The HLF Portraits: Maxim Kontsevich

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The HLF Portraits: Maxim Kontsevich
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2018
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The Heidelberg Laureate Forum Foundation presents the HLF Portraits: Maxim Kontsevich, Fields Medal, 1998 Recipients of the ACM A.M. Turing Award, the Abel Prize and Fields Medal in discussion with Marc Pachter, Director Emeritus National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institute, about their lives, their research, their careers and the circumstances that led to the awards. Video interviews produced for the Heidelberg Laureate Forum Foundation by the Berlin photographer Peter Badge. The opinions expressed in this video do not necessarily reflect the views of the Heidelberg Laureate Forum Foundation or any other person or associated institution involved in the making and distribution of the video. Background: The Heidelberg Laureate Forum Foundation (HLFF) annually organizes the Heidelberg Laureate Forum (HLF), which is a networking event for mathematicians and computer scientists from all over the world. The HLFF was established and is funded by the German foundation the Klaus Tschira Stiftung (KTS), which promotes natural sciences, mathematics and computer science. The HLF is strongly supported by the award-granting institutions, the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM: ACM A.M. Turing Award, ACM Prize in Computing), the International Mathematical Union (IMU: Fields Medal, Nevanlinna Prize), and the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters (DNVA: Abel Prize). The Scientific Partners of the HLFF are the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) and Heidelberg University.
Keywords Kontsevitch, Maxim

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[Music] so professor to begin at the beginning of a life in mathematics and childhood where was the first real influence of was it in the family was that a book a teacher what got you started in your interest that was my elder brother was seven yes wasn't me he he came into some mathematics I don't know why yes it and he studied on also special mathematical classes which exists in Russia and I also studied in high school for three years mmm and and I was became interested wrong page then oh you were it how old was he he was 17 he was 17 so that was quite a gap yes yes what made him think that this 10 year old could have any interest in listen no no he just asked me some question actually sure maybe you can even answer its what are two numbers whose sum is 100 and the difference is 10 oh do you know sounds man I'm not going to answer you're going huh but you did yeah I know it took me two days to figure out and try to sound so yeah of course knock it's not secondhand how many children in the house just to just the truth yeah scholarly houses a day yeah kind of yeah because my father is specialist in medieval Korean language and history and my mother she's retired now she was an engineer in in him key suburb of Moscow and Rockets engine cell mate yes Oh would it be fair to say that she was the one who more broadly influenced an interest in technology or sorry not really and I mmm I think the truth was also good journal for middle and high school student called quantum it's also very good uh and it still exists but not the same glorious since his glorious past it started in seventy yeah what's monthly journal and this is really huge subscription some support several hundred hundred thousand people subscribe to the journal yeah isn't fair to call this a privileged household and I mean mostly in terms of access to education and the best schools and so forth yeah it's also Olympians and a in fact my personal history was those also books and kind of popular mathematics books and especially like Martin Gardner books the translation of what maybe ten books not open guess but also a lot of Russian books and yeah when I was Danny I kind of my interest to mathematics start attempt I think I kind of shocked to learn very very quickly and it was somewhat a school level in a bit and I solve problems for mice class for next class with mine was first class v XX six seven and I went up to eight and then just as the tangos are up here so those more describe the Olympia because I really am interested in the structure of Soviet yeah yeah yeah there was limpets of no school levels and city level international finally and I actually I was selected to when I was in the last year in school to to be member of international team but it was 1980 mm-hmm and it was and it was kind of bad luck those incidents was another Olympic in Moscow sports Olympiad which was boycotted because of Afghanistan oh yes yeah but somehow our torches decided it's a too much to Olympics for one city at the same time yeah so they canceled the salute but anyhow how much I don't know that a ten-year-old or even maybe we've gotten you to 12 or something but it thinks about the future in these terms are you mostly consumed by the fun and curiosity of mathematics what yeah no I just fell in love in mathematics and it was I think it from age of 14 I already knew that I will be mathematician ah and you were required by then to begin to commit to a kind of study not a thought it was a falling there is a system of special kind of pluses which started in 60s I suppose okay yeah Kolmogorov and the fund maybe I don't really know much history and both schools was like maybe sevens seven different schools when special classes and have additional hours for deeper study of mathematics and the classes were given by not by school professors not school teachers but by original by some well-known mathematicians but maybe first few years but then systems started to produce their own teachers yeah so kind of people who went through the school became students in university became teachers in yes in this school so I was I was taught by