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01:40 IWF (Göttingen) German 1993

Kontrastnatur der Braunempfindung I

Projection with two projectors (a), (b). (a) throws a constant additional light and (b) projects a neutrally coloured slide with a black spot on an orange cardboard. The spot appears in this surrounding as a brown infield. When the light of (b) is dimmed in a neutral colour temperature so much that the luminosity of the surrounding approximates the luminosity of the infield, it appears orange, too. - Now the infield is shielded, the luminosity of (b) is varied strongly, as can be watched at the right bottom of the screen. The isolated infield keeps brown. - Repetition of the experiment.
  • Published: 1993
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
02:09 IWF (Göttingen) German 1993

Chromatischer Flächenkontrast nach Ragona Scina und Hering

The mirror experiment caused Osann (1837) to concede the occuring complementary colours the status of "objective complementary colours". In proof of their subjective nature first a fullscreen grey appearing infield detail. The picture is expanded to the surrounding and the infield shows contrast. Another zoom into the infield. - Demonstration of Hering's (1887) version of an experiment by Ragona Scina (1847). In the final shot the luminosity of the lying model object is varied.
  • Published: 1993
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
02:03 IWF (Göttingen) German 1993

Chromatischer Flächenkontrast nach H. Meyer und Koffka

According to Koffka 1915/1935 grey infields show no contrast when they lie divided in different coloured fields. Even a cover of flimsy paper - which according to Herm. Meyer 1855 has a contrast maximizing effect by blurring the edges and minimizing the luminosity gradient - does not change that. Contrast only results when the infields are arranged on the coloured fields in such a way that each has its own surrounding.
  • Published: 1993
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
02:02 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1988

Scheinkonturen und Isoluminanz

Subjective contours (cognitive contours) are either interpreted as extraordinary cases of figure-ground-organisation or as effects of visual depth stimuli. They are no primary contrast effects, yet become clearly visible - like objective contours - only under the condition of a brightness contrast between figure and ground. Under the conditions of contrast and isoluminance the film shows: Heckhausen pattern, Kanisza triangles, subjective Necker's cube, Brunswik letters. (see Gregory 1972).
  • Published: 1988
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:44 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1988

Rotierender Baukran

A rotating building crane (standing not too close to the spectator) is a modern pendant of Porterfield's windmill (film K 115). In both cases the depth clue of relative size is deleted by parallel projection. Regarding the crane the motion direction can be observed by means of remaining depth clues, especially of occlusion (model shots).
  • Published: 1988
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:08 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1988

Bewegungsumkehr und Trapezgestalt II

Ames' window as a trapezium is the projection of a rectangle in linear perspective. Like the set of open spanners in film K 133 different flat objects can be composed as a trapezium. Whereas the row of open spanners can possibly be interpreted as one object this does not apply here. Nevertheless apparent motion reversal occurs. (Kalkofen 1987).
  • Published: 1988
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
02:08 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1988

Lehmann-Liebmann-Effekt

Alfred Lehmann (Copenhagen, 1904) used isoluminance to test the irradiation theory of geometrical optical illusions; Susanne Liebmann (1927) demonstrated the disturbance of figure-ground differentiation in isoluminance. Variation of the figure-ground contrast with a lacy silhouette (by Lotte Reiniger), Münsterberg's "displaced chess piece", Zöllner's pattern, Frazer's spiral, Frazer's chessboard pattern.
  • Published: 1988
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:14 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1988

Bewegungsumkehr und Textur

Wherease film K 151 demostrates how the rotating silhouette of an image with detailed inner contours constructed in central projection induces - as the image itself - apparent motion reversal, this film shows that an occlusive texture "isolatedly" induces similar phenomenons. Both templates are composed of telecentric images of a red/white ringed double cone. Template A (on the left) shows it equally oriented on both sides (red tip); template B shows alternative orientations (red tip, white tip). (Kalkofen 1982).
  • Published: 1988
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
02:07 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1988

Simulation von Körperfarben

Surface colour and (mono- and polychrome) illumination or shadowing can substitute each other: a white module construction looks in the front projection of a slide of a similar construction made of coloured modules nearly like the latter. It is also demonstrated that polar projection is no question of "symbolic form". Finally a variation of Hering's spot-shade-experiment.
  • Published: 1988
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
02:07 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1983

