando round so I'm valuable right have my father was a a personal manager trainer person who worked in the executive training my mother was of literature and arts major options french canadian born in Montreal so choose 1 and will eventually ended up teaching french or substitute teaching french of but my father had been very good at that that is fighting back if I didn't have to no that is University did very well in school and he had scrapbooks of all that stuff I can't phones in this exhibition of academic excellence in was lost out to know the all the entries and so on line I don't think the intended I felt like I needed to demonstrate that capacity there was at least comparable they they may have him that meeting you but it was a response to an already rich fire I think that's true I also in the things that I must have been born with competitive genes gene in a surprise people from time to time that do feel very competitive that right the this so so the only child alone well from 5 years I was that I had 2 younger brothers were 5 year gender and every year gender but for the 1st 5 years I was the only child in the family my mother was a great lover of music so 1 gains we applying the trend radio and listen to a musical piece and try to guess the composer in the name of peace before the announcer talked about was but I was actually it took lessons in child which is a magnificent view points and which I know a number of mathematicians scientists Lotus I asked what I'm pushing for it is the burgeoning young scientists seem not exist until brass adolescence so that all users before you know so the and was very good you interested in science and mathematics I remember being in the 5th grade which made me about 11 complaining to my fifth-grade teacher there must be more to arithmetic and this I said yes there is in in use of the model which I proceeded take we're all problems and I love them especially the word problems with but later realized were like little and have an Christie stories is you have to figure out well with X was like a mystery of when I was 10 I recall detonable called the boy scientists have red cover phonetic Chessen room but it's all about experiments that you do I was given a Gilbert chemistry set this is what around lacking 53 54 back in those days they use of brain chemicals which you could never get today permanent the probe potassium permanganate and glistened with women's together got graduate he always had a child-abuse did but that's how put that we need thermal grenades and you need to be really stupid needs and naturalism so that was not smart but we it and when we're out the desert we treat history of shells that would form matches 1 of them was also potentially tables minus he is only was my my best friend across the street of the so United 1 time with chemistry and that that interest stopping the whole way to school so I did well academically will gradually this about the Torah and I remember what my tongue was later was in praise of discontent and now at the age of 17 men something that almost stating against I have recognized that nothing happens unless something he's not satisfied with the status quo it that to this day that becoming comfortable is it a recipe for no progress at all and so I'm actually always looking for people who just slightly what did you charge your of your teachers when this attitude toward life or we would irritant for the I think I was very dedicated to academic studies I think I would like to say that I mean them happy that the expenditure of time teaching me so even though I'm sure I was at 1 of the class of all right but the intention disrupted up no no it was more and want to learn and they want to teach in the combination were well so I'm just guessing that you have university I did and I you choose that in the past that is really very interesting story because around of the Stephen Taurus pieces together I'm standing cello the exciting 58 on in their you know yes 15 years old but so point tell my father introduced me to the summer I on the ground environment computers that System Development Corporation in Santa Monica is 1 of his best mainly by these whom he knew in grade school on it staying there was a program for STC that's a splash it was designed in taking radar signals from the northern part of Canada is a warning feed that so vital online the seminar and analyze it figure out over the Russian bombers coming over fall and distinguish them from the Canadian geese we get argue which had to do the most damage to the United States signed up for the geese but so I was completely fascinated because this is to based you had to walk into work in order to use of the walls were lined with these dimly right to these guys were standing in front of his large radar screen displays of their life this was Dr. Strangelove accepted that a new song that's also used that word so I could make the comparison back in I was solely fast is that the that same year of another 1 of my father's conference was a chemist up S a right the books that Stanford Research Institute at the NASA at international my father arranged to meet all of there to meet him and be taken to the Stamford campus just to have a chance to visit the some of the professors domestic partners in the fall of campus and it's magnificent and many residents let's say in addition to that his wife
