4th HLF – Hot Topic: Artificial Intelligence – Presentation Noel Sharkey

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Video in TIB AV-Portal: 4th HLF – Hot Topic: Artificial Intelligence – Presentation Noel Sharkey

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4th HLF – Hot Topic: Artificial Intelligence – Presentation Noel Sharkey
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2017
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English

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Abstract
Analyzing the challenges posed by Artificial Intelligence at the 4th Heidelberg Laureate Forum – Experts discuss the costs and benefits created by developments brought on by Artificial Intelligence. In recent years, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has established itself at the forefront of technological innovation. That is precisely why AI was the focus of the Hot Topic at the 4th Heidelberg Laureate Forum (HLF). The session was comprised of a panel discussion with leading researchers debating the current scientific trends in AI and its applications. Today, AI is no longer a brash, cryptic concept taken directly from the pages of science fiction. The developments owed to the technology based on AI have altered what we thought possible and has done so in a much quicker fashion than was predicted. The power behind these advancements is already very evident with self-driving cars or algorithms that profile our Internet activity in order to tailor ads and search results. Though fascinating, this progress comes with a price of control and privacy loss that incites ethical questions. The Hot Topic session took place on September 20, 2016. Speaker: Noel Sharkey, an Emeritus Professor of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics at the University of Sheffield, chairs the International Committee for Robot Arms Control and is a co-founder of the Foundation for Responsible Robotics. The opinions expressed in this video do not necessarily reflect the views of the Heidelberg Laureate Forum Foundation or any other person or associated institution involved in the making and distribution of the video. Background: The Heidelberg Laureate Forum Foundation (HLFF) annually organizes the Heidelberg Laureate Forum (HLF), which is a networking event for mathematicians and computer scientists from all over the world. The 4th Heidelberg Laureate Forum took place from September 18 to 23, 2016. The HLFF was established and is funded by the German foundation the Klaus Tschira Stiftung (KTS), which promotes natural sciences, mathematics and computer science. The Scientific Partners of the HLFF are the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) and Heidelberg University. The HLF is strongly supported by the award-granting institutions, the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM: ACM A.M. Turing Award, ACM Prize in Computing as of 2017), the International Mathematical Union (IMU: Fields Medal, Nevanlinna Prize), and the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters (DNVA: Abel Prize).
Internet forum Virtual machine Artificial intelligence Musical ensemble Drum memory Field (computer science)
Dependent and independent variables Multiplication sign Internet forum Bit rate Faculty (division)
Dependent and independent variables Internet forum Maxima and minima Client (computing) Number Vacuum
Robot Number Dependent and independent variables Divisor Robotics Internet forum Robotics Group action
Internet forum Staff (military) Student's t-test Airfoil
Group action Robotics Internet forum Computer science Number
Service (economics) Robotics Internet forum
Point (geometry) Robot Execution unit Number Robotics Internet forum Robotics Conservation law
Predictability Estimator Service (economics) Robotics Internet forum
Service (economics) Robotics Internet forum Robotics Instance (computer science)
Process (computing) Robotics Chemical equation Internet forum Bit rate Student's t-test
Type theory Server (computing) Internet forum Convex hull
Dependent and independent variables Process (computing) Internet forum Robotics Bit Bit rate Message passing
Robotics Internet forum Energy level Special unitary group
Robotics Internet forum Hill differential equation Bit rate
Robotics Internet forum Water vapor Disk read-and-write head
Robotics Internet forum Water vapor Species
Nim-Spiel Telecommunication Robotics Bit rate
Area Internet forum MIDI Bit rate Information privacy
Robotics Internet forum Quicksort Information privacy
Robot Surgery Robotics Internet forum Robotics Surgery
Crash (computing) Arithmetic mean Internet forum Video game Software testing Annulus (mathematics)
Execution unit Mathematics Average Internet forum Bit rate
Mathematics Statistics Internet forum
Mathematics Robotics Internet forum Autonomic computing Video game Bit rate Open set Informationsgesellschaft
Robotics Internet forum Autonomic computing Quicksort Arithmetic progression
Internet forum
Game controller Decision theory Internet forum Physical law Virtual machine Maxima and minima Bit rate Parameter (computer programming) Number
Revision control Internet forum Moment (mathematics) Information security
Point (geometry) Algorithm View (database) Internet forum Computer science Maxima and minima
Algorithm Real number Internet forum Information security
Web 2.0 Internetworking Multiplication sign Internet forum
Internet forum Robotics Maxima and minima Bit rate Quicksort
Internet forum Cartesian coordinate system
Game controller Goodness of fit Internet forum Virtual machine Maxima and minima Bit rate Internet der Dinge
Dependent and independent variables Robotics Internet forum 1 (number) Self-organization Bit rate Mereology
Regulator gene Multiplication sign Internet forum Physical law
Game controller Multiplication sign Internet forum Convex hull Right angle Quicksort Airfoil
Dependent and independent variables Internet forum Family
Internet forum Musical ensemble
[Music] I worked in in AI machine learning those fields for probably more well more than
three decades and once my hair turned completely white I decided it's time that I took some responsibility and you know the thing is that we all learn if
you're an engineering faculty you'll all learn engineering ethics and that's all
about ethical principles regarding your client so if your client tells you to make a very big gun you have to make sure it kills a maximum number of people but I think certainly the Royal Academy of Engineering and the UK have tried and
are not been very successful in trying to get across the idea of social responsibility of scientists and in the