Wallach-Michotte-Bewegung

The objective motion of a circle excentrically fixed on a turntable can be divided into: the translational motion (a) around the centre of rotation and the rotation (b) around itself. In homogenous textures (b) is invisible (Wallach und Adams 1956). The exclusion of this component in a "stabilized" human body shape was, reverse, was not noticed by most of Michottes' (1962) test persons.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
02:11 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1988

Rotierendes Amessches Fenster im Vergleich mit einem oszillierenden

Two Ames' windows side by side driven by one engine. During the time when the rotating - apparently oscillating - window describes a full circle the other one objectively rotates, the longer edge in the foreground. A second shooting angle shows this edge in the background; a higher camera position induces distortions in perspective and visualizes the motions.
  • Published: 1988
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:47 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1983

Amessches Fenster vor dem Spiegel

Variation on Ames' window configuration (see also film K 59). Because the reflexion also points forward for reasons of perspective it rotates in the same direction as the original. This effect - indicating the core of Ames' oscillation - is to be distinguished form the floating inversion of the mirrored Necker cube (see film K 140).
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:48 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1984

Variation der kinetischen Tiefe

A circular diaphragm shows an ellipse in the centre of homogenous periphery. With the eccentric shift of the rotating configuration the ellipse seems to move from the centre to the periphery of a (static) circle. Along with this movement characteristics of the Benussi-Musatti-effect appear.
  • Published: 1984
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:36 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1987

Metzger-Zöller-Versuch

Metzger & Zöller demonstrated that an ensemble of even coloured objects appears as if they were illuminated in the same colour. An objectively monochromously illuminated ensemble of white objects can - reversely - appear as a group of objects of the same surface colour. Demonstrations of the differences between both situations.
  • Published: 1987
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:04 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1984

Spanentstehung

When watching the microcinematographic shots from film E 1528 a reverse motion aftereffect appears. This effect is comparable to the waterfall illusion described by Addams, 1834.
  • Published: 1984
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
02:07 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1986

Farbige Schatten

"Coloured" shadows were thought to exist and were physically interpreted for a long time. In Rumford's experiment a "coloured" shadow proves to be achromatic-grey if the inducing, objective comlementarily-coloured background is completely or even partly withdrawn.
  • Published: 1986
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:59 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1983

Bewegungsumkehr und Trapezgestalt

Ames' window as a trapezium is the projection of a rectangle in linear perspective. A set of open spanners welded together approximates a trapezium without significance in linear perspective, nevertheless inducing motion reversal.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:53 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1983

Bewegungsumkehr und Hohlrelief (Gesicht)

Concave faces often appear convex. The inversion appears in mask rotation, see also Cocteau's reversion figure, film K 113.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:50 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1983

Bewegungsumkehr und Zentralperspektive

Ames' window - against the author's intention - can be seen as a picture. As such it belongs - where subjective motion reversal is concerned - to the "suspect" linear perspective projections, here shown with a sphinx.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:54 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1983

Bewegungsumkehr und Hohlrelief (Blume)

Figure inversion and correlated motion reversal are not "face specific" as it is proved by the stylized hollow form of a flower.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:34 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1984

Zöllnersche Zerrbilder

Simple figures which are moved behind a static slit appear distorted in their axis parallel to the motion direction and appear shortened at high or elongated at low motion velocities. By means of Wenzel's projection method (crossed square; ellipse; camel) anorthoscopic contraction and other deformations are shown. While the general impression seems to see the whole figure a double image of a vertical bar appears when the slit is broken.
  • Published: 1984
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:21 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1984

Das Machsche Ei

A homogenously coloured egg in quick rotation may induce the impression of a "big swinging drop", of an elastic "body alternately elongating or shortening without rotating". (Metzger 1975). This example of reinterpreting perspective transformation as object deformation was given by Mach in 1886 and is demonstrated by a supplementary shadow demonstration of the phenomenon.
  • Published: 1984
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:20 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1984

