Linus Pauling on his Life for Science and Peace - Interviewer: Hans Kuhn

Video thumbnail (Frame 0) Video thumbnail (Frame 3024) Video thumbnail (Frame 6122) Video thumbnail (Frame 8411) Video thumbnail (Frame 10186) Video thumbnail (Frame 12758) Video thumbnail (Frame 24119) Video thumbnail (Frame 25953) Video thumbnail (Frame 27977) Video thumbnail (Frame 38799) Video thumbnail (Frame 49256) Video thumbnail (Frame 62834) Video thumbnail (Frame 71048) Video thumbnail (Frame 79105) Video thumbnail (Frame 80472)
Video in TIB AV-Portal: Linus Pauling on his Life for Science and Peace - Interviewer: Hans Kuhn

Formal Metadata

Linus Pauling on his Life for Science and Peace - Interviewer: Hans Kuhn
Alternative Title
Linus Pauling über sein Leben für Forschung und Frieden - Interviewer: Hans Kuhn
CC Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivatives 3.0 Germany:
You are free to use, copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in unchanged form for any legal and non-commercial purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
IWF Signature
G 225
Release Date
Production Year

Technical Metadata

IWF Technical Data
Video ; F, 58 min

Content Metadata

Subject Area
Frühes Interesse an den Grundlagen der Chemie - Studium und Lehrtätigkeit in den USA - Aufenthalt in Europa, u. a. bei A. Sommerfeld (München) - quantenmechanische Ansätze zur Natur der chemischen Bindung - Beispiele für Paulings Arbeitsweise: Arbeiten zur Sichelzellanämie; Entdeckung der Alpha-Helix-Struktur in Proteinen (Nobelpreis für Chemie 1954) - Engagement für den Frieden, Probleme in der McCarthy-Ära (Friedensnobelpreis 1962).
Pauling relates important milestones in his life that elucidate his choise of studies and his scientific development. One of his essential principles for success is illustrated here, namely, his ability to critically process the results of others and integrate them into his philosophy. Pauling's human greatness is demonstrated in that his commitment to peace meant more to him than unchecked scientific research. That in spite of this his accomplishments in many areas were of crucial importance can be seen in this short interview.
Keywords Pauling, Linus Persönlichkeitsaufnahme Vitamin C Sichelzellanämie Biomoleküle Molekularstruktur Kristallstruktur Hämoglobin Friedensbewegung chemische Bindung Doppelhelix Alpha-Helix Nobelpreisträger alpha-helix double helix chemical bonds peace movement haemoglobin crystal structure molecular structure biomolecules sickle cell anaemia vitamin C Pauling, Linus Nobel laureate portrait
IWF Classification Geschichte Geschichte der Wissenschaften Kulturgeschichte Geschichte der Chemie Organische Chemie Chemie chemistry organic chemistry history of chemistry cultural history history of science history
Physical chemistry Recreational drug use Chemical engineering Pauling, Linus Quantitative analysis (chemistry) Chemistry Electronic cigarette Ageing Road surface Aage Mineral Chemist Process (computing)
Metal Chemical element Physical chemistry Germanic peoples Chemical engineering Chemical property Chemical bond Gold Quartz Chemistry Molecule Diet food Combustibility Magnetism Human subject research Valence (chemistry) Spring (hydrology) Chemical structure Chemist
Germanic peoples Reaction mechanism Priel Periodate Wasserwelle <Haarbehandlung> Calculus (medicine)
Molecule Electron Reaction mechanism Chemical property Chemical structure Chemical bond Quartz Atomic number
Electron Sunscreen Etiology Antibodies (film) River source Atomic number Calculus (medicine)
Cheminformatics Physical chemistry Ionenbindung Kohlenstoff-14 Aluminium Topaz Chloride Operon Set (abstract data type) Quartz Chemistry Molecule VSEPR theory Electron Methanisierung Hyperpolarisierung Silicon dioxide Tetraederstruktur Butcher Mineral Process (computing) Surface science Organische Chemie Chemical bond Wine tasting descriptors Hydrogen Bond length Tiermodell Molecular geometry Functional group Chemical compound Chemical structure Base (chemistry) Thermoforming Chemist Calculus (medicine)
Molecular biology Organische Chemie Columbia Records River source Chemistry
Magnetism Chemical property Red blood cell Operon Chemical structure Gene Hemoglobin Wine tasting descriptors
Sickle Substitutionsreaktion Complication (medicine) Operon Chemistry Molecule Cell (biology) Protein Red blood cell Explosion Derivative (chemistry) Hemoglobin Atom Cell membrane Ganglagerstätte Process (computing) Molecularity Golgi apparatus Lipopolysaccharide Chemical property River source Death Electronic cigarette Medicalization Gesundheitsstörung Magnetism Iron Chemical structure Cobaltoxide Methanol