people of the same kind of classmates of my brother I have to say yes but in different school what is your brother doing while you were progressing in your own way yeah my brother I went to not to mathematics but to insuit of electronics I have to say and then he became specialist and he stopped work on the Future intelligence and then more to modern in cone vision and and he event many many years to the West he was in San Franciscan eye Research Institute but so years ago he left has his own startups his own yeah so he was and I don't want to put words in your mouth more involved in the practical applications of theory is that not true no no no late late - yes yeah later yeah yeah but initially not yeah so you're both in a way theoretical yeah now at some point we work to the same institution in Moscow in different clubs since before prominent for information transmission okay so let's progress through the system you've had the special classes taught by people not much older than you now Sonia sold yeah seven years older and at what point do you make or is made for you a university decision mmm yeah it's no to go to Moscow no such it was the best way to enter mathematics might have yeah in fact already when my brother's my brother also applied to Moscow University but he was rejected it was beginning courses anti-semitic stuff yeah it's a mixed up our family name his Jewish name which is only X polish me also we have Jewish grandpa but you your face anti-semitism though you were not your way yes yeah yeah no it's it's kind of no my grandmother is the one of my grandmother sister Jewish but but that would not be enough to but but it's but name come from in under the direction it's from polish still it affected yes it was but it didn't affect your possible yeah because I was member of international team and it was a way to get without exams to Moscow University ah yeah also a lipid was canceled yeah so it was no team yeah I had to pass exam and it was very very strange for year because usually in McMartin mathematics department most University that my times was something like seven five people own place and indeed this one place and and especially in 1980 exempts in all different places who helped to say exactly the same day so people weren't able to just fail one place and try another place and it was a point 95 percent place yes it was really no concourse and also I think comma Gaurav who was not advisable in fact ways of advisor my teachers in my school yeah you can put some pressure on I got condition you know yeah but to event event in nineteen you can suffer any troubles at all so what age are you now it's called subtraction and mathematics so I was 164 I will I will be soon in 54 another that age now a high because I think age when I went to university I I skip one class because of my successful at was was funny and younger and I was essentially fourteen I suppose well and
this is unusual I would get fifty fifteen year maybe everything yeah it wasn't usually at was kind of year to lessen usually ax now at this stage of your life going to ask your question I will probably come back to you in another form later and that is how are the problems chosen for you or by you that are testing your abilities I mean III I'm not a mathematician so I don't know how the particular set of problems or fields within mathematics begin to interest a mathematician it's known for miss music it's kind of lifelong journey so for once filled to another and back yeah so I really don't belong to any specific field of mathematics I so you are you are having problems presented to you and in these contexts that you are intrigued by them and you just ya know for me mathematic this kind of game of phonology analogous yeah I have to say so okay gonna grow old you kind of have more experience and is kind of most part of the same area discuss us eyes I saw something single or in completely different context Center maybe so it's again the way the Curiosity has yes is informed um in the university you've achieved entrances through the the great university from mathematics what is the program is it a question of choosing certain classes or they chosen for you how does known not from it was kind of different there are some kind of regular courses like analysis geometry differential geometry and so on but in fact a every subject and you kind of already in Adam and advanced NZ already so I almost never turn at regular classes at all really yeah yeah and but there was some kind of subjects which are not mathematical yeah little time and mostly I went to attend some special seminars was about hundred seminars every week oh yeah and so I grew up on Miguel found seminar and became student of God font of course we need to stop and talk about him because he was profoundly important in your development yeah can you characterize his reputation and interest at the time you you you met him it became this dude yeah not he's already mythical she's future girl yeah and he can supervise men and and kind of some superhuman and sense in his say physically he's very small was very small person and I think it looks like for me that his brain was smaller size and discus head was not some vague yeah but he yeah but was his extremely sharpened at Travis first time introduced even when I was in the last year in high school by somebody who forces Journal quant and then he somehow Federation he eventually some his wife water was a friend of colleague of my father yes so he I was known about course also the winner of Italian to certain link that's and yeah so he is this guide to introduce me to good fun to over 170 what's go and yeah so I didn't understood much at the time but this first time we met and yes and when I became student I was regular on his similar you seek him yes yes did he see you no no you introduced to just talk for two minutes he I was no initially Venetian now you were in the University in University yeah I was kind of in the group of a young student