Materials of the Future

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Materials of the Future
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The vast majority of the technologies we use rely on a few materials only: silicon for electronic technology, steel for construction, plus a few functional materials. We polished those technologies extremely well, but, at the same time we became the slaves of those materials. At the same time we would strongly benefit if we could design materials according to our needs. Graphene is the first two-dimensional material with a number of unique properties. It also opened a floodgate of experiments on many other 2D atomic crystals. The resulting pool of 2D crystals is huge, and they cover a massive range of properties. Furthermore, we can bring those one-atom thick crystals together and start to create artificial materials with predetermined properties: materials on demand.
Physicist Hot working Day Minute Mobile phone Particle physics Week
RF engineering Photonic crystal Thermal Hammer Sound recording and reproduction Composite material Photonic crystal Leyden jar Melting Reflexionskoeffizient Ladungsträgerbeweglichkeit Inertial navigation system Cell (biology) Permeability (electromagnetism) Control panel (engineering) Solar energy Artillery battery Muon Flussdichte Conductivity (electrolytic) Carmine
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Day Bauxitbergbau Electronic media Stationery Specific weight
Typesetting Mountain Quality (business) Autumn Day Lapping Coach (bus) Railroad car Map Chemical substance Fuel Measurement
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Diffusion Steckverbinder Vertical integration
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Heterojunction Prozessleittechnik Light-emitting diode Band gap Combined cycle Light
Circuit diagram Lint (software) Selectivity (electronic) Visible spectrum Scale (map) Serge Visible spectrum Automated teller machine Light Source (album) Energy level Field-effect transistor Direct current Band gap Hinge Limiter Hour Integrated circuit Material LC circuit Semiconductor Boiler (power generation) Quantum
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a on documents were really great pleasure to be cured costs and three to four weeks audience with these.
to pick up the particular topic for the for the talks so what would have to do today is to start talking to warn about graffiti cai's about that's probably what is expected but my big task for today it's maybe to give you a perspective from a physicist. one day when she was science and warts can we expect and probably why should we go so let me start with just a few every few minutes about about graphing first so many of you know what his gruff in his day to the national the carbon christo. just only carbon arranged in in high income that is because of its number of unique properties so is the boss can dr the most family come doctor for interminable highest mobility and so on so these the frontier found already found its way into work.
in too many applications and there will be a session on only when their i believe from from from reflection of his the one billion euro program all the it.
from europe on a possible future applications of all of these materials and and these those applications really ran from a census to appellate court next to electronics and the batteries are the composite materials and so on and i want. go too much into their discussion on the physics or less live with for the question fashioned and so just a bit of more more more specialized so for today just briefly tell you that. we really enjoyed doing in physics in a in graphene and yet many other to the crystals as well but what is interesting that quite quite fast that i believe he made the eads it's more fun to walk into applications and like many many other materials before eight so.
but eads he made a great your way to the into the the rice and new new products started from and. from composite materials they sport tools a couple of years ago were at we were made in his world lightest of which are ways to reach me lands and and mcclaren it's only thirty two grams of fortunately it's not only world light as it's also world's most expensive fortunes cost you.
about a million million euros so differently by far most expensive watch by if you if you divide by weight and at haven't gourdes one million one million you where you can assess how you can splashback what often million on this on this car says.
they it. it is composed by also have always wears was was graphic composite of bides bad so great you lately it's made its way into more and more advanced advance the applications last last year the hallway you should use does this forum where graphene he is used for the.
for four film someone management but essentially what we're looking forward is north's the applications were graphene would replace any materials but where graphene would allow completely new applications which were not possible before as of.
because that's very that because it has of cars and number of unique properties so which which wasn't well about two hours before so. but those applications are very difficult to to imagine because they they didn't exist so were so what you need to do is really to think out outside of the boxer are just give you one example is their adoptive consequences so what would you do you put you take the consequences would allow of graffiti on top you put another one on top and then you.
fill the gap was the liquid crystal and what you what you get is they are by applying wanted to change the refractive index over the of liquid crystal and you can change the the idea for called the absolute days of your eye off your of your contact classes and that's the e.u. possible to do is any other materials because you need.
it's transparent flexible conduct of which you and that and that's that's all that's all graphene for a really nice range of applications is to think about this material as the two dimensional membrane so generally the two dimensional membranes are interested or budget each comes of details of.