Scheinruhe und zyklische Ergänzung

Visual motion correlates with changes in the retinal stimulus distribution. The rotation of a circular disc of homogenous texture is invisible ("apparent rest" after Wittmann 1921). Metelli's "totalisation cyclique" (1964) is based on this fact. The configuration of rectangle and semicircle disintegrates into a rectangle gliding over a static circle when rotating around the center of the circle.
  • Published: 1984
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:23 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1984

Kinetische Tiefe nach Tampieri

Configurations which cause an interpretation of rotatory or translatory motion as a rotation into depth were described by Musatti 1924 and Renvall 1929. According to Tampieri 1956 one can also "make a coloured octagon behind a screen with a triangular hole rotate around its tip ... (and) sees ... a tangible physical ... pyramid rotate on a vertical axis (Metzger 1975).
  • Published: 1984
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:52 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1984

Rotierende Silhouette

Film "Motion Reversal and Linear Perspective" (K 132) demonstrates that apart from Ames' window other images - if they are constructed in linear perspective - can behave the same way phenomenally in rotation. Here the visual behaviour of a dextrorotatory silhouette derivated from such an image is demonstrated (Graham 1968, Kalkofen 1983).
  • Published: 1984
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:37 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1983

Kinetische Tiefe nach Renvall

Configuration of three ellipsoids on an elliptical turntable. The result after the phase of apparent motions and meandering is: three circles appear that all lie oblique to the same degree and in the same direction and therefore form a symmetric integral whole.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:30 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1984

Rotierende Inversionsfigur (Glühlampe)

The parallel projection of a rotating light bulb on a matt screen induces inversion effects in the spectator as they were described by Necker in 1832 (see also films K 60 and K 63).
  • Published: 1984
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:52 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1984

Harmonsche Blockbilder

The perceptibility of computer-generated block pictures of human faces can be increased by blurred projection of such slides (a) or their minification (b). Examples: Abraham Lincoln and Leonardo's Mona Lisa (Harmon 1971).
  • Published: 1984
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
02:02 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1984

Schatten einer rotierenden Maske

For the inside of a mask is visually convex a vertical rotation induces an apparent motion reversal (see also film K 134). Apparent motion reversal also occurs in the shadow projection of the process (Kalkofen 1983).
  • Published: 1984
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:50 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1983

Penroses 'Impossible Triangle'

This "impossible triangle" was introduced as a drawing by Penrose and Penrose in 1958. Following a suggestion of the authors Gregory created a space model which - monocularly watched with a defined visual point - lends the impossible triangle an illusionary reality.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
01:04 IWF (Göttingen) Silent film 1983

Die Renvallsche Uhr

Circle disk with an ellipsoid emulating a clockface. During disc rotation it arises from the surface as a firm, swinging disk. The hand apperently arises from the clockface and erects.
  • Published: 1983
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: Silent film
02:03 IWF (Göttingen) German 1998

Identitätsvertauschung nach Poggendorf und Linke

The screw threads of a rotating screw seem to move away along the axis; the illusion is not harmed when marking the screw thread. Geometrically related to Poggendorfs screw is the Plateau's spiral. After suppression of the rotatory component by a slotted mask strip slices seem to move radially. Linke 1907 refers to stroboscopic effects in both cases.
  • Published: 1998
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
02:17 IWF (Göttingen) German 1998

Phänomenale Kausalität nach Michotte

Replication of Michottes experimental set-up to show the causation phenomenons thrust, push, fetch. Michottes method based on the priniple of identity change (disc and slot method) is explained, identity change is exemplarily demonstrated by a parabolic spiral masked by a slotted disc.
  • Published: 1998
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
04:21 IWF (Göttingen) German 1998

Demonstrationen der phänomenalen Kausalität nach Albert Michotte

The media package contains software for the on-screen simulation of perceptual causality phenomena as they were first described by Albert Michotte as well as motion pictures demonstrating some of the possibilities of the software. With the software, the user may explore perceptual causality phenomena and their limiting conditions by variation of a multitude of parameters like, for instance, size and speed of the objects and their duration of contact. The motion pictures were shot from the computer screen and illustrate the most important event classes (push, pull, rebound,...) described by Michotte and their parametric variation.
  • Published: 1998
  • Publisher: IWF (Göttingen)
  • Language: German
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