Holly was the child teachers it took me to Berkeley for a masters classes public assaults you know this is a job allocation sharing some of you is just the most wonderful musicians so now there is tension in my life I didn't have to be so test OK then I have this these computers are working really fascinating and assist shelving but I have to practice a child born on group playing around computers I confess to you my weekly daily and I have not always shown in years but I certainly are fascinated by computing and then the next thing happens start thinking courses launched a you 1950 January the the we launched successfully our 1st and on that day or the next morning I was in high school literally graduation from high schools in fact work January of the year 2010 so why is that important well because of this look the National Science Foundation and go and absolutely deserved thanks to President Eisenhower pushing science mathematics technology in areas into all the programs especially high school so a banner outside in the 2nd half of round and we just you know inundated with advanced from 1 place and that the best placed in classes which was wonderful I mean he always really good teachers always markets blessing was Today's classes in high school or so much more advanced than you know include the advanced calculus everything else that in those days of course but some from how fast the ignition all of time I might since it was exciting and new we were doing microwave chemistry we need little friend test used it was that that actually I think it just as a side you're not the only world-class scientists that emerged and there's no no I mean a lot of people who born in the same unit years the middle period just for or the experience that in fact there's a wonderful story tell us about that several people who were reported in a story the proper became my best friend bracelet-has in high school Johnson Parcells was also very except that we you know at the time we were actually in 3 classes items that had seen as by me and well and the scene I'm best friends we started the mass of he initiated the growth that but then so all 3 of us here the same high school and then we ended up together in graduate school this the when final was running the network mission and so it is quite astonishing it the people from the same school and the people in this 1 and that usually have units that now so there's a photograph loosely from 1994 and is always the thinking and 4 of the 3 of us fancier me a was in fact opted because the hours to draw up an aid and network was made out of a cons of of the young ones to teens wins a Keynesian squash and some the plastic or and we were trying to show people how alternative network technology was at the time that it was originally governance is 25th-anniversary it's sort of gotten back in 1962 so so here's my problem I get torn apart by end being attracted to the computing step in Steve bosses are the proper that manages to get permission to use the computers at UCLA and so our stone high school we drive over there and get you see on and we get to use the bend extreme drifting computer that's a company's make washing machines and this was a paper tape based machine quite so writers you punch program and the tape in any event the thing the computer and you have to know that for whilst take that and so we were writing programs to calculate transcendental functions and things like that when we were still in high school and announced taking any classes in capitalist at UCLA because the 1st is that guess that the hot she's were doing certain underlying no matter what do you know any basically they just like no 1 was there and that is and kind of vaguely there's a story what only showed up or we can the ball in and so you know my father well that's it spread noticed that there was a 2nd floor window result and so the Steve tells the story that I say there's a window opened in eastern people were not really doing a unit at better and I get up on the window open the door and we take the door open so if you get and that story eventually got White House there are many many years later but 1989 it's their lantern I've invited by then power in this 1st lady who to purchase stay in almost all the morning we were on the past and imagine the future in Atlanta and are talking about informatics means genomics I want the color DNA means DNA tests that they said that goes to the so we start with the so as we are being introduced during tells the story about breaking into the UCLA campus use computers I have no idea how you got the information at of course these 2 cities truants it turned out OK anyway in spite I know I'm a new culture that our filed and he did it all that we did you have a choice of crystal etc. In this but just that but I don't opportunity formally in computer studies for you and it was full of though there was always a how the this is actually quite interesting my forward broken or in a sheet with you today is become rock many years later and it had a number of different divisions 1 of which was rather that the company in the US 1 engines for the fall of the 7 5 5 1 and 1 and a half million pound thrust engines so I have to work of their own some of that they have a contest for something and hours of police and I was with the old and win a 4 year scholarship to off so much of a standard tuition was paid by the American edition and by the time I got up there which is 160 on September 16 of they had already brought computers into the campus that it was not a formal computer science department there was a numerical analysis part of the humanities and sciences mathematics it so I got introduced to the Burroughs 55 Berlin 5 thousand member of the 500 machines which were extremely sophisticated for their time really mean technically very sophisticated machine learning program Berle's out which is also very advanced language of all in the late fifties and early sixties so I had a very rich computing environment in which to time-sharing time-sharing this have a world life his application Slotkin Farris of which several cost and the current probably still this