UK we have a social impact factor in I abut it but we really got to move along we've got to take responsibility for the technology we create this foundation for
responsible robotics that you can see there was created less than a year ago I'm a co-director and we got 20-plus of the top technology scholars in the world
who are concerned about these issues we got together and we're growing really fast and anybody can become a member whether you're a graduate student
undergraduate or a member of staff have cost you more depending on what you are but have a look at our website and and
we've got lots of different working groups within robotics social scientists lawyers philosophers and roboticists of course computer scientists so what I want to talk about is the worldwide
numbers in robotics in particular I mean I'm concerned about all technology but are there really increasing dramatically
and we've got this idea of industrial
robots versus service robots now industrial robots as you know have been on the planet since you know mIET back in the 1950s and you know there's a million and a half of those operational on the planet the minute but service
robots have only been around since really been around since the turn of the millennium and we've already get million
of those I mean in 2014 alone we had for
4.7 million were sold for personal and domestic use for elder care assistive elder care went up by over 400% at that point and a sort of conservative
prediction by the world federation of robotics is 38 million by 2018 that's a
fairly conservative estimate so service robots unlike the distinction between service robots and industrial robots says service robots are not industrial robots that said there everything else for
instance these are service robots that's a burger maker in a new restaurant in
San Francisco can make 400 burgers an hour there's some that can shop fast meat and serve them up quicker than if somebody can flip a mcdonalds burger there's sushi restaurants in Japan
though that are completely automated this is getting very big and the the former CEO of McDonald's said last week that if workers would should stop insisting on pay raises or they will be replaced by robots and it's just
distinct possibility look at the swigs of jobs that are going to be lost for people who will either students are the
less educated of among us and that's a that's a automatic server you've got in in Singapore so you just type in your
drink into an iPad and this autonomous device here looks like a tray with propellers brings it to you they avoid each other it's quite straight interesting to see on cruise ships all
over the place now they're a cocktail makers so you can even put in your own recipe and it will shake it up do it for you and so there's a there's a certain responsibility we have towards this idea of jobs but I'm not going to go on a bit that because there's too many other issues here's Amazon drone deliveries we're
planning these in the UK it's suddenly upon us the government suddenly announced that it's working with Amazon to have drone deliveries a hundred foot wide highway through London 400 feet up
just beneath hell copter level and will we ever see the Sun again because they won't stay in the highway they have to go all over the place other companies to other companies
for ninth ground delivery of robot starship robotics is going to start delivering further than they tell me
that their main thing will be late-night alcohol deliveries to young people you're partying all night so there's these robots on the grind Domino pizza started in New Zealand with flying Pizza drones so Pizza hair's gonna become a
thing of the future we've also got them delivering in Enschede in netherlands
with ground robots so where are all these going to go you're going to be tripping over robots and I'm going to be coming down hitting in the head I mean it there's no real joined up thinking about this people are talking about having their own personal drones carrying their water for them on the night for a run but nobody's thinking
about how many hundreds of thousands of these things can we have in our airspace
how many grinds what's coming up for deliveries I mean I'm passionate about
robotics I love it and there's so much good work going on looking at examining freshness of water in Africa protecting endangered species etc but we've really got to do some thinking here big thinking overall thinking okay so what I
work on really is ethical issues this is some of the ethical issues you can see here and there are trade-offs with these
ethical issues they're not all uniform so you might trade off an old person's
autonomy for the better for their welfare you might I would trade my privacy for 24-hour surveillance when I have a heart attack called intensive care so there are trade-offs and all the ethics but the one thing about it is these areas here's some of the areas elder care child care unknown Oh for me elder care brilliant for assistive carry
but things that can wash you feed you get you sitting upright in the morning could keep you in your home for a lot longer exoskeletons then there's all
this stuff about companion robots for the elderly which are not so so really
good so you got to worry about their privacy and vet
autonomy those sorts of a their dignity above all robots coming into medicine
surgery sex robots are getting very prevalent in the press and I've made a mistake of saying one sentence and I've gotten nine nine national papers about
it all I said was it might harm people who was their first sexual experience and the newspaper headlines were professor warns that teens are British teens are going to lose their virginity to robots so I'm not going to say
anything today and kisses anybody else here then we get self-driving
technologies and you know you've had the big Tesla crash in the United States but
it turns out there was one in January in China as well and I believe that test self-driving technology probably could save lives on the roads probably if we get it right if we have joined up roads with cameras and everything else but I wish companies would stop this mean of they will save lives we don't know that yet there's no evidence for it and now everybody who talks about autonomous cars immediately says they will see of life Elon Musk said that there was he
had driven hit the Tesla had driven 130 million miles before its fatality the average in the United States of
fatalities is one every ninety four million miles so he said do the maths have everybody been using a Tesla we'd have chefs at half a million lives well
I did the math and it turns out that those fatality statistics include