it's a lot of a lot of normal the mechanics of cause you as you know if these kind of to the material shouldn't be sure that they exist at all because their lawn long range.
station should should be destroyed it was a but then we wait he retired how how it works you graphene but it's have caused its interminable for for any advice for it for any species so you can use these property or you can modified so to make it transparent and terrible for some.
on specifics pieces and absa and that some see which is be quite widely used these days for ever write applications from biology two to two energy like for example in the media.
the fuel south so this so it's its own the parable for problems for example or nothing else can penetrate for those through those hexagons now and for some time because there was an issue can we produce can we produce enough have enough.
of of grafting so some of you might know that in many lab so we started ways to make a graffiti by a scorched i teach you could just take no more graphite three should you use your your pants as and then you just likes full aided by the bye bye bye this coach the map of and. but this is what we still use it even our lap is the quickest way to produce high high quality material for of cars as the time flies so we these days we can have many many other ways how to produce graffiti dependent only on the particular application on the. rice who want to pay on the quality you you want to do to achieve you really can you really can make very different types of types of grafting for example for electronic great the material you would use. the chemical wait for the position and so it based to eat really gives you a fantastic quality all of the square meter age of of or of the material and you can use many different carbon detainees pieces for two or two to two g. read this.
and just as a sort of foreign so as you are understand probably what is important for you to throw this week as a problem maybe not to learn so much about physics but to understand that behind all those experiments is the words why you to be fun to do some some so that's a that's all water.
what we do need a lab so that that's how we started was the scorched earth so one day it would be fun to produce graphene from something unusual who can gas was that this red stuff.
so what you need is just as any carbon and and ten he stuff and there was a and idea why won't the dog graphene ways ways was something he was speeding rugged like with with iran where would you get iran and and and and carbon so huge. just take some some blogs put it on and on the corporate on when you're on the copperfield and you just have your and then just a emulating the in their d.v.d. chambre and you get out of iran iran adopt dubbed graph your of fortunately the quality wasn't wasn't high enough so we we couldn't. published this this work but the but the principle. it's very easy to make to cook graphene from your from your blog of and no students were hurt so that's it was those were my feeling is so don't worry about this is the that is a it's the sort of advertising for the ph d. that are not are not block second person for further from the roof of the students so damned if you. wonder if you need something for printable their twenty's or for batteries raise chemical were. the so-called they could face exfoliation on drug and some other my name apples. how to produce graphene is well liked. they are. the sublimation of silicon from silicon carbide it's probably something which is close to to the heart of of of clough's phone lead think so because of days in these sort of graphene you can gather data about the last count on whole plot or which we should wish. but which spans may be like than fifteen taft last year you know we'd so you can you don't need to go to or two in the cabin the rush to gather the the year because they are high precision all the more they are the quintessential you can do it at three past lad. to for calvin and there was a those devices already be used in and pay off for example as the of the resistance found now and let me.
tell you a little bit warts wards water been doing beyond graphene because for years of cars all our students are very bright very very active bright eyes when she tells her that they always ask me so costa rica. panned hundred sixty b.n. on building the new national graph easy to the west you using the same councils for or for two to make graffiti can we are pleased by some are the colored pencils and make something now so it's all down sees yassin principle why not and water turns out that if you x. four late on the other. pounds as you get other two to the mansion or or materials so and these days we're not talking about drafting we're really talking about the family all the two dimensional crystals and of course it is you know as you go from cd to two to two d. the apology changes so for likely be the have nots in the and even today.
and you get so they are many many of the all the properties changed dramatically so would have studied to become the t.g.v. to the national crystals these days for magnetise lean two d. is extremely popular topic for research so the general these days the action.
all the two dimensional crystals is is quite actively actually the research but what is interesting that ed heavy this library of the two dimensional from which he was also give you really knife really nice opportunity beyond physics really in there. material the material science and let me give you would put it a little bit into into perspective because but you also strange now they're really important for us and they they can even determine the worry direction of the of the development of our technology.
she sold that's why we call our ages we give the which he was named to be taught to the ages will he will likely be the stone age the bronze age the the the the ira knife and there would be a good question. what is the age we believe will leave now and it's not easy to to to determine because maybe for the first time in history would have a choice because it's very difficult to pinpoint one particular one particular knowledge or so it can be maybe digital age with.