in terms of its commitments of these questions it was unusual among universities in the world and you have had about Berkeley not savages across the bay what you have these opportunities are interesting question because I'm not sure that I know exactly what was there Berkeley and 16 Berkeley has certainly created a drift track record in this space so I would not be surprised but at the time to be honest I did not go to Berkeley to check anything else that there were some important mathematicians there you know Karp who became very instrumental in numerical announces that among other things saturn is interesting because it had imported into Stanford of John McCarthy who was 1 of the co-inventors a time and 1 of the co-inventors of artificial intelligence and the list programming language and this yet must gardening just an amazing person and there were others that had been brought into the Sanford faculty as well and we were very much involved in artificial intelligence and so by the time I got there seems were already bone and I was you with the it was a little bit like we experience in principle there had been altered it so suddenly with always investor technical problems sentences rich burned sort of all that I could call Computer Science and 1 giving guidance on policy during graduate and you have lots being gotten this recognition of what you might be here is no no I'm just no just like everybody else and they all went from development programs and manuals we have so we have really good teachers both on the mass of the integral computer science science of I remember particularly on of the math teachers bacon who taught calculus his lectures were so clear I stopped taking notes I just need to watch and understand how the all the results and when the exams came along and I didn't have to memorize things I can do right what I needed from basic principles because his teachings of surrounded him to the killings wonderful and I stayed in touch with him even after interest in the fact that the because he was just such a wonderful person in books will just as queries writers understand the sketch of graduates presumably the distinction actually from stanford no I think there was a sort of moderately good student but I'm going through all that already its straight averages I was story so I had to get you to stand which to the grammar school or did you not a graduate of the Graduate School that after I finish my graduate work at Stanford I both mathematics and computer science I wonder I wasn't really the world's greatest mathematicians I took classes in Riemannian geometry and survival might pick up that and realize that computers were more interesting because you create this artificial world you were in control of an energy was told to do something to do what you want to do what you told to do on the difference between those called by so I I'm really completely entranced by this I would work right yeah without loss influence interview they hurt me the plan was that I go to silence to install 369 91 1 which is their new 360 warrant you just have in the ranking 64 65 period that's could in Canada in the last couple days before I was setting off to a summer mostly called and said we need to stay in Los Angeles we have to have someone time-sharing set system at the Los Angeles data is Gaussian deeply is disappointed that is running on 1 of the whole 70 comma decimal 4 mile chains on the other hand it's a tangent systems It's Carshalton's differences is a commercial timesharing system at a time when timesharing was still brightening and looking back on this it's astonishing that by the have service of running so early in the story it here so I became a systems engineer for their it turns out that's important for 2 reasons reason number 1 I can no the software that system into the way I read the code using a somewhere it and follow what happens when somebody posted key why happens is this the the the processing of that character and so I got to know the operating system well enough that I found bugs and and they trusted fixed that cool but the most important thing is I had to stay in Los Angeles which meant I met my once an important issue the 2 of us I have hearing problems I'm hearing impaired were is she was totally there which were great big fat some to get a little bit low-frequency sound she lost all her hearing which was 3 experiment that's Our hearing dealer introduced us in words Los Angeles so we should learn the miracle mile happening FIL that's in the introduces us on a Saturday in any closed shop were standing on the sidewalk and I'm thinking she she he's really great when we had lunch so we don't have or you want the next part we chapter while I answer where she did she said she was a regular part you know like some of you come up with a lot of success not can render and I do know I draw pictures of what things look like in the interior design is the and then she decided that she wanted to show me favorite paintings and the only answer which is literally a block so we went to see her favorite Kandinsky grain and I said for a while and I said you know that it's like a fully mean if this were 1 of the movies where the audience gets choose where this is the deciding moment is this seemed hopeless or he she tried to do something that in the top right so she decides to try to use that weapon well the end of the story as we stay there so long that she forgot he was of the agreement to your report the point cancers so that is a good start in my relationship with my future mother-in-law to make a long story short we got married in 1966 in this year 2016 will celebrate our 50th anniversary of social power and support as well as a great question so last year I am on working at IBM PS being paid very well I think you know that is where of the important the 1st 3 she's working as an interior of arrest and so we have a double income this thinking on that we have no kids of this so I'm still IBM in 2 years there I realized I need to go back to school I don't know the basics of operating system is not here I don't understand how to write compiler in this understand the theory of programming languages I you know I can have my way through college but really a fundamental understanding so I felt absolutely go go back to school is the decision in here and my head is known as the all of this is in my head so my best friends the