and he it was clear successes as a students is a professors and so on and and he said he used to say that my seminar is for mm kind of good good it was for good student excellent graduate student and fantastic professors that's exactly yes yeah so that was all games like this and he usually uses young students to check because as a follow the speaker yes this similar was some kind of piece of tip theater it's very late about seven I remember correctly and plus it almost still sometimes still midnight and yeah there's some nobody in you what will be next seminar there's no announcement no formal announcement and you'll be some secretly arranged speakers which sometimes they thought they will give some top but they were not able to start intend to okay so those so some kind of usually he stopped to get fun starts with some jokes and some kind of stories and maybe repeating what discuss the week before and usually sometimes he ask me or some others and student to explain something yes yes was it in the spirit of a challenge or kind of oh dude oh do we understand what is going to do you understand and address its can you reproduce it for a lot of these okay so I'm just guessing that you are you're turning out to be already a pretty good mathematician he sees your potential is it necessary for him then to recommend you to another stages was that the way one progressed was there a thesis to do off yeah it and in fact our relations are not so yeah yeah for me he was he's actually was very dominating person and and I changed my freedom you have to say yes and I tried to keep distance yeah I subscribe his student but we talk not we talked several times for many hours but mmm hopefully is not too much I have to say end so you were in a way protecting your own development yes yes yeah yeah and in fact when I was his student it was some kind of structure organized kind of spontaneously he's all the student to all the students one of them is Alexander goncharov his company will come here next week he's very good friend of mine he's a bit older than me and some other people are giving kind of after good fun seminar kind of explanation for younger students which you choose again two three guys I was young yeah so it was kind of some layer in between yeah yeah so in a sense it was more students or country rose an advantage yes so are you required to do a thesis to complete your university education no after University I know it's not Jesus it's not we'll go to graduate school and I and great school one can make in different forms to be full-time or kind of part-time and I took position in Institute for problems for confirmation of formation transmission and it's very good institution muscat very wide spectrum of science involved and ever since small group doing coding Syria maybe and some kind of discrete mathematics and and probability theory my brother was an originally started Tim can refer differential intelligence grow pants and switch to biology yes about physiology and also little bit of nepotism butit's the son of Gil found a Sergey Eagle font was also in the same love really yeah but it's now I'm gonna ask because we're in the 80s yeah now maybe the lay a middle yes yes I finished a nurse in 85 yeah I was 20 yeah okay so I want to put you in the world it's a crazy time in the Soviet Union in you know the beginning of crazy time beginning of crazy asses but the next few years will be an determinant in your life so how is the political situation affecting you as a young mathematician yeah it's hard to say actually the time [Music] I consider falak when I finished University I actually have a group of friends in artistic circles Center I was very much in Halston through some playing some chamber music yeah so it was my I spent really played the cello I played cello yeah yeah and yeah and when I started to rock so sort of saying this institute it I was given complete freedom those seminar on Tuesday rock but there's only one
room for many people and truly not enough of a feel everybody appear to be impossible to work so I have to attend a similar and maybe write some article yeah and and my artistic France a fountain with the cello mmm teacher and she lived just too few hundred meters from this institute er so it was very convenient for me to see her well yeah I sent I was kind of thinking movement about mathematics and other stuff and you about political developers and going yeah it's good but you've came much later I think at the time just too short general secretary and condemn drop off it should last a year or two yeah so and then when Gorbachev started it's he kind of thought its Nick this step is the last efforts in the kind of go yes yes it was didn't really look forward to I talked to some of your colleagues grew up in the Soviet Union maybe a little earlier and now for and even the options about whether they could interact with foreign colleagues or pursue their studies abroad were subject to decision-making outside their own their own world but this time can you pretty much expect to shape your own career and go where you want not really not a sawtooth to stay in this place it was very comfortable place to work and now already is some contacts with foreign mathematicians stop to boo me as I remember this vigil came and program signal or michael chiha yeah so we have a lot of visitors from outside world yes and then in 88 became kind of chief of my lab says it's or we can now send you it you can maybe go to abroad and actually had some invitation to go to France to Marseille for one months in December it wasn't bound first sir it wasn't bound first that were your invitation yeah I thought your first time that you went abroad you went to bond but but no no no but before I should go to some socialist country so something overall which still to be a bit ok and it was into some good conference and Warsaw in may/june I remember went to this conference and then in December in November December I went to France to