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Solid Snakes

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right by everyone answer so 1st of all I'm not a fan of metadata solid and just a fan of control references yeah are the same time neck and I'm here to talk about last year about my last year because after i've wrapped up like a new west which was in Portland as that of thinking of
the northwest of the US it took advantage of
being that far away from home and took the classic approach to the people just do usually in white flower cover your list 1 from San Francisco down to LA up to us the gas Ramon perspectives and Francisco and a small detour to how we now this little + likened to be mortified weeks which means that I've been mortified weeks and from work and with every photo I've posted people kept asking me how we do it and whether I still have a job and now it turns out I see you have a job last time I checked and and edge job I'm responsible for almost 70 projects and it's still recalled that well then going you can take several weeks this year I'm gonna ask that the month in the Cape Town South Africa so let's see if there's gonna be another talk about but it also turns out the answer is a longer than 140 characters so that's
how here at the airport of color white with 7 dollar plastic cup of you this talk was conceived and I'm here to tell you my story or more like the bits of it that fit into 45 minutes and that I think are vital for my sleep the and don't touch on a lot of topics can range from devil see things like people are usually used for me but I will talk about our general software engineering so there should be something in there for everyone and from each topic by itself is of by itself so as usual the will be of all link at the end of of a page with all the links for you to study if you wanna know more about certain subtopic now with that said let's get going and like every
big change our it all starts with your attitudes you have to start our current price and quality which unfortunately means that you will spend significant time on non features and it brings of directed to incentives because not everything's for priority if you ask a manager quality is a priority it'll probably tell you that this is because of the priority ever however Howard incentives if you don't have time to write tests to instrument you systems it's kind of like a construction company that claims that safety is number 1 priority but course the workers wider safety year out of their own pocket and it's true that reliable systems do take time and if you're only performance metric is to ship new features you may have a conflict of interest here however the news is that there is a solid business case to be made for reliable for spending time on quality and reliability and about that is that if
you were the urgent interruptions you have because something is going up and fire the more you get further unimportant stuff or here for the other way around if you build a lot of unreliable systems on unreliable programs that whatever there is an inflection point where you just our stopping productive because you a new requires a busy fighting fires all they do not get to ship a new feature at all and he's a little start that have a very fast trajectory and then like to use nothing happens what this is what happens and is is also a whole Iot and let us some projects goes I'm forced because a very small company I can just got a lot of people to its McGrath so I'm forced to build quality stuff and just accumulates this of course takes some long-term thinking which is something that's too common in our line of work and unfortunately that is the part I cannot help you with on the yes but all yet but a more practical so the
1st thing and got different authority and no 1 less than 20 whore gave us quick search was quite accomplished all things concurrent systems and what he says is the price of reliability is the proceeds of the utmost simplicity and if you prefer of Dutch stage which had a Python Conference is completely reasonable them dice crossing basically the same so you need simplicity arrives there will be more reliability and at this point is important to stress that you must not simple and easy because easy solutions usually are not simple and easy solutions usually ahead and simple solutions Eq solutions that will serve you well in a long term I usually not easy to find and I find a good way to approach simplicity is from the other side so that sort of complexity for a moment so the complexity
in software is something I would say is the num number of concepts you have to keep in your mind when you're trying to reason about the behavior of a system of a program the for all 4 piece of something and especially if you thinks if you keep in mind the Trade to reason what happens if you change a little corner of a system and humans are naturally limited in a number of things we can adjust both literally and but figuratively in your mind and if you have to watch think's going on too many balls in the air is stopped dropping things and it's when normal accidents have this
term has been point by Charles sparrow in the wake of the Three Mile Island our incident which was our nuclear power plants in the United States and it's called normal because they are in any w in extremely complex and tightly coupled systems now
if your program is a contraption like this the it's impossible to reasonable changes what will happen if you play with this knowledge it's impossible to tell and what the breaks if department the nominal breaks it's I would say it's impossible to say but actually it's very easy to tell the whole thing is going down in flames that's the problem of having tightly coupled complex systems now the irony is that if you try to make this thing say for here anymore complexity what is mean the system is more likely to fail so you cannot fix the system or a program it's like this again we rewrite it from scratch are we talking