proper happens to be easier in graduate school so if it's the you know can I talked about he said 1 digit after my thesis right journalist your own use was 1 of the most amazing and wonderful warm-hearted thoughtful notorious you could possibly and we don't know very well was introduced so I became his graduate student who owns the Proc so I went back to school I was working at that point I quit my job at IBM they said you can come back if he would come back and forth so I anticipated returning to the the PhD
of it turns out to be a next year to finish Ph.D. in the said to be a male has the process and use of the grants it comprises of the society the problems that you want to solve this actually happens in many fields but at this time and place you have to make a decision to the use of the topic itself how where you analyze the state of play at point of view so that the word shoe different things going on concurrently qualities CEO at 1 of them is working through my dissertation topic and the other ministers wrinkling Jerry asked was the 1 of the guys that work we were concerned about models of computer programs primary sample of a program of running room on the Suan processes 1 that whether that's offered to be me run in parallel on a machine to mull over in the 2nd same how often you analyze as the program text to figure out when and how it can be run in parallel so we develop a graph moral applications in my work was figure of analyze that so it is both a masters Ph.D. in space however by Leonard Simon who was the cans also from MIT and who have developed a way of analyzing packet-switch networks of sort of work and constructed words I had a point you in theory to understand how these networks will perform got involved because of his close friends became the program manager for a doctor defense Adventures'' quantity and see if recall art which was designed to be a packet-switched communication network to link a dozen universities together those universities were being funded to do research in artificial intelligence and computer science by the Defense Department us which was hoping to use these capabilities to improve its military capacity command control capacity management resources but they want the computer science department to share of resources with each other and computing resources in research results rather than competing with each other right they said we will find all of you don't worry about that share your results speed things up use each other's software and hardware so I have run into the ARPANET provided by that time who was looking for a graduate student how he hired on process only heard the crockery hired media a number of people and so are job was to deal with the software that was needed to connect computers at the edge of the to the network itself not itself was made up of devices we call packets which is that the name the call routers there were being made by a company in in Boston called hole-burning in Cambridge Massachusetts and so they were building this basic packets latency proper and passed on proprietor fear connected to Europe to the packet we could toss a electronic postcards in of them around to the network and popped out the other side so we're doing the what we call the host level but in the fission of protocols and science in Boulder and in doing this under a communication system Robert was Apple Apple-brand and was 1 of the key architects of the ARPANET Interface Message Processors thing not being and that's how we met at UCLA I was the principal programmer whenever measurements and trying to figure out how and when stress in a word pushing traffic into it in measure what have happened but comes out with some theories about how the network is going to break in his colleagues square cylinder have no the Y all of the molecules of oxygen going into the corner of the room at everybody asphyxiating and Bob said no I don't think so so he and I put together a series of tests he would describe only need to have happened go right programs run incessantly children that and occasionally did those of you know different scenarios so at this point we're talking about the influence of the I am completely and totally sucked into this whole networking thing boys as a far stuff that's happening remotely you push a button here's something happens over there I use you begin to see how powerful this could be I think of all the different kinds of computers that require a dozen right that are now interacting with each other they never would have before it is remained by different manufacturers would grounds different word once they all these technical differences the network is making it possible for them to interact with them we know the ultimate impact of all this of the world you changed the world really but at the time this story I must note you feel the implantation or was it very specific problems to deal with and we need the macro and micro taking as honest answer I think is is