Marseilles and also spent one week here attached yes yeah it was completely blocked because was some super strike there's no transportation it it was only military buses I think connected Bureau Paris yes it's right not so the political situation affected you even in the West so no but yeah but then I what was it I got an invitation to go to max Blanc in yes yeah that's what I guess yes it was which year maybe nineteen okay yeah in in the spring of 94 three months ah ectric should explain something yes you asked me about my this yeah and [Music] when I finished University maybe yeah after I I saw on a visited Gill pungent this on his desk some short article of you Romanian you know two pages CIA knows is a special format for internal function online it's very short kind of two three pages kind of researcher nodes but two sometimes is complete proofs and at least one can follow what was going on and was these are formal and I thought about it and listen came this idea to box and publicist idea but I was I was first to publish this idea but the idea was somehow in the air it was some beginning of conform feel sorry and maybe ten different groups he discovered the same here but I was just first to published and it was a really great mathematician and six seven years old it wasn't mrs. Alexander billions on from Chicago yeah he made many contributions already attempt but he also just discovered the same thing is this exactly the same yeah it was just in the air it was some secret come from interruption and kind of confirm field series miss matrix and physics does that mean you published at the same time you wonder publishing together no no no no he he published it's may be having here late and much longer article yeah I see I published a game two pages stuff yet two-page shot again as you educate me in the mathematical traditions once you publish the an insight or a solution yeah of this sort or at least an approach yeah your name then becomes associated with it I mean this point you know no it's not no just it's sometimes name is a social but this is kind of relational two well-known construction yeah yes it's not meet for extra name tag in this edition but there's a there's a point where you and it seems to me every great mathematician becomes no in a wider yeah I think it's some people not some people notice this article yeah and I sought to is this to be topic of my Jesus okay good unfortunately mrs. Sasha balance on decided to write he sees exactly on the same topic and yeah so yes so that was a yes it is not good to have just to six bills so what when a decade of Hebrew mated for seven years I just did you yeah yeah essentially for five years after University I may be published only this both laugh yeah yes I was thinking about some other think and but it got notice into is it I think I was invited to much fun because of sources might still the small paper the small paper ambitious some kind of you know a big big problem that's our paper yeah kept your name yes interesting yeah somebody's got to just it didn't right okay so after the hibernation which is a wonderful description yeah of this time yeah you were invited them to Max Blanca and so that's three months era so it was great time and and then intent I was kind of early event which can change my career yes mmm-hmm there's a tradition of spunk every year notes every second here was our bites have our by Starbuck in June mmm it's some kind of European gathering of mathematicians without any formal program and in the first few talks and he said it an advance but the rest by working course and proposing which is people coming and proposing what a new result and whom people propositioned him themselves somebody else did things and yes striking result and for many years the kind of person who gave the first lecture a pro kind of fixed and advance was Sir Michael idea and he gave a talk about a conjecture which he written came with and explained to him and shall he have a so stripers conjecture so doctrine and the evening can good idea how to approach it make it's not so upland isn't absolutely happen yeah yeah what again I know you sweetie to a layman but yeah what seems so surprising about it ah yeah no it was about six called algebraic curves they have invariant genus number because I complex numbers are surfaces number handles and Fugees a dependence genus G depends on three G minus C parameter get some space and then I can't make a lot of intervals natural neutral through space a good general organizing some coefficients or some serious infinity many variables great and then it's out of the solution of cultivate difference equation which is shallow base equation finding from the Earth's it should be yes it so it wasn't necessarily preposterous but there's a purpose to it was purposed yeah but you thought it must be tested you had to think more about this yes yes sent yeah and is this some traditional some ball trip in some cell in the middle of the cell bites dog won't get reception by a last weaken in Germany and during the board trip I to explain to eight years this idea was this thing and go to the presence and I go to notational for spent one here and so on and in order to pursue this just in general say impressed yeah and yeah and in intimate time I solve the conjecture completely in the meantime ends years old yeah yeah okay so now maybe again people are noticing you yeah a little