Residue (chemistry) Chain (unit) Peptide Sickle Operon Gene Chemistry Molecule Hydroxybuttersäure <gamma-> Cell (biology) Protein Globuline Amino acid Ausgangsgestein Hemoglobin Solubility Golgi apparatus Germanic peoples Formaldehyde Chromosomenaberration Solution Man page CHARGE syndrome Wine tasting descriptors Emission spectrum Neoteny Medicalization Gesundheitsstörung Electrical mobility Chemical structure Cobaltoxide Genetic disorder
Semiotics Chain (unit) Peptide Protein Faserverbundwerkstoff Nucleic acid double helix Posttranslational modification Beta sheet Helix Sea level Hydrophobic effect Wood-burning stove Coffee Setzen <Verfahrenstechnik> River source Stockfish Wine tasting descriptors Molecular biology Hydrogen Functional group Silencer (DNA) Chemical structure Repeated sequence (DNA) Beryllium Cobaltoxide Chemist Biomolecular structure Calculus (medicine)
Recreational drug use Cell fusion Sickle Cell growth Molekulare Evolution Scurvy Nutrient Peptide sequence Chemistry Molecule Shear strength Tidal race Cell (biology) Lactitol Abbruchreaktion Redox Amino acid Nucleic acid double helix Aspirin Hemoglobin Atom Area Cancer Electronic cigarette Wine tasting descriptors Toxicity Gap junction Gesundheitsstörung Levomethadon Arzneimitteldosis Horse meat Aage Vitamin Farmer Separator (milk) Base (chemistry) Resistenz Crystallography
Tidal race
Physical chemistry Potenz <Homöopathie> Elektrolytische Dissoziation Chemical reaction Aromaticity Chemistry Electronic cigarette Lead Synthetic oil Neoteny Medicalization Tidal race Controller (control theory) Chemist Periodate Process (computing) Hope, Arkansas
the appalling how did you get into came to stay well you know my father was a drug bust and although he died while i was still young nine years old i'm sure the to have my watching him make preparations and the drugstore of the back room at the drugstore.
or have an influence on me and i began collecting insects and then minerals when i was so eleven years old them when i was thirteen years old another boy my own age showed me son chemical experiment i was extremely. they interested in these experiments to see how one substance can be changed into another substance and that that age thirty and i decided to be a campus to or chemical engineer i knew about engineering and i first started chemical engineering and i. the studied high in chemistry and high school and physics and down the i went to college or it can agricultural college and studied chemical engineering at the end of two years in this college i have was not able to return for the third year. because of lack of money my mother as a widow didn't have much money and the i have worked as hate an engineer laying pavement for roads but the college offered me the job of teaching quantitative analysis to the second year.
students for year i work full time as a teacher of a chemical analysis and that time i came across the papers by the g n lewis about the nature of the chemical bonds and about a papers by.
irving lying there on the same subject and i have been wondering who during the preceding years why different substances have different properties white paper has a property is that it hasn't why a metal such as gold has a metal has the property is that it. yes i can remember that high tried to see the from the periodic table which elements should be feral magnetic or pair of magnetic and which diet magnetic already when i was eighteen years old i was interested in that question well. the work on the the electronic structure of molecules some crystals of the nature of the chemical bond have seemed so interesting to me that when i received my degree in chemical engineering and went to the california institute of technology. the one i was twenty one years old i began work determining the structure of crystals by x. ray the fraction i studied mathematics and physics as well as chemistry so my ph d. was in chemistry and physics and mathematics. so then they came the time when i had my ph d. degree and it was believe in the united states and the on that account most needed to study and german a to work with the leading combustion germany in order to comply. we to his education i obtained a guggenheim fellowship and my wife and i came to munich in the spring of like dean twenty six.