because of both the features reduce this basic groundwork of engineering figure out how I make all the incompatibilities smooth out so that these machines that actually communicate useful but we also very early on stumbled into ways to use the machines that had not been particularly common but 1 of them that was developed by Ray Thomason who was a pallbearer Newman's I program of rain figured out that machines connected to the network he could send files 1 gene would the let me in you can certainly messages for somebody on a different machine of course you have a problem of being will say the system sent to this machine and we look for the person which many distinguish the user from the host chain and need way to seperate those 2 identifiers indicate the assets the keyboard because it was the only 1 who was used for any other purpose really as whores user at homes is your semantically obvious so that brain is the guy and then use the at green at and as soon as he neared came out of retirement 1971 it's only 2 years after the installation of the in sorry for those the original host image minus expanded to some so e-mail becomes the media that everybody recognizes of his will computer mediated communication is you have to be in the same kinds of talking at the same time the you can communicate where it's convenient so that you see what only the end is in sight everyone solace in fact we we saw of query the next 1st thing that happens is that a distribution list is to get the calls sci-fi lovers because for all these in more altering figure out who's the best author writes the stories and so we have this distribution was where we argue point its own e-mail distribution list were obviously of social phenomena the 2nd distribution was called yum yum it it was hosted at Stanton University and was evaluating restaurants and power so mean it's clear as day e-mail is a social phenomenon distribution was use of you gets better people think that instant messaging and SMS is new wrong we were connecting through the network to meet a common machines and the way it lets see other Information Sciences Institute but we could tighten each other on a keyboard this group you pass the back for the more we could run programs on on the distant machine even if we were all to the machine and that all see what programs do it so 1 of the programs that we all excited about was called adventures he was basically a computer game where you were exploring this complex means of the teams that are all connected in different ways and the things that left behind you could pick up like torture Bay falls in images and so we would type and each other you know to strategize what we're going to the next and then somebody 1 of us would say here's the commands of the program to go the next step and so we were playing computer games as a group with each other in the 19 seventies on the ARPANET I suppose we want all at the 1st part is a thought we were you doing something much more rich in there but there wasn't any more which sent exploring this interactive capability of working together as a group and I wish for assessing the this is that it's useful in war this was useful in exists I have seen right now there's probably another very very important partners in and there's some attention SRI International as as it was then called her separated from Stanton University during the time period was a lot of attention about the government military research 1 of the people at a certain international of a single work and that was 1 of the most visionary guys you possibly where he saw the possibilities computers working together with people helping them with their knowledge work so he invented the system called the online system all our stand out and he invented amounts so you could point at the screen and say I want this part of the screen 1 a copy this already had hyperlinks which everybody knows today is operating in worldwide when where you click on the link and would take you to another document before it was the 1 machine World Wide Web we can call that the quality of works but does the men and all that stuff he invented portable displays black-and-white so that it looked like paper and he had this idea of groups of people collaborate with each other he sort of of this is more than adding intelligence together was some multiplicative factor there you would derive from this quarter work he was so visionary that he had trouble explaining his ideas to people in concrete terms that they understand it so the volunteered this 30 years in the future she probably was lost back to color in our experience with the so at this point yeah we're talking about 170 use of 3 we have 4 years of experience in this environment scene what computer-based communication can do it what GCOM acquired was the MIT I will also connect the ball community new as the Director of the Information Processing Techniques Office of arc 1st erected is non-numerical applications of computing light welter far more powerful and important and influential them attorney numerical number-crunching we typically think computers you Licklider and an over abundance push we all experienced and benefited from it by the time the Gunners starting working in that we have all of this the drive our enthusiasm I words are very interested in the time the Internet you can use the phrase slows the service so it took a while for their turn to the table of Hong Kong and I had met at UCLA we tested the ARPANET that'll work together then about that all bearing a canoe and and when to stop in late 1972 in that same time I'd like you use your light joins in fact so in the following spring 1973 options of the same in cases we have a problem my reaction is what you mean we it is well you know we did this ARPANET yes it all really well and so on it said but since that time I have been working on it radio-based small radio-based communications and satellite cage because we're really serious now about using computers in command control and and we really serious that means that computers have to be on board all the all the ships at sea in their place time together with wires of work well it takes on wires and break anywhere in Europe when delivering optimal so he said we have to use each other radio-based communication so he well into the development of mobile packet radio