bit yeah yeah no some support post that I didn't published anything so some secrets to published when I visit France in 88 they published some situation I discovered here before and it was a great Puritan Moscow this interruption of mathematics and physics and special conformal field theory the subject which was in some aspect some kind of one of this form was born central my own eyes yeah versus the Levin Pelican biological Sarah rate Moscow physicists who discovered the subject which is and can consume is liq origin offspring Serie A and with the discover to speak with mathematicians from Calvin seminar who began folks he did calculated two characters of Sandra's for algebra and and then there are less relation to a statistical physics and so it was very exciting period and also my first people was related to this stuff and also the balance on talk about this thinking and I saw some structures and in the lapin instead from compression transmissions the chief of the lab was great probabilistic Roland de Bruijn his life is no longer life here but he invented some notion of Gibbs field which kind of I understand understood that the importance of snuffled and tried and I tried to seize how to make relation secrets topology so this six which in fact year so she's named Fatima transistor polka field theory but I came came to the same idea secondary and it was a definition of confirm field theory and Graham seagull came to Moscow we discuss perhaps just the same definition yes what was something how old are you miss avoid maybe 10 to 20 to 23 yeah what do you do yeah and and then as it was some discovery of Russia in in the layman garage now synthetase book she taking to rifle variants which also Johnson elements are all related John Johnson variants also was also great discovered this time in the polar can algebra topology and the so kind of relation vistas confirm Phil's hurry and discovered something mmm but which was maybe a year before Wheaton discovered this case may kill discoverable relation of John's polynomials the in Moscow for almost discovered it from various stuff besides and I found some formal structure but the relation is past integrals were kind of known to Polikoff I think and I remember sauce was another miss magician who became physicist and the trust he gave a talk in Gelfand seminar very short talk he says it I know how to construct in Venice three dimensional manifold to take compactly group we take integer number take integral some chance and reception should be invariant of meaningful but is it but I have no idea how to calculate it which should be invariant and to some break and because it's too long seminar or children's or somebody to know maybe half an hour break and during the break actors can I also know how to construct in various regions meaningful to stop with some rational chorus II really do something and we just talked and materializes it's just two sides of the same yeah story into it and discovered it's wonderful in yeah so there's a general topic that you alluded to I want to spend a bit time on and that is the relationship between mathematics and theoretical physics in terms of the kinds of conversations that historically did or did not happen because I knew you are very central to those discussions now actually no I think less yeah yeah yeah most noticable yeah kind of I'm losing track now what's going on in physics I have to say that but maybe at the age we are locating yeah buddy 223 or you're interested yes yes yeah you know a lot of kind of funny things going together like pizza is it uncharacteristic for theoretical physicists and mathematicians to exchange it's actually different places it's different yeah like human bruty similar period of jean-pierre sir I think no talking about physics was allowed yeah yes yes some people went to adventurous mathematical physics but here in France was a very strong kind of Ron Barber key community which didn't so in a short interview I've got to get you a professorship somewhere and I've got to get you a Fields Medal yeah so how do we get there yeah yeah so I was in Max Planck and it's event for one year but when I left kind of deputy director of means to set it I understand where you're living forever yesterday yeah yeah yeah yeah because they promote my stay for maybe three year spent all together four years there and with some possibly two prints to twin suit for one study and other places but then awesome was married at the time and and then in 94 I it was kind of time to settle yeah I ant I had my PhD eventually yeah in Germany for the solution of Britain conjecture but then it was time to settle and ahead time to offers from Princeton and Berkeley and it was Berkeley because my brother that I moved to Francisca is a little bit closer to family innocence and they spent maybe nine months in Berkeley which is probably the shortest in history because yeah it doesn't seem to yearn to go to Berkeley you only spent nine months I Iowa stop it in September and left and spring yes because it's a good offer to HS to go to HSN tied to could kind of don't think you can have to say how important and this is just a human question yeah for anyone is the location where you are winding up is it mostly a decision based on the intellectual opportunities or is it oh I have to live such a place how do you make these yeah no no it's just I've been there in 88 yes yes so the place but also the place is simply fantastic she's history and to the reputation mathematics because of Groton tickets and other people yeah I think I replaced Dennis Sullivan I suppose here I say yeah and so it's so mostly a professional decision it's professional decision yeah but also Fri was kind of unhappy in Berkeley I have to say you know I don't know why this during this nine months it didn't really wrote any yeah yes yeah after I think this was some kind of not really a wasted time I give graded course from deformation surgery which was sort of many things afterwards but what were you offered to come here what was the aside from the unhappiness that you may have have there what were the conditions as in it as a bad petition that no it was this place it's kind of like in said haven't studied offers complete freedom and yeah yeah and I don't burden this in courses of course I can give courses if I don't like you but - but you don't have to I don't have to yeah yeah and that was important yeah yeah so for me it says here it's kind of I feel kind of like a do whatever was boring for me I kind of do mathematics no right Oh again as I learn more and more about math mathematical life for some it's critical to have students around that's how they progress in their own thinking for others I'm sure yeah the more time they have just speculated yes they have a lot of time enough time to speak speculate because some many many visitors who can maybe work with me and so through some times I'm dreaming too and give up and maybe follow like gratin Ducati we went to Institute only once a week so I'm a bit supposed to be my vice idea just so I earlier said that I wanted to get you awarded a Fields Medal what was the insight that was