this was a wonderful period as the the. quantum mechanics had just been discovered a few months before by highs and baird who had himself taken his doctors agree with reading with the summer so i think i'm not some are held only two or three years before and born. one hundred yard don in getting an have recognised i think barn recognize that that the scheme for calculation that heisenberg had invented it was really make creeks calculus so foreign and yard on the work. without the consequences of this observation and i heard born speak about to make tricks mechanics in california already before i came to germany but then when i arrived in german a trigger work. being in theory professors hurting or had just discovered the wave equation was riding a wave equation. the professors summer felt began giving lectures about way from my can things the the year the matrix mechanics didn't appeal to me it was too difficult mathematically but i knew how to solve the a partial differential equations i'd start.
said this subject and the way for mechanics invented by shooting or turned out to be a very powerful way of attacking physical and chemical problems the problems of the chemical bond of the the nature of the electronic.
the structure of molecules and crystals and the method of doing this was being developed.
there was a scientist a physicist named a great car vent sell in munich he was the preferred to attend or as a stent i think as a stand by them or felt and he published a paper on the property search. some proper to his of atoms containing and a number of electrons from zero to my tape to from one to ninety two i read the vent false paper a side trip for physique when it came out and i'm not only read it but i were.
through it going from one equation to the next equation to the next equation and the some events all had untitled his paper i know surely kite mr taylor he describes how electrons because his calculated values didn't agree with the experimental about.
years old my equations pretty soon turned out to be different from pencils he had overlooked one factor heads he had made an approximation an assumption that he should not have made so my equations gave these theoretical result. agreeing with the experimental results i showed us to professor summer out and he was very interested and two dr pencil to ventral was rather disappointed but the heath he could see that he helped the made a mistake that. the myth of the and oversight. well the important part about this my iraq a paper about have published and cyprus for physique the antibodies sex the important part was that events all had proposed a way of making a theoretical calculations for atoms and contain many electrons. and that was a sort of problem that interested me so i applied his method with my little correction i applied his method to a discussion of the magnetic susceptibility of athens and lions and the electorate.
polarize ability the size as the extension room space on the got very good results from my paper was published in the proceedings of the royal society professors armour felt have just been elected a foreign member of the royal society. of london and so he suggested that he send my paper you have for publication their journal well of course the that was a great experience for me to be there in the institute for theoretical physics of the university of munich just at that time. i was very fortunate and here i have the opportunity to learn the theoretical best the sort of attacking the chemical problems that i was interested in i had two friends to their name and baltar heitler and critics wonder if the. of my wife and i and celebrated the doctors degree given to alter heitler and very soon the heitler have belonged on the developed a simple theory of the chemical bonds hydrogen molecule h two. the well of course i want to have them to do and they were also on the problem of extending this theory of for the chemical bonds to more and more complicated molecules and. well the result of this was that the it turned out to be pretty difficult it was hard to solve the equations to evaluate the other girls until much later when computers big computers were developed it was a very difficult job and i thought. to i want to try to simplify the this treatment so i well to back to pasadena as an assistant professor and the than associate professor and the professor and you know how hard laboratory as i carried out. up to do with another with a new technique of electron diffraction buy gas molecules which i had learned about here in the germany at nineteen thirty eight shortly after it had been invented by dr come on mark who was in love. six how from the time i have high bills and operators with one of my students to do this the electron diffraction work and to determine the bond lengths some the bond bangles him the a large number of molecules gas molecules. in our galaxy compounds on guard down the compounds also my students some by continued to study the structure of crystals by the x. ray diffraction. these two techniques gave a great bought a of empirical information experimental information about the structure of molecules and crystals how far apart the items are the bundling says and the bond angles. a. right from the start of my interest in chemistry i have been the interest of the in bonn blanks and tried to understand them and i've been interested him the question of what are the basic principles of the structure of various crystals nineteen twenty. wait i for me a late to the set of principles for crystals such as those silly kate's might cause for example topaz top house was the first one that i worked on and aluminum of flu all oxy silicate to able to. to us i all four of two but then i worked on the micah and the chloride i'm a vizio lights the many other the silicate minerals and making use of these basic principles of my farm. later. then something very interesting occurred in my teen thirty one or perhaps december nineteenth thirty toward the end of nineteen thirty one day later in the day toward evening i think the i had the idea of the idea. was the basic idea of hybrid orbital and i tried i was trying to understand why the carbon atom is tetrahedral forms bombs directed to our the four corners of the country he didn't even than as early as nineteen twenty four. i helped get made as a model of methane in which has said