impacts and this problem though is that these packet-switched networks even though they are all of the ilk of packet-switching are completely different from each other the data it's a different packet sizes in different ways to get from the error area different and so the question now is given very distinct networks how on earth you connect them all together in a uniform way not to be very fair about it I had thought about this while it was still a logarithmic MU-MIMO doing here he had a service set of desiderata about open networking the concept was you could build different networks optimized around the technology and then connect them together so that means this is a part and and they were all looking for you know the been optimized the romances user mentioning that you know do His background was in communications theory like background is software operating systems and Bonn said I mean here's somebody who understands that part otherwise known however get this work in computers that users multimedia work so he had and we started working on this in over a period of about 6 months we evolved the basic architecture of the inn basic protocols in fact there there's a hotel you can also on a commuter rail it was called the Cabana Hotel time and in that period in September of over a couple of days Bombieri said and run the 1st paper it was published the following year describing the internet there's a placard hotel service so we had we work over that period of time we brief the ideas to the organization called the International that we're working group which was formed in October 1972 Joseph Bauer is going to be in and I'm going to of Stanton see Crocker is leaving Artur to go back to the god Artur you interfering with is a interrupting his PhD work he was on his way back to do his Ph.D. dissertation so Soviet had time to do this and he said you should go run the know or Gravatt wrong you or you're just an assistant professor at point so I think of that group we briefed in in what we briefed of being designed publish a refined version of that underlie nodes are May in 1974 but he said it was called a Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication this type of thing so the internet has not yet entered the book that the Internet thing was awarded use and internet working with however 19 74 so you have to appreciate the publication of the paper using made but we're already well into the details of the protocol so it started again or is it for so my team at Santa starts working on detailed draft of the TCP protocol they found that when you think in the talk as a year I I have a small grad students some from outside the US citizens it is important to notice is not surely American and then by the end of the Norwegian the the Germans the French and the Italians and the Japanese were part of this process so that in December 1974 we published the 1st complete specification of the transmission control protocol it we call it it was called the and the internet transmission control protocol that's the 1st user determine Internet in the title that then we tried implement and that's all that energy for returns to the e-mail room and implementation TCP for people in computer I had guy had my life Sanford through a part of tree we did a version for the PDP-11 20 and how they go in the University College London's working puters standard version for people not so during 1975 get these implementations going 1st enhances they don't work right classic problem can you think you gonna alright you try that work so you learn from that reading and your all of 1 of my graduate students figured out we need to do a three-way handshake in order to stabilize the sequence numbers that were understood by searching for 1 the tail but we went in for iterations of these designs so it took us until 1978 to stabilize the probable that your you just it that you have to do you have to try and stuff and so you can never be sure so by San Diego a couple things and 1 of them is that I have left Stamford in 1976 at the request of work to come to Washington to run the program for the this part so I'm by this summer and Washington running program but it's become the the Information Processing Techniques Office of varying in that book with that said you know try 76 so or program managers the others and he was the director of the Office so during the period on pushing really hard you not only get protocols from some but the moment about every computer I can find every network that electing symbols and so during that period from 78 the free mind how focus of attention this program manager was nature the stuff the need to work on anything that to compute in any network we could move bits from 1 question that we succeeded about and enforce it down everybody's throat and so it just did all absolutely absolutely it's understandable was is the better is the enemy of the good so we have the ARPANET running there's lots of people on the art and its expanded 50 thousand users some of them in Europe some of U.S. most of the U.S. down there and we're over here doing this in the it involves the people in your own satellite and people are there in the Bay Area of factory but it's a small group of people experimenting with the technology what the bulk of the people were doing an e-mail to your from transfers remotely getting access to the trenches facilities on the ARPANET and so when we told them in 1982 we are going to require everyone to switch to the new protocols so that we can have an arbitrarily large collection that works in they can expand over time because the pop art and a protocol on as I knew that people said 1 we that you know everything works don't bother us well I'm from images got very reserved to be you know wipes through red so after we announced that everyone was going to implement the security on the computers and get them running the article unit of all we started tracking who had implemented protocols which machines were running and I was watching and getting reports every week from USC minus but I conceded that up until about June everybody's implementing then suddenly finds out so I called the Defense Communications Agency which is