principally responsible for your being awarded and fit just snow coupon I think it was I said something like forty front okay please let's say what was it yeah I think one is this solution of it on conjecture but father stuff yeah I know
something about not invariance which is butan early nineties and then there was work and where as most another stuff which have done essentially maybe a year before I go to Fields Medal it yes it was deformation quantization some kind of series of mock some of more complicated formulas which you can't rule the right front row can only draw sounds by graphs and and I in the stuff lower side mirror symmetry which is in in 94 I give I was invited as a plenary speaker international Congress in interior and and a proposed program is a logical mirror symmetry which was at the moment was kind of based almost no evidence just another beauty a matter it was a bit kind of reckless decision process I proposed a way to explain mysteries which come from some physicists business predictions through some kind of beauty beautiful mathematical relations and yeah that's a subject which kind of really it's I think it's it's as a main think we should molasses no symmetry it's it's kind of a relation between algebra and new relation to an algebraic geometry and then it started a very few essentially nobody was able to follow it yeah because it's just needed to be fluent in completely different areas in symplectic topology and in Amsterdam a logical algebra and many people just nobody and but then you generation yeah and ends all the generations in never gets off I have to say is its yeah so it's kind of we have to wait till new generation really dedicated freely ending but it's not only youth it's of course intelligence it goes without saying but it's not only youth it seems to be a habit of risk-taking in terms of the challenge it because I suppose a lot is at stake if you go down a blind alley yeah unless you can tell me that mathematics is tolerant of massive failure I don't know yeah yeah yeah no but in my case it it was pretty reckless I have to say well yeah yeah yeah because ooh yeah just just it was driven by the beauty of potential explanation of and it's an internal drive oh yeah it's not even inevitably a good career move yeah but it's what you need to discover or order to solve or to probe so at the age of 54 have you do continue to have this habit of searching for the preposterous yeah so yeah yeah hope so yeah yes yeah there's a product which continued already for maybe four four years yes it's also kind of has base in string suits it's all relate to be logical no symmetry but it's kind of next kind of quantum leap it's ready to go to heart analysis not referent we don't want to expect it to do so so this is what it reads you this yes yeah the the theoretically unsolvable yeah it's I mean yeah it's a relation switch yeah between some kind of algebraic axiomatic sent on a strict rules which I don't know much I have to say I've had the pleasure of interviewing in this series both computer scientists some of them quite theoretical computer scientists and mathematicians and the computer scientists seem just by impression to be building on each other as though on each other's shoulders getting to a future task solution so forth where's mathematicians seem to me and this is really sad Mort for reaction as to whether I'm right seem to operate almost out of time in space so they're having a conversation not necessarily with any expectation of particular results they may be having a conversation with people 300 years ago as well as is this a fair characterization yeah no mathematics yeah and since and intrinsically we also speak with Gao so earlier yes yes yes yes yeah yes some kind of constants doctress in a sense yeah which yeah also different doctor a lot what Gauss will say it should switch thank ya yeah for example people said you'd know what a common report of course people hundred whatever to two hundred years ago is a is a kind of do not know the name don't know the structure but they feel they have all all right feeling says it's yes somebody hundreds of years ago has something to say to you yeah yeah in your field yeah but this no but what I do it's really modern I really read very few literature right now because it's what I do has in the moment almost no relation to the past I have to say but this is particularly true of how you are asking questions or is this broadly true I mean I could have done it's it depends here sometimes our commissions which should be him asked to mosun frontier school but don't ask you out the answer if you're not you're not intrigued by those questions you're you're not really yeah some mmm yeah there was a six like Hilbert probe promise he has this kind of form it's kind of like most a equations or Riemann hypothesis est yeah people dream about Riemann hypothesis yes of course it's a great questions great mystery but for me it looks it's one of many to say it's not me again I may be not putting it correctly but you're more interested in asking original questions that in addressing the the classic ones yeah I've been people who broke their teeth yeah that's yeah yeah yeah it was a sportive aspect of mathematics to solve all the questions but I'm not driven by my d'italia that's a good way to end now thank you very much
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