the the four hour her electrons of the carbon atom are in our butts directed toward the corners of the country during this was before quantum mechanics when quantum mechanics. this came along the a result to was confirmed that have been accepted earlier that to the fore out her electrons in the carbon atom are two different kinds one kind to this is very coy symmetrical. in the two s r bubble and them three he that are arranged along the x. y. and z. axes and this would suggest that the carbon atom might form two kinds of bones one bond involving that's very cold electron or or. but all for the electron and them three bonds perhaps at right angles involving the other three or bubbles well i thought the basic principles of quantum mechanics permit us to combine these functions from those hurting or equation in another. way and i said to myself to let its supporters of i look just at the distribution over the surface of his fear the distribution in various directions and not worry about to a difference in the radial distribution for these. that was that permits heard rather simple calculations to be made him a straightforward manner the first results i got was that the best bonds that the carbon atom can farm are directed toward the four corners of us have treated so in nineteen thirty one. i have the a simple theory of the country he told carbon atom and explanation of a great bill of organic chemistry and so here in nineteen thirty one i have to say the answer to see many of the questions that i'd been thinking about them.
years earlier was thirteen years earlier when i was only eighteen years old. i'm sure the to the some young campus to are now students will be able to make additional contributions in this field of work as the time goes by and to make applications to molecular biology a and how by our. counting chemistry. i did you not remember that i got have trusted in the living organisms. the before you arrived in nineteen twenty nine on the the u.. california institute of technology where i was professor of start of the department of biology and the head of this department was thomas hunt morgan he came from columbia university the to pasadena and brought.
with him his students to the important ones who had with margin discovered the gene the basis of her anything and that was done around nineteen can twenty years earlier so here i have now some new colleague. biggs in pasadena who were biologist geneticist interested in the human body they didn't have the animals and the implants and that for something new for me to think about the properties of living hargan isms. well i became especially interested the un hemoglobin yeah the hemoglobin of the red cells of the blood and i thought to what can i do about hemoglobin to learn more about health structure now since i was interested in. the magnetic properties i had the idea of measuring the magnetic properties of hemoglobin by getting blood from the a cow now and putting it to him the magnetic susceptibility operator segui operators and the measure.
the hike medic susceptibility the unexpected discovery was that the iron atom changes its electronic structure when you take the oxygen molecule the way and there is also that is that the hemoglobin and changer.
as its magnetic moment to its magnetic susceptibility in a very striking manner. we measured made magnetic measurements of many derivatives of hemoglobin and to obtained a lot of information about to the there are properties structure and properties of these substances of. so it was a very useful technique which has been applied to iron containing enzymes some other a mackerel molecules human and animal by days by various investigators and then i got interested the only a disease yes. have you remember what that says it's called a single cell and sickle cell anaemia the i.s.i. a i was and how did you come to things that excite the new life and death well as the disease that has evolved to be something so complicated have here and see. he says in place and we have just throw out some interesting story you know during the second world war here are some of my scientific work was continued but i devoted a great amount of energy to military work now on explosives a moderate forces i say. it didn't oppenheimer asked me to come to los alamos to be the head of the chemistry section of los alamos and i decide to do not to do it because i was doing other things that i knew more about high possibly more heart well i was working on these two. the military problems and then the war came to an end but i was appointed about the time that the war in the nineteen forty five i was appointed to a committee on medical research by president roosevelt and and this commit hey the eye. i had been working on some medical problems to have a substitute for blood for transfusions from some other problems and i knew that it was for that reason that i were on medical problem said i was appointed to this committee becoming a. a third of the six physicians and me as the on position and our job was to recommend to the the government the federal government what they should do to support medical research after the war and our recommend. the nation was out the national institutes of health be set up and some other recommendations to about support for medical schools will one day me and my team forty five the this commit a meth all the late in new york talking to the day. heads of medical school's dean of the medical deans of the medical schools and the directors of laboratories for medical research such as the the rockefeller institute for medical research them and after a long day that we were in a he. the harvard club in a new york having dinner together into one of the physicians a distinguished surgeon told about an operation where he had made a mistake and the blood just up under there and you have trouble feeling around. i'm joining other up to the euro was sort of medical talking as i felt after one of them one of the physicians have mentioned the disease sickle cell anemia have that he had had some interesting he said this seems to be a doozy. these of the red cells in the blood the earth recite in the blood and that the and well i i wasn't paying too much attention my thought of i know i'm interested in pro teams but sells a cell contains a. thousands of different proteins most sells them are just too complicated for me