about complexity we have to differentiate between 2 types the 1st 1 is the essential complexity which is the good complexity that the complexity of your customer or your boss paying for you to soul it's inherent to the problem you solving other 1 was accidental complexity this 1 comes from using the wrong abstraction having cumbersome deployment procedures that stuff you are output from deploying or just using pension and inadequate tools like Python to the yeah I cannot drop this mike so and so of obviously it all in a perfect world you can group only on are on my essential problems but still we show is keep in mind what problem I solving here is as essential as accident how is the ratio between 2 now what a simple software and of course is appalled by
itself if not a conference by itself but given here in Italy I really like the review metaphor not given that normal accidents happen in tightly coupled and coupled system that tightly coupled and complex systems it follows that you should prefer to have simple objects that are self-contained and have some relationships just like our view does if you look at it they're small they're still contained nothing seeking out unless you over computer and I heard in Italy but there's jail time for cooking pasta yes yes yes but that's not adequate thing to do that in other words your objects you functions should do as little as possible but more importantly dish it should know as little as possible what other objects and functions the and this gives them a here interface which you can program against and the few assumptions help you to have simple relationships because as many object-oriented mentors say for dependencies will kill you and by dependencies and look mean things to install from PI PI Donald stuff is doing great work it so as much as you want all about dependencies between objects and especially I really like to or not have bi-directional relationships which uphold almost always band and I like to think of an object graph like and family tree if you had loops in your family tree it's a bad sign right so think about your object graph similarly not all of this if you follow that the system components at a really easy to test specific here interfaces that you have to either fake out or a more or whatever you're doing and if you dependencies this is good not bad
designs staying on the past theme but still posted the bank big classes are also known as got objects and I got object is an object that knows too much and it dust and those are obviously very hard to test because just instantiation object you need at those not other objects and you get yourself to fight excellent complexity really really fast on the same thing you know is that got objects a pretty common in the Python ecosystem and the reason for that is that writing classes in Python this a bit annoying but I will touch not later another mostly
self-inflicted of complexity is Bayes e your designed around around subclass or scoring what's it are you will regret it and M. adhered to by hate on subclassing perceive although it's a thing of all noted by pressing the try to avoid it but subclassing is subject to a lot of misuse so if you think back what subclassing has been invented by its inventors for is specialization not code re-use if you'd using of subclassing for code reuse Europe can offer our making the inventors of subclassing size so don't do it there's a bunch of rules on like Liskov substitution principle to open closed principle all these things and everyone follow those rules there wouldn't be any regrets of something i want you and it takes actually a lot of experience are in design and modeling to do subclassing really well now our thing is subclassing makes use of software always more complex understand easier to write Celeste Python no question there but it is hard to understand because you end up with namespace confusion so where's this attribute coming from can I name might if you would like this or is there some attribute up there in inheritance tree that has the same name and everything will break you have to understand the a mark your logic is not only distributed in 1 level like 1 method no you have to traverse hierarchies to understand where your costs are going through so this is all not great but it is about making trade-offs so I'm not saying you must never subclass but you should be aware that of that you're doing a trade-off you between easiness and complexity and about more important this is not the you should start so a some subclassing may emerge as part of the design of practical reasons but it should be the thing you build everything on and lots of fun stuff projects for inventing hierarchies and as a reminder many new and modern languages that came up in the past years ago or I'm doing just fine without having any suppressing at all and I'm gonna say that's the only has subclassing because of all needed to ensure compatibility with Objective C so relatedly our metaclasses very powerful often over use debit of Python's someone that's because people tend to reconvert under different and interesting and then divide the low post explaining everyone how great and simple at this but it isn't your again paying with complexity for mostly syntactic sugar so lead them to David easily he would do something nice depraved in his usual there and our everything 1 has to be so just to be clear and talking about abstract base classes here which are made of class and subclass and that's just the way they are used so that's something different although I personally prefer approach of user interface which using that use plastic for but as ABC's this not now I mentioned writing classes this 2 years and 5 so I decided to do something