pedestrians cyclists people in caravans any road fatality whatsoever I mean you look at the real detailed statistics it's one car occupant is killed every 264 million miles so if he was to do the math on his reasoning a million more people would be dead if everybody was driving Tesla's and I don't think the
math is right in the first place so the
next thing is one of the things I work on a lot is autonomous robots from
policing an autonomous robot weapons I
discovered in 2007 when some journalist asked me questions and I was horrified when I read about them I read all the us plans because they're an open information society and I've spent the last three years of my life pretty constantly going to the UN advocating against their use and we're making really good headway we have this
thing which I'm on the leadership of called the campaign to stop killer robots which has a lot of major NGOs
like Human Rights Watch Amnesty International a lot of Nobel laureates a lot of religious leaders etc including the Pope behind it and so where we've been working very hard at the UN and it's very slow progress United States is developing autonomous submarines ships and all sorts of ships tanks and fighter
jets I'm going to show you one of the Jets Russia is particularly big on tanks
because Russia have always been big on tanks and they have their Motty tank which the US military advisors assure me is 20 years ahead of anybody else's in the world and they're making that fully
autonomous and I for one don't like the idea of these massive super tanks fully autonomous on the borders of Europe so
there are many arguments against these that we've put forward one is that I can see no way that we can guarantee compliance with the laws of war and I can argue that with anybody here who wants to really discuss it for a number of reasons we also have the problem of some people argue that a machine should never be allied or delegated with the decision to kill a big human it should always be under human control and I agree with that really yeah even even
life support systems whatever and the other one is if we look at International
Security this is not going to help this could create international conflicts the big thing for me is everybody's talking about swarms of these I mean you should hear the military talking about these it's really very scary they're talking about swarms of them so United States can't win in the Pacific at the moment so talking with swarms of these fighter jets I'm going to you going into going into China against China and all of the think tanks who talk about this talk about it from the
point of view that Chinese military technology will stay identical to it is today which is stupid because they're
developing them like crazy as well now any computer scientist in this room what happens when you pit an unknown algorithm against another own unknown algorithm can anybody answer that question of course you can because we
have no idea what will happen now nobody's going to reveal their combat algorithm unless they're absolutely stupid because then you can just defeat
it so you take swarms of one person's technology with unknown combat algorithms another persons swarm I don't know what's going to happen it's a real worry for international security generally I mean I'm I'm cutting this very very short but all of the things that talked about I've written papers on they're easy to find and access okay what I'm saying here is I suppose that
we seem to be sleepwalking into this in
the same way as we slept walk into the the internet with no idea we just let it happen the internet was fine for us academics for a very long time but then suddenly get the World Wide Web and none of us were expecting internet shopping or internet porn or any of those thing well I certainly wasn't doing about the rest
of you the old guys there they might have been expecting all sorts of things
so so what can we do about this well one of the things it's bothersome is with all of this technology coming and as I
say people consider one application like I'm worried about the the military and I haven't even talked about the policing policing is getting very extensive in its use in the global South using pepper spray from helicopters tasering those things and the United States North Dakota passed a bill in November allowing the police there to arm their drones with less than lethal weapons so they could fire rubber bullets pepper spray Tasers those kinds of things so
when you got all this technology put together we must really think as a
society we must really think broadly about what control do we want to cede to machines what do we want our machines to be able to do you're going to go into your house you would have machines the Internet of Things all competing with each other and conflicting and goodness knows what it's like a Woody Allen movie I don't know if you've know this story if all the all his different devices ganging up on him so we don't we don't know really what
we're moving into here and how do we
stop this well joined up thinking about the big picture would really help getting our governments to look at this the foundation for Responsible robotics has partnered with unity which is an official UN organization who are interested in AI and robotics their crime organization they they're not criminals they're you know against crime they're not like a mafia so they can get
us access to other parts of the UN that I don't usually go to I always go to the
CCW or the Human Rights Council so we're looking at many many things and the idea would be that we set up how do you how do you set up regulation people talk with soft law soft regulations all those things but how do you protect it into the future because technology is changing all the time the only way I can think of doing it and
this is what we're putting to the Human Rights Council is a new bill of human
technological rights that says what technology can do to us what controls should be ceded technology so it focuses sort strictly on the human not on the tech because works I suppose we are evolving but I'm not worried about a million years time I'm just dealing with the present so this would
protect us in some way push that it's going to be another 10 or 15 years before we can get anything like this together but we have to start now
and particularly a lot of you younger people I mean we're really relying on you it's your children and your grandchildren who are going to suffer
from all of this so you really need to get your acts
together think about responsibility think about what you're creating and do something about it okay let me stop there
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