or anyone else relate to attack the i know you're working hard and complicated problems of cell membranes some things like out there now and new techniques have been developed to do. progress is being made but this was my teen forty five so i was thinking i wish i could go to gather ago when the he said the cells are distorted into a sort of crescent shape elam dated in the. the veins in the venus blood but they resume their normal flattened spherical shape in the arteries so when he said that i thought. what is the difference between the veins of the arteries in the veins the red cells contain hemoglobin which has this blue collar but when the blood goes through the lungs and gets oxygenated then the hemoglobin is oxy hemoglobin come. the hemoglobin molecules have combined with oxygen and so it must be that this is a disease of the human global molecule on and then i thought how you came to the molecular disease than that right behind nobody ever talked about her as a molecular disease before the. here in germany there was very cough very costly than a hundred years ago. or more hundred twenty years ago who began talking about diseases of cells before that people talked about diseases of our games heart disease while we still face heart disease are given a disease but the they thought about the disease before that have humours him. hours to liquids to a different kind some the body by old you could be billions spent cars have violent thought yeah i have so way of went from the humours such as bile to the organs such as the gallbladder as they could make for the liver and and or the heart.
but the very cough said the sell you can have diseases of self and then i have badia heart diseases of molecules well i remembered and the bodies how out of body is some and jones interact by complement parents and so on. i thought supports that the hemoglobin in these patients with the disease sickle cell anemia is a different kind of hemoglobin from that another people such that one molecule has a region that is complimentary to the other side and then a molecule. so could climb on like this and formal long rod and disease rods they line up side by side as they became longer and longer they would twist third sellout have shape then i thought if you add oxygen the oxygen molecules would stick out and. keep the molecules from getting close enough together just stick together and so the us has told a breakup go back in their solution that's what happens then in the the arteries now you are curious blood after oxygenation. well i went back to pasadena. the pretty soon i have them application from of young medical student who had received a fellowship to do some work in chemistry and and i accepted him as a student when he came and i wrote saying i'd like him too. work on this disease sickle cell anemia so when he came i had him go to the hospital and got blood from patients and examined the blood so he examined do spectroscopic away just see the of champions spectrum few you have the there's no difference and here. made some other measurements measured solubility no difference and he said perhaps i ought to work on another problem if i don't definite results how can i got my doctors degree and hutch the degree and i said no you must continue working. why not measure of the electro for f.a. mobility a the mobility in an electric field in the way to say earliest has done in sweden. well the problem now i'm a forty eight said forty seven forty eight was a you couldn't buy a to israeli a separate us there are no no electoral forensic operates us on the market so i said well let's build one and two took a long time to build this. separate us but we finally got to build and when the normal hemoglobin was put in the operators and the solution was neutral ph or ph seven and neither has said they can or how colon the the hemoglobin from. me i'm from other persons in the laboratory move towards the hallowed the human globe and from the sickle cell anemia patients move toward the cathode. and the difference was to electric charges to electronic charges have what you're so if this was the discovery the verification of this disease has a molecular disease. then as a very interesting result turned up we look to the blood from the father of a patient. and the blood from the father of the patient push in this apparatus half of a move toward the anode and half move toward the cathode ray on this the geneticists of course understood and understand that this was a proof they devote about sickle cell anemia but they knew about other conditions. now that high you can have that you have two genes that ordinarily manufacture the same substance same molecule perhaps the hemoglobin ordinary hemoglobin normal adult human globe and here was a mutated gene that manufactured the sickle cell him a glow. open and so the the father was like that and the mother was like that too and some of the children inherited both of the abnormal genes. it was very nice illustration on the principles of genetic disease. well so than in our laboratory of this young man harvey it on our working with me got blood from another patient it turned out to be another abnormal hemoglobin hemoglobin see with another kind of diseases thought. it with and them hemoglobin e.u. was discovered him a globe indeed and then he would globe and he and then other people by that time began working in the field of them now there are about three hundred human hemoglobin means you know it well in the meantime. and here i was working on him a global on their own on the other protean the gamma globulin our bodies and gone over albumin and i got interested in the question of the structure of proteins. the german camp must fisher had shown around nineteen hundred that protean and probably consist of a chain of residues of amino acids a polyp peptide chain a there was still some uncertainty as to whether that was true or not. but the current down to be true and two was fisher who had shown at me and so here we have hair and and we know that hair that consists of polyp apply chains and the question is what to the chains look like they are they stay. let's start as long as possible or the are they quiet some way of one so i worked on that problem for are many years and by those social two hundred students determining by x. rayed a fraction of the crystal structure of the amino acid sound of.