about that and wrote edges how many of you have heard of edges Our OK but this it is getting better by the year so those Rousseau non-state float a probably restless in your seats dying to tell me about named couples right so it turns out that you know about doubles and maybe I know too much more than intervals it is also such a thing people discovered them and start treating out it's the best thing since sliced bread so 1st of all that's a lot because cops are really bad for you Our but other than that make also couples had a history this is what I've been told by some and Python sages how their raw meat if for the standard library their return a propyl so they can attach a name to the top so it's more readable makes sense right named to topple couple with men so and then right for but at terrible as a class replacement because then you end up with the toppled type in New York inheritance tree which means you have very all the rules for equality you have accidentally iteration you can accidentally unpack your class which gives you their revered arose and power yeah box which further make any sense or do you want to attach a method to an in couple what you have to subclass if you want to influence the initialization have fun implementing done during you the so now but people do it because it's convenient and are this edges because name doubles if you ever wondered when to use them it's very simple you have a couple and you want to attach names to its you username couple art that rather class or usages which will right a quest for you and has many more goodies like validators converters default values including factories so for a few poor while wouldn't know about it check it out and you may be asking in a this is a serious project you should put into production and I'm so glad you asked yes it is I have stickers get them not going
on operational complexity which is the complexity of running you infrastructure parts of infrastructure and I think it's not controversial to say the distributed systems are hot right now as look at a very very simple 1 which many wouldn't even consider a
distributed system we have a client that speaks to a content delivery network which is not part of the infrastructure we have an application that has ever Q so for example a database and a cash so far so standard on many run something like that aim at something like that now the problem here is that every box you have there is a point of view any books goes down the whole thing is down but wait there's more every error between those boxes based upon a filler to so in this case you come up with 10 independent points of the letters which if you know something about probabilities to almost all et al and the reason is simply it's network partitions are things thing you may live in denial because it never happened to you but that he to eventually so it's better to accept your fate and learn from others they are kind of rare if you don't run at like other huge scale but especially to run at scale rare appearances kind of not on saying is think twice before you add more boxes and more links between those because each of them introduces new and exciting ways some fail and then in mind but so-called micro-services
micro-services visible speeding it up and applications in many small web services that many great reasons to do that but you end up with many more red boxes and many more red arrows between them so your big model that has a certain annoying of properties you all know about ends up being a
highly distributed system which you may or may not be equipped to deal with well because now now we have new decisions to make for example I wanna go for this tangled mass which is so tangled that I was too lazy to make this like myself and took it from our and you Gordon or user messages us what message us and all the problems that come with that like service discovery you cannot really run this with all service discovery which services covering the aggregate logging you can just look at the files anymore tracing you shouldn't you think about micro-services will having a distributed of tracing on insights which finally heard would be a top later today of what it so should check it out uh and of course all of of distributed systems that you like to forget that come back and bite or about later now what you really want what you
really need a boundaries you want to define it here it low between your arm of boundaries between modules you packages that's which we want you do not need a network between your classes OK and then you can have also separate teams working on separate parts if you have an interface of once you have that it's very easy to our graduates into into micro-services because the boundaries are already dead now you just put them at will between them and there is a place for micro-services into to scale out because as you know we have a thing called a guild and Python which is kind of annoying or if you live in a heterogeneous environment like I do I need to interface PHP and Perl so web services in this
not in that way I need to stress the complexity is not the devil by itself but it's of price you pay to get things done so you should more considered like a currency but you have to be conscious of your budget because a budget depends entirely on you on the time you can invest in running something that wonder other human resources you can throw at this problem the price can be quite high so should take for example combinations which is an amazing products but it's the complex to run and it's easy to set up the best set it up like 5 times when no 1 it's really really easy but do you really know how to keep it running properly with all its it CDs flannels from those talker each of these parts of the convex by themselves so if you can afford it using your are complexity budget great it get it run its but some people on it but if you can't if you put take
in production you don't master because it looks cool down there has strong opinions on predictions of what you immediate future not speaking of stupidity