running the ark and makes it shut off the ability to carry anything accepts the Internet Protocol Khot flow and the ability to do that and so it shut off a day all phone tells you idiot you think you know getting my e-mail me on bureaucrat listen I just want you know so we watch the current implementation her goes up also October flattens out in and I call DCA opposite shut up for 2 days ago more phone calls and by January 1 1983 although 2 computers that manage the switched over but we really be forced on people and is if we have not done that we might never have the ability demonstrate that arbitrarily large numbers and that's so they're asking really 3 as the next couple of years you the Department of Energy the National Science Foundation and NASA already right the utility of this kind of capability and switch over to the new Internet protocol not without strong and around males in things just sort of happened what's local area networks that get 1 day and he had happen would be wrong this was a real battle it's not only that the biggest battle starts mountains 78 so it's 1978 we have standardized protocols in use in the you know what portion of onto his many different operating systems we can the Europeans began holding program on Open Network Interconnect got it was called the Open Systems Interconnection it was being developed by the International Standards of station and so for 15 years there's this pitched battle between the TCP IP protocols and the Owasso protocol then it doesn't really get resolved until about looking at 3 of the simple story of its resolution is that the the also find work focused very heavily on a seven-layer design and they spent enormous amount of time in the describing in detail protocols were specified area whereas the Internet environment tended to global stuff figure out were fix it so didn't and documented afterward words and so we have very different styles of operation as a consequence of that is that the TCP IP protocol during the period from about 180 2 or so of them ended in June commercial implementations well in advance of the of sort of so the OS became the vocabulary for discussing on working but it didn't become an engine for implementation eventually by by 1993 on the well I had now become the president of the Internet Society in January and to it was due to help support the standardization of the Internet Protocol and I was tired of this continual so I wrote to the head of the National Institute of Standards and Technology said I think it's about time that we saw this question of where the U.S. government should insist on unusable a which he insisted on using the International Standard despite all of us would get tough love your stature so also this time I'm sitting here saying sup words your stuff that on and so I asked were an evaluation of the 2 but also they have appointed a blue-ribbon committee making over 40 years later saying you know what you know just get the stuff works OK to and or even better and so it's OK if you want to use that instead of the Government OSI Profile requirements and Ringhals were set aside and why this science 1983 we're on the cost of the World Wide Web visible light you're right and then 1 way 71 nobody notices and reasoning in our opinion the mosaic version incremental Center for Supercomputer Applications everybody knows because the graphical call various units of its activating everybody goes crazy nasty communications gets created goes public in 1995 the stock was removed in the dot wounds of Polish you were about 5 and this is a hole in the history of the best the that people use it as the Internet as well as good people where Is modern terrorism and it's about where I have to leave think about that we we we have to think about the abuses of infrastructure as we always have it on the internet and many things like it are neutral the tools that can be used in the and we often mistakenly imagine that we can somehow use technology to prevent abuse and the answer is sometimes we can and so there are only 3 ways to deal with this question these what I assumed putting in some techniques at all methods to prevent somebody from actually abusing her on of this this work the next thing you have to say was even Kachin barely consequents we've me as a society that sort of thing in itself we will catch everybody but you catch the the only way that we did 3rd way we can deal this is such a week that we should stop people don't think that from it sounds will be but it's like gravity various the weakest forces nature when you not max is powerful the entire society agrees this is not unacceptable wrong that's very powerful force was so those 3 things of tools linear reveals the abuse being used the thing that makes it hard as the Internet was specifically concerned the translation it is not made up of national pieces deliver the whole story in the but it was designed that way and that means that pattern known across borders that means can be in 1 jurisdiction and the perpetrator another we are going to have to come to grips on a transnational basis with out of all of the users that conversation is still under way we will have to live through problems incidents until we understand the nature and then we will have to understand what you read sufficiently to work together to cope with some of those abuses and put the bad people I'm going to go beyond the fashion the deployment area about this that the interplanetary internet is under discussion of the actually uniformitarianism cooperation the original of thought from the start going back in 1988 the year after the 1st successful landing the past 100 after some of the year's 20 odd years because previous of winning that was successful was the viking issue in 1976 merit to that means successfully moral