simple peptides and the and finally i sat down one day in nineteen forty eight actually i have any when i was lying down you know the story right and you say you know very well that you see i was in oxford with you at that time only yes the tried and and.
hurt you very excited me talking about to use look to just don't you were seek before and i have to call you a lighted us a few a few people you have to you or hold their heads and you were very excited about her one hundred five hundred years i have show so i think i was wonderful. the first people said heard about your also he leaders house was five hundred that you were there well i was excited he has because for a to a level years i have been trying to find that structure have and this was the first structure correct. structure for a protean to be determined and of course it involved hydrogen bomb the question was i said i pose this question how can a pow a peptide chain be folded in such a way that the mh groups hydrogen. them attached to my courage and can form of hydrogen bomb and with that the oxygen atom of the car but they'll have really have an adjacent to a peptide and a mild the group and i'd tried to find the answer and other people to rank bragging. it can ruin fruits we're all trying to find they are seeking voice he basically if you were as a pay day as a chemist to see yourself life and the year i was very happy but i didn't publish this description for more than a year now and the the reason that i. that was published that it was that this structure that alfie helix which is shown here you think yes the officer he likes it it sort of represents molecular biology and it's a symbol for molecular biology this awfully helix according to my calculation. firms should have a sort of pseudo repeat in five point four and strum the and the x. ray pattern said you get very my hair indicated five point one and firms about six percent has left them i knew that this five point four. was right or if the structure was right here but the x. ray photographs some just a hive point one so i thought there must be something wrong with this how he'll i guess i must good for cities and i was so much the brightest that the last bubble he sees so much late that the you were. i kept trying to find out the doors of ideas ron how well the x. ray photographs the interpretation of the tree photographs was what was wrong. i think i finally published a structure with my assertion dr core eight yes you remember what happened the day after more than a year and part of the reason was that up to cambridge bragg can drew and prudes have the published along paper and thirty. they just describing the men a possible structures ways of holding all of which were wrong but i thought surely they all run across this one hand as they. if they keep order to get so so i published that structure and the pleated sheet is the two pleated cheap structures and of course now of candor to determine the first structure of a globular protium and that have these how felix's in that it was that was look. the main structure now there have been newton several hundred protean structures have permanent and almost all of them have our felix's and pleated cheat if they are late almost the only secondary structures that one finds in protein molecule. of dr paul he like you just go on and start making the stock to have the money. well. but you know it isn't easy to make discoveries and as i never have claimed that i would have discovered the double helix but i can see the to have was suffering under some difficulties at that time around my teen fifth. the two i was being harassed by the government of the united states because of my of work for world peace my contention that the united states from the soviet union and and also other countries should work together. for the benefit of the human race of human beings everywhere the royal society of london decided to hold a symposium a two day symposium nineteen fifty two on my work. on the coffee he wakes to this structure and completed she said. the work that other people had started to do along the same lines i was to be the first speaker at the symposium in london i applied for a passport and my passport and expired type lied for passport and the government of the united. it's a true views to allow me to go now the reason that that had significance for d.n.a. is that the an investigator in london rosalind franklin dr rosalind franklin have obtained better x. ray photographs of d.n.a.. fibers an idea a than anyone else had obtained a with made some preparations of d.n.a. and made x. ray photographs asked for a in england have done the same amount to the later it was recognised that the preparations did not consider. the stove one modification but rather to modifications so the x. ray photographs were misleading i was working on d.n.a. about to a very hard because i was being hair us by the government having to go to the having to go to. be investigated answer questions from the start thing well i couldn't go to this conference id is believed that i think probably true that i would have asked for i would have gone to see rosalind franklin and would have seen her photographs of which was. some and crick did single out include probably i that is true i wrote to professor wilkins the franklin talk and franklin was in his institute and asked for copies of the photographs but the he wasn't willing to send them. to me i thought that he said that they had not finished analyzing them themselves and so he shouldn't he thought he should let me see them wealth of perhaps i would have been able to determine that double helix structure but i'm not have all sure of that i was i'm pleased that. watson and crick discovered because it revolutionized to biology has a great great new contribution. my wife but afterward said to me as if that was such an important problem why didn't you work harder as that. i thought well. there's there's more than one reason the one reason is that the i was being harassed by the government as they have been to go to be investigated and my time i had to gather information documents you effort to protect myself from the but to. another reason is an investigator at the boundaries of a silent of a silence of never can be sure you know what pair remains to be discovered and so there was something to what well or some other answer to my wife's question i'm not everyone with.