the this is obviously an hyperbole because things only seems stupid in hindsight not that people tend to act stupid I I tend to add to put just therefore but my wallet I but you at to for good reasons to for example you see the price because you just sort of came already planted and our dead like or the baby cried all nite you're in the B. C. F. could work on on your way to a conference and to tree to deploy a hot fixed or your hustling really hard for to satisfy some well-meaning meaning venture capitalists that has the best intentions for you and your future the no I've opinions on
that my opinions are the same as the 1 of John Paul's policy give at I don't believe in human error I believe that the human causes an altered out it's a system that failed them if you remember the big S 3 of each of the it this year aren't there was a great post mortem written by AWS and you should really read it expect like any postmortem is worth reading but this 1 is also very good and it turns out that of a human user tool the wrong way and it took down half of dangerous not a postmortem doesn't focus on that it focuses on the tools and how to prevent this from happening again the because people make mistakes and it's your job to prevent them from reading the need to protect now our
when building tools and API so you should always assume that the operator is dropped from the dentist consoling a crying baby or is just sitting in a boring conference for there are many reasons to be distracted from a thing you do and still need to do it to take in account it's kind of like products for people with physical disabilities it always turns out those products and better for everyone and it's true this is just as well and if it takes of 1 click of 1 API call to lose all your data someone will make the clique and will make it maybe I'd call to Our it it would just cleaning the fallen just hit by accident but they will do it there was ordered data was the story of a junior developer of who new kind of accident to drop the database of some stars and he was fired and the CTO was threatening him with legal action and everything it turned out that setting up of development of and development environment the uh consisted of running so a bunch of our comments that the copy and paste from also document and you have to replace passwords and usernames and if you have sharp edges like this it's your for people cut themselves cut your company so in this case that they should a fire to seek your right away but yeah you know what it's anyhow part of that
is how you handle inputs and it doesn't matter if it's a member of the input is maliciously if our program or by mistake you still have to be careful about what you let in and I fundamentally disagree with pulses law here I think you should be conservative in both what you stand and what you receive and despite a white was neither malicious no mistake a mistake it was literally the only think I like a Boston Francisco
now in data I I like to think of it of a time bomb and I'm talking about things like and invalidate string for example out if you have something like that you the new system it's stuff wandering the real system and the deeper it gets the more damage it move it cost and the sooner you catch use that there can be a response to just 1 example you let the user how but give you on a date strength if you catch it ideally in the browser can you can tell the user OK this is wrong that that like this if it reaches your or you'll probably shows of you will get an integrity a and the user gives a 500 the that's not good on the edges of course you're Dundar in its or command line passing just so related to that added edges almost I think validation is not enough I think you should always strive for a simple canonical form of your data that the rest of the system can rely on because pursue business if business coaching not know what Jason that is it should just take picture from a native of Python data types or if you know the structure of the data it picture use of class and I find this the decision between classes in the chair is actually pretty simple if you don't ever iterate ordered keys of the dictionary you probably should use a class because a class is much better at catching typos and or a little accidents while developing it while our dictionaries made some of work and just shadow some mistakes for the not all passing strings around in general is also not too great because function takes a string it becomes a possible it might be a simple parts of its the power so and passes are not that simple and if they screw up it's pretty uh it can be really bad so I don't like strings in API said on so if anything is a symbol of something are in Python 3 . 4 or later we have announced and there's also PI PI package that will give you the same classes and rate not i could keep talking and talking however given the complexity of leads to normal accidents and computers can complex right and distributed systems a kind of complex to the 2nd from become follows that is inevitable everything it'll you before so what minimizing risks and you should do it but eventually something will fail so if you work in computers failures of part of the library like it or not so in
practice you're reliability Valentin aspectual somewhere between Twitter in 2007 which had art 98 98 percent uptime which means the downtime of 6 days and may scientist meant to
69 who landed on the Moon despite human error understand but the software was robust enough to compensate for the stupid mistake of to Boston or anything you can argue that question of generally are not stupid and yet they make mistakes not a problem with makes us that reliability is that you can actually genius to write
a software genius of you just invent software engineering on the site while writing the moon landing software no big deal so you might have to scale down expectations unless you have mishandled monster that in that case I would like to apply for integer so imageable