it was not to mention the 97 the final successful landing was made so my colleagues of the deck portion Lebanon we're talking about this thinking the only way that we even in communicating the spacecraft was point-to-point radio works can have this and never heard this rich connectivity of the breaking even wrote than we thought I can build the rich working environment for space exploration can we have a kind of Internet space and so we started working on it quickly discovered that the TCP IP protocols of the on the internet 1 word OK Ouma's competing more well between the planets because the distances were we as humans and so we have granted times it would be as much as 40 minutes or more if you go to the article that so we have designed homes we protocols which we call the bundle protocols they were part of time during the period from the 19 2004 where the rovers Spirit Opportunity landed in January 2004 they were intended to back directly by point-to-point links to the surface of the earth to the space there accepting your addition the radios already and he said I we have to cut the duty cycle those in the image of itself a ruling out and the scientists were all happy because the original plan was only 20 thousand bits per 2nd it was all something of his learning community there was an X. radio on the rovers and expert on radio on the orbiters which is put in place to map the surface of mars figure where the roma go they finish that past but they're still still there so operation programmable and radios have we reprogram the rulers of the orders so will the rovers had they they have the data and so on or working along its work the data and 128 kilobits sectors in closer together in the origins of the sentence you resort panels to transmit it 28 others vector so all the information is come back from our systems store and forward that switching with protocols or the context we also put these protocols on board the International Space Station the astronauts in experimenting with controlling rovers on the surface of the earth as if they were in orbit around on driving rover and Morris came back from Earth because the round-trip time but if you're only a few hundred miles away you know so this that is on its way we standardized it anyone's for users you can get off the internet in space nations uses up and all they do is they use these protocols on their spacecraft after they finish the scientific missions we can repurpose them to be nodes in interplanetary back but in the world in a area network as the decades go full and that's what's exciting on the other you I'm sitting with you because of money many wars that tore at all and do with that of what you think about the role of such an award in the community pressure what is the functional awards in grammar cited course I think that well certainly for the recipient of the award it's a big deal because sometimes the money involved in million-dollar but which is almost comparable to the normal process but the most important thing is to recognize individuals for what they have been able do can offer the hope to others young scientists in particular that they too may make an impact which is so where it is believed that it should be part of the globally recognized and that I think that drives most scientists is certainly right me I was not thinking about Turing Award time we're doing of work on the internet with bromine was just to see if I can get to work and cost of health it means they central to this that was 1 of the parties put it all together you don't have a license away this 1 of them is wanted something beginning out and in that case you need had self CXL people but they don't do the same thing he was so the fight the time sort the effect of the painting of you convince everybody you should all be that still I did a lot of that in the course of my career so the the awards I think are a way of telling people look this is important you have the impact that we want to recognize that people down there but I honestly don't think that is necessary remain healthy to try to guide your your work is if you're expecting rock to do there is expecting to change the world I think what you wanna do is actually make something happen discover so that makes something work week something better and if it does have a great impact it's lovely when you get a key reason it's good for young people to know that there are current successful careers in that space and you know some people would think of how many of you have a career in computer science and board and directs soccer operating eastern just about the software it's about all the things you can make happen if you can figure out how to write software his own political persuade people the make commercial of main economic engine drive the access to of the smartphone It's all that stuff put together that should excite people again is a strategy for inspiration say and warm maybe those so mapping and all what about gatherings of the class area where are those beneficial like a lorry form what you think get it's I think I know how I felt when I was so student meeting some of the people who are in the text books that I study for you draw up the EU job drops you know I'm not sure what to say but not hang on to every word because we know that the people are smart and they have important things to say and so when I met some of my heroes in this space I always thought this since in Goshen evocative do that but if you require somebody is up in the hand of all of them that I know that turned out to be the most people getting ready to release the that they didn't know at the time nor will be driven at a time by the prospect Nobel during the war and the Allen Prize FIL well being driven by an intense curiosity about you understandings of the for figuring out if they could make something the fact that something is possible has been demonstrated to be possible gives you hold that you to particles do that of
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