sure that it was an important problem and watson. jim watson was sure the important problem under its find that he continued to stimulate himself and the couric francis crick the who knew the crystallography you city and was involved a to determine this the of the structure of the. double helix it's truly a related you make this is the main this country fusion is to come to on molecular we have no concept of the army have of dr congo's still with me he was born he was born in vienna. the famous family his grandfather made the important discoveries in an atom make the he came in nineteen forty nine to work with me on him look well he came he wanted to work on the oxidation processes of have a mold but. i got him to work on him a global problem. i will have discovered sickle cell anemia hemoglobin and other human him a globe and some i thought we should look at hemoglobin as from hamels he went to the san diego zoo and got blood from a grower aranguren tang chimpanzee and then they got blood. from coward horse and dog and from fish and from a worm and the investigative heard these various hemoglobin this is that different animals producers with very interesting results he found that he could set up an evolutionary tree. and the showing which animals are closely related in which more distantly related on the basis of the nature of the and hemoglobin the amino acid sequence as in the different hemoglobin molecules are we here by wear them. all twenty two years ago due to make an estimate of the time at which a different animal separate from one another and we decided that the the monkey is separated from the other primates twenty million years ago and that. i'm being separated from chimpanzees on the these primates of the market is that these the these animals that seemed to be rather closely related to man we separated from their own way four billion years ago. this was the start of the field that is called molecular evolution has many people work in this field doctors are could come to all founded the journal of the journal of molecular evolution which he is a litre of during the whole dozen years of its exists. distance so the this study that the i began of both sickle cell anemia for we were able to show that one amino acid residue is different from that film the other normal human him the globe and led to it. further consequences the development of the field of molecular evolution and controversial field he certainly will work with light of the sea and as. yes well nice the history of about his sister after eight years of working with me doctors who are congo dr econo whom i mentioned are working with me on sickle cell anemia went to washington d.c. to continue work on the hemoglobin not to face. and i decided to look at some other diseases to see to what extent they might be molecular disease was so i worked on mental disease for ten years now schedule for an area and other mental diseases at the end of ten years ago i learned about some work done. and by to psychiatrists and canada and this work involved vitamins they were giving vitamins to schedule for make patients patients with this disease schizophrenia and the was an astonishing thing to be was. that the these vitamins a little pinch of the vitamin b three via cinema had will keep you from dying of polite grab five milligrams a day is enough to protect your again supply graham very powerful little pinch of us. car because of vitamin c. will keep you from dying of scurvy five milligrams a day we believe and yet these substances are so free of toxicity that you can take ten thousand times as much as fifty grams hundred grams without to in a.