can be fully can henri the bible uk because really really weird way we depend on their own energy production by ads.
it's really important that will make a smart choice because the technology which you choose is you really somehow we stick with it for a long long long time and it gets really determines the lords all the of or of how the economy but the route of let me give you an example so. this is the periodic table of elements which we used in day in our. silicon chips tried to ninety ninth very simple so i probably could do it so it's like silly can bore a force for us for for the pain and emilio for you take an axe hydrogen oxygen for persuasion that's right now beyond so after ninety ninety because.
we need it's high integration we added copper for into connection because we were added copper we needed there who really that there were functioned mentioned which uses well and we needed their the diffusion bear so we as a part of corporate also added a tantrum.
johnston and and ten that but still still quite simple now after two thousand and six the in the e.u. below the level of integration grew dramatically and basically with these days we used by kraft of the periodic table in he now. or in our silicon chips and you i guess you would you would agree with me that this is not ideal at all because the only reason we have to do it is because we have all the technology you have the silicon technology but we are at what we're doing we're not and twenty that you want to wear adept in the old technology or four or four day for them. more than needs and frankly speaking were not doing its own very successful it has if you compare the number of elements which we have in our border in the number of foreigners which we put in our city can choose who actually we would have to put the details of complexity would have to put the much hyped complexity. into the into the silicon chips and of course in terms of the functionality of the complexity of our bodies by far by bought by far far far greater so our city can know which is the north idea is more percentile enough but we are we stick with it because we made this choice long long long time ago and that gen. surely the case because we we rely on only a few materials in an hour it in our work so on all electronics is city kan construction engineer in we always rely on the strength of still have aspirations year in its i love me or my beater. of titanium so we really we are where we are slaves or those of those materials so if. and chronic engine year needs to make a new device would he or she needs to do is to go and check what silicon can do for me was the bank i was the bangles of silicon dioxide and then dear develop a device depending on those on those parameters of ideally what you want is really two hundred. and to needs different materials together and and adapt and create human to your for any new applications and principal those examples do exist but call them composite materials or it or better structures with their used. in our summit connected devices not not march but you still use like like camps for for example if we use of cars passed the way we use composite materials but still those examples are few and far between so ideally what you want is to be able for any new applications to design and human to your. one atom by atom engineer at least lair lab while engineer and then you can really it was in the fuel as it can and code the the ne ne functionality consecutive i want my top lead to be some for my next few as obese or sell my next few would be would be if the him. the great circle than reinforcements the second accident and so on and so we where we live in the age where the calf from manufacturing is developing extremely fast so you can draw remind you oughta card anything you use some this growing.
why buy a maori received this the these these pieces by post a few days we started to do days is always always chemicals as well so you can you can design and d.n.a. taking g.e. male and female it and than. received was in couple of weeks to receive these days by by posting but ideally want to be able to do the same waste any material so that when you design a new application you're not limited by what is was well be can design which your for the application and more the other way around. and having this library of the two dimensional christo's it's really how was because of what what we do these days when we come to work recount worked at all lab will have this goes to the one i think crystals and well above task and so it's not enough fine. many more to study each one of them even though the physical nice e c c o two from classic what we do we start a family them put in them them to gather in a in a way mother nature he never intended to be and then we basically create a synthetic artificial. capital structure is one way and we do it with a comic for precision of fortunately for students to do it by hands literally on the microscope just bikini one lehrer fattens putting than just the next one extra next one. but those example it be the technology is extremely efficient so we produce the new types of transistors these ways we can we have to produce their you knew you sos house after this is probably one of the most complex for example of the over there this synthetic artificial twenty also these.
fifteen can can do he said ethan is an elegy with italy so graphene there is only as they transparent collect process very secondary role so it's mainly working on their interplay between and between a different gap when she also you apply of all patients and so lights or so each child. and the chinese light and because we can't have a huge range of those to the national christo's a ballot will toss off we know we can actually how are you friends different violence a son and our human different combinations of all felons because you can put very different.
but yours that so that's just a selection of some of the semiconductor which we we wish we can put inside and they can make our quite a quieter a range of infrared five kremlin and they and their and the visible spectrum maybe the most interesting is this one of their legal on died tell right because it's sitting right i'd be a.