inevitable all you can do is minimize risks you can prepare for it to happen and then you have to deal with it so the don't ask me how long it took me to get the stuff and so so I'm gonna give the rest of the talk away right now along with cation is the result of good feel containment and so the recovery Alice should use improbable that so you've embraced the other how do you expect it so if you need a system where program do anything reliably you then you need to monitor it stats for all you know it's down if you need to have confidence in on a working you have to wait for it and are so you need to check
for outages you need to instrumental instrumental system and you need so that the reporting because of silent failure is terrible as top that with these topics in the past 2 years my taste change all I still off Prometheus for instrumentation and wondering and I still love entry for a recording for disclosure David Kramer may or may not have a video of me singing the on state in our our carol and about but both is open source on century has reasonably priced pay plants which you can scale in scale to serve there's no locking in ITER right now are your coat how do
expect feel you come about if it's local it's simply just try to except and that's that's it
remotely you're lucky if it's that simple because instant the worst are rare and fortunate like coming refuse a 500 or something like that you know immediately OK something's going wrong diverse scenario is that nothing happens so whatever you do remotely you have to put up time out on and 1 missing Hamilton database driver was enough to ground an entire American airline once so always the time on it not if you have a time out on what you do is you just at the time
to carry on like nothing happens that gives you a very slow very useless request is a that experience for users because they have to wait 30 seconds to get 500 and it's giving more loads to a system that might be overloaded infrared the system break apart for many of you have heard of it object i'm gonna make it really quick it's very simple very useful some
it kind for local proximity you on a remote system and the normal state it's closed like a drawbridge OK so requests go through remote API the results go back a simple now it's something fails to doesn't have to be a time of what time what is the best example for and it has fails morning what's because in distributed systems let's face it thinks once all the time so if you have a certain amount of years it'll switch from close to open and requests has to wait like it'll drop right at this point it starts ignoring the remote system and it's just giving you a respect climb very very fast so after a certain time it'll send all the probe 1 like you request from the client to check whether the remotest who broke and if it succeeds or right we're close is Robert is closed again everything's is like before if it fails it states that say spoken and often try again later this is very simple very effective not a said anymore components systems usually that however it's if it's the same component and if you're hiding behind another component it is way more reliable than not crappy code then it may become something good for example if to take something like it's a proxy the well which I'm not I don't see likely is very good software and a piece of software never let me down so if you put multiple of yours and protected with that you proxy your reliability is actually going out and military that's saying it who was 1 1 is none so so meaning you should have at least 2 of everything and if something is really really important you should have 3 of them so you never even get into a situation that you have only our 1 of something now this principle make the Internet almost unbreakable unless everyone uses the same units for lighter or unless everyone uses the same storage system in the same region including the monitoring panel of state storage that's and this worth at any level at the natural you should have more in ones which more than 1 uplink you should have more than 1 server you should have and but more in 1 data center that's like level of game not everyone needs then but you certainly should have more than 1 back up because the
this is all it takes for you to use your data you do not have back ups and also if you do not test your back ups you also do not have that counts the that story to now if you want to be
dispensable you must not be know which side so if people ask you something regularly write it down if you have regular tasks and standard procedures such cannot be automated write them down and if you have something that needs to be done in case of emergency write this down thinking and you will remember it when you need it is a very dangerous fallacy and it has been a staple of aviation security to have to have a checklist for everything like literally everything as any pilot and having a contingency contingency planning conspicuous therefore ship is hitting hitting the fan is priceless you can believe me and this
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Titel Solid Snakes
Serientitel EuroPython 2017
Autor Schlawack, Hynek
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - keine kommerzielle Nutzung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Unported:
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DOI 10.5446/33722
Herausgeber EuroPython
Erscheinungsjahr 2017
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract Solid Snakes [EuroPython 2017 - Talk - 2017-07-11 - Anfiteatro 1] [Rimini, Italy] No matter whether you run a web app, search for gravitational waves, or maintain a backup script: being responsible for a piece of software or infrastructure means that you either get a pager right away, or that you get angry calls from people affected by outages. Being paged at 4am in everyday life is bad enough. Having to fix problems from hotel rooms while your travel buddies go for brunch is even worse. And while incidents can’t be prevented completely, there are ways to make your systems more reliable and minimize the need for (your!) manual intervention. This talk will help you to get calm nights and relaxing vacations by teaching you some of them

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