serious consequences i thought the this is really astonishing now if you take a big dose of aspirin it kills you now review have to be careful about all of these drugs but the vitamins are powerful substances almost free of toxicity so i asked her what is. as the about the intake that will put you in the best of health not just the on take them will keep you from dying but then take that will give you the most energy in the best resistance against disease and now for eighteen years i've been working in that field and i wrote. the book. nineteen seventy vitamin c. and the common cold in which i said that if you taken off vitamin c. then it will protect you against the common cold i take twelve thousand milligrams a day this is one gram of one thousand milligrams yeah that's right it. twelve thousand milligrams of vitamin c. a day that's two hundred times what it means a start up his recommend gap of the few powerful i think just by say it's the vitamin c. but i take large doses of the other by them and to gather i believe that that's a very important. when you know i was asked to my team seventy one and to speak at the opening of a new medical school know this was a new laboratory for cancer research in chicago a fine big building and a friend of mine the that was. director of a he asked me to come to speak i thought i should say something about cancer so i am found i had an argument about cancer that i had read a book by the preferred it fills a surgeon in scotland doctor you and cameron with the title. highly run a base and cancer and in it he said if we could strengthen the normal tissues in the body make them stronger they might be able to resist to the growth of the cancer and a he said if we could strengthen the inter cellular cement that holds us together. that would say might provide protection i knew that vitamin c. strength comes the under cellular cement it's required for something as a sort of college him and there are five bills of college in new listeners all yours mine so i made the statement when i gave my lecture. dr cameron them scotland heard about it he wrote to me to say how much vitamin c. should you give to his patients and he was astonished the patients responded so well to the they were terminal cancer patients very sec scheduled thought to expected to die. i have a few weeks and they got live life full of energy and who are able to go home of many of them died do but they live longer much longer month a year longer than expected some of them have continued to live year after year. so the the astonishes me that i have got him to this this particular field of nutrition whether some but i have a good i'm still working and i'm beginning to how the a project to study the value of vitamin c.. the to protect against heart disease. there is some of evidence already a and some arguments about the effects of vitamin c. that indicate that it should have much value against heart disease there's also a half of them a logical evidence people who take large amounts of vitamin c. have been shown in an apple. m l logical study to live longer and have a smaller incidence of heart disease than people who take who don't take extra vitamin c.. so i find life for the interesting still high have new interest even after i was retired a young person they i've kept working there. but that the east where you came here got the could even was not to see friends in chemistry but the you're deep concern in the future of the human race and well just to some extent touch through part of the reason for my coming wasn't for them. they bowled me to see old friends of chemistry such as you have to because of the chemistry department back to i was invited to participate to him the a great meeting against nuclear weapons and against the the anti-satellite weapons that are being proposed. most of by the professors here in getting on university who have arranged this vine making i've been working on the world peace since the end of the second world war and since the first atomic bombs were made to explode the albert einstein got me.
the the to work with him in the air on the einstein cometh a to help educate people about how dangerous the presence of those the situation is in a world where we have these nuclear weapons that could have destroyed our civilization and probably. i bow to the even wipe out the human race so for many years since nineteen forty five i have devoted much of my time to work on world peace and of course it's got me in trouble with the american government with the california institute of technology.
where i finally gave up my job but i'm glad because i stayed in favour with my wife you live my life and with the he felt very strongly about these matters and had a great influence on.
i hope all the professors other professionals and young people students will all work hard on this problem of the getting control of nuclear weapons and especially the united states and the soviet union they are the great brands. how to the world to civilization to the human race a because they continue to build more and more weapons and the danger becomes greater and greater the the weapons become more and more complicated there's a greater and greater probability that some accident will occur that sets off the. i am all culminating catastrophe a good that would mean the end of the human race. i'm glad that to the medical students the associations of medical students have joined together and are working hard and that we have for physicians against the nuclear weapons physicians for social responsibility with the day coming to you. and chemists to well young come as a there are two things one is do something do what you can do to save the world from destruction by nuclear weapons but i have hope i believe that we're going to be come through this crisis. those and build a world in which every human being can lead to good life so young can muster young scientist should also be preparing himself for where as in the best way possible and my advice with respect to education is to gather broad education and don't. specialize on synthetic are down and chemistry or aromatic chemistry early about learn other aspects of chemistry and physics and mathematics and keep up with a continuing interest even after you leave the university of he would try to learn something more just i. they have astonished myself by moving into new field of a part of the reason part of the reason perhaps is that high have developed early a feeling of confidence in my own intelligence this is very important to a young scientist to go wrong. why just on what you read the books think for yourself and remember develop this confidence in yourself you go ahead and be bold try out something new or it may fail you know people have pointed out that some of the things that i've written turned out not to be true. but that it was about to be true a considerable iraq last year. well it's been great to have lived in the world during this period when science has no power to the way that has we have so much greater understanding of the world now that and fifty or sixty seventy years ago was when i started on the bus. study of chemistry not a new reversed a yacht but when i first began carrying out my own chemical reaction just seventy years ago. a thank you weigh about to fall.