the telecom range and because the one of the major problem why we cannot make our internet fast is because we don't have the way we don't have their life sources which matched by the city come out. for tonys the gap so so these guys sitting right there so we can we we we might be able to to get water efficient optical twenty chips. but now of what i wanted to say is that i think we still need to go a little bit a little bit few others so. i was talking that about the materials which we can design for some for somchai applications for a with the wiz the certain properties that's all very nice and it's a it's a new direction that we we we produce new materials for a new. the applications rather than we designed occasions was in their ensure they all the available which used but feel the same the same limitations phase that we define materials according to the certain properties which we need for the applications so. so much you like see the can it contains the properties and the functionality only commons when we assemble it into their. you to the integrated circuits but now you can think about words and a different way how we can how you can think about this so what i'm talking about is actually doesn't exist only started to enlist starting to work on this but i think it's their that's where their material science has to go off if you think about. now it's our our border the functionality is actually they're only on all the possible levels like starting from they basic molecules molecular mortars molecular palms so the the functionality is their own they membrane level on this however on the organ level on the on. in the boiler also the functionality is spread across different scales and that's the reason why our our our body acts was so much more efficient than and an hour and then our computer chip so the the beak the big question is can we stop.
thinking about the properties of the materials and can we start designing materials the charms of each was of functionality and that requires really change of the of the of the program because of cars and we always designed our materials. by the idea of tea calculations which is essentially the ground level so they are the is your temperature ground low population so we can design properties but the functionality comes from the norm the club room states and that's so we need to think about the dem the dynamic proper. it is norton north in terms of the not in terms of the ground level properties and that's the sort of. physics which only starting to to be to be develop so record materials out of out of a liberal so if so generally you have you design and she always wanted ground state is like and then the defeat of this material depends on the on their eye on the upper on the. on the parameters like you you you you get there. where do the force and then you just do you can strange stretch this these these last what we need to do is to. what we're doing now were designed they intelligent the it but he was out of equilibrium by creating a complex landscape of the over the ground states and so it's highly a generous system and then you can navigate through this landscape why change and the extra no parameters so your ex. actually designed in nor the the particular grounds they but you design in the past weight when they see this in this phase space and that's and that's it in the sense that you are designed the functionality rather than the of the the the the properties if out so and that's that's actually i think that's what the the the future you too. those will be for hope of the material science is going to is going to be now have got only on the crimea slipping just span than just very briefly to tell you that what i've been telling you about all this should trust fractures so that's all very very nice so it for. next up to certain expand in the labs but we also trying to do it in the rio applications as well and. so just to shoot show your examples how it goes into the into the real production already now so i told you that one of the ways how we can make graffiti is actually by by making graphic week. so i do a little of chinese painting and i use this week for my for my painting as well but now you can things that you can use other materials as well and so like semiconductor or or or insulated so you have teams of different cars and now you can put them into your egypt pretend basically stop printing. those those catastrophic just and so the rob many ways how you can how you can print so eager pretty or or or or you just just using the day the screen printing machines but then you can print really complex country structures with some with some functionality so you so this is like a.
but for the detector and his and so he just print graphene as they come back a flat semiconductors the for the science to flat and then you can you can really are designed those so the various areas are devices and that's the sort of its technology which already go as a into production printed electronics is.
is extremely popular these days so it's really reduces the cost make it to eat is flexible so it makes it a makes it really the wonderful actually to my much much better much higher so those devices already go into it into into productions with mrs labour.
people there are a friday and ten and fourteen to that of things applications and what would make it what makes me happy if that they and a chapter on ten and they require through an insulating street and we are and we use its we use more like right things to tool to to print shows that.
the trip so it's not only gruffydd which we use for our moral printer each other to do much yours as well and at the said that's already have fully fully integrated into or agree you to production and it's a it's basically already commercial but what were at what what we're really trying to do is now to go to.
to make money out there. she was printable as well and and make the the same kids are structures which i showed you that we assemble buy buy buy hands to make its printable and so that. that's another branch another direction for the year but your science and terms of the terms of the internet of things that application so just society chandy and their into connection between between many different things so i think of all i will stop yeah we just live if you're a few a few. conclusions here for you and and. you so much for your attention thank you.