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Colour of Insects and Colour From Insects

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Colour of Insects and Colour From Insects
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This is the third talk in the series “Science and Aesthetics” and this time we examine the science and beauty of Lepidoptera, the order of insects that includes butterflies and moths. The striking colors of butterflies and moths have been crucial for their survival for more than 200 million years, and the design of the wing patterns serves as camouflage, warning and attracting mating partners. In many butterflies and moths, the wings’ color come from pigments. In other cases, coherent scattering and interference of light produce the wings’ color by the microstructure of the ribbon-like scales covering the moth's wings. In this talk, we will examine the physical principles that create the colorful wing patterns. We will also have close look at insect that are used to make dyes for several industries.
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the end to a higher everybody. my name's adam smith i work with local media which is the media on of the nobel foundation based in stockholm sweden and it's my great pleasure to welcome you all to the session with professor danny second so professor shechtman is as i'm sure you know at the technical the israelis to to technology and he was awarded the two thousand and eleven noble. prize in chemistry for his discovery of quasar crystals which is a marvelous story but not the store you can hear now and he has given a couple of talks before on the theme of science and aesthetics at this meeting and this is the third in the series and it's going to give a short talk on color and insects and then we're going.
open up the queue and i asked questions and i love you all costs of questions to which starting a bit late and we're going to run a little late so if people are desperate for coffee after his talk are allowed to rush off and get one come back to have to come back after promise. ok danny over to you later and water or gay think about them for the third introduction and i'm going to sit down one and whatever them said this is the third talking the series ended title of the series is a science anaesthetics the first thought was on the soap.
bubbles the second talk this was two years ago last year it was the on the the sign is that it's of christo of this year is about calls of in sex and calls for mean fifth why you they choose is because you see the clothes as the physiology that i can get.
yet. ok so let us start mostly to be picture they will be no equations just just stories and the then if you have some person left enough be so here we have our summer because the but this is my name that's the way i sparely.
but some other people have different ideas about it and i'm from the tech known in hi fi in israel and also i have a position i was state university the scene i was in ames iowa in the united states so little start number one the millions of different species of insects the trip around.
on the world huge unbelievable number of different in sex around the world and they are classified into more than three of thirty main groups this is the justification in the stock will discuss colors of butterfly morse and. beatles both the formation of calls and how can you use the die is made from insects so let the stars with a few pages of your to four butterflies and some of them you know about struthers than two wonderful wonderful butterfly.
from colors and because usually do not come from pigments they come from another phenomenon which i will describe also beatles colorful bit of some of them you know.
most peers one another one another one another when and if you think that most are sort of brown each gray dial of color in sex you are mistaken because some of the most are like this.
and this is the rainy a riff arrows in its accounts for mother gas car and it's one of the most beautiful morse own errors and you can bite me they go they raise them they frame they mean you can buy on the internet if you wish to have one is quite large.
to concentrate little date of these ordinary fails to explain the color formation on this particular are most but it is general too many of the most so let us look at one of the size of the wings closer look at a wing and the in many most butterfly.
by the beatles the colors of wings come from pigment pigments however ordinary folks in many many more the color does not come for business but rather from coherent scattering an interference of live by the microstructure of the ribbon like scales covering the week when you look at a butterfly. there is a lucian of your eye which is about point one millimeter does not allow you to see this case but put it under the microscope and this is what you see so you see that the wing is cover we scales and now you can enlarge will be at the image it looks like the ace.
and if you can go further than it looks like this now note is that each one of the scales have different color.
and sometimes the color of change on each one of the scales he said very elaborate structure very precise structure and look at the variety of calls from a very small area on their wings of the ordinary folks so what's happening here how do we do.
yet the colors color formation on in six wings in body this is general in order to understand the formation of colors on many types of physics we look into the formation of callers on soap bubbles because the phenomenon the physics is the same on so bubbles and of. on the wings of these insects. the award about our light so if you have an array of like to raise which are in phases.
they enforce each other and consequently you have higher better signal a light brighter light however if they're out of phase like these they can sell and there is no light kind and this is important to understand that that some if you have a beam of light that cancel each other.
then there is no light for all of these wavelengths ok so let's just say if yours about interference of cars on so bubbles. what about those are not stable if you open your faucet far as the new form for a four second or two some bubbles water bubbles but they pop than not you can have no stable most able because of the world of.
forces on the skin of the water it has high surface tension and they pop so so paulo calls stabilize the water bubble and show how they do with it. and here is what they do so the blue staff is water and on both sides the you hear this soap molecules and once you have is so molecules then several things happen number one the stability is the of them soap bubble which is really water bubble stabilize.
and the also they prevent fast evaporation they are now we have operation but it's not very fast so this is a structure and here is another way to look at it the bubble skin consists of layer of water trapped between two layers of so molecules and if you add. there are some oil its supplies this on further and the close of container if you put his so bubbly the clothes container with how you media t.v. it can say there for a year it will just stay for a very long time. the reason they don't say usually an error is because of their operation so the water just go out through the molecules and eventually no water but its box and i'll show you how it doesn't. so sobel the surface ability a bubble can exist because the surface layer of the water has certain surface tension which causes the layer to behave somewhat like alice to cheat in this is how it looks like the same picture shown before in the center in the middle of these water lilies all these soap are molecules.
so let's say a word about the was important here the indifference of lighter a are reflected from so film and reflected light will experience this import this is the only thing you want you needed to understand from now on every you understand these everything is simple to.
elected light will experience one hundred in a degrees phase change when he to flex what we may do over higher index of refraction and no face changed when the fact that for medium of smaller index of refraction ok so look at these pictures we have air we have so film and we have air in.
side also the air has low are index of refraction in this so film water has high in the survey fraction so what happens here is a falling when array of light i'm talking about sunlight. ok when the real fly heats the upper surface it's reflected will face change because he says hire a fraction index and these are low and so it came as like this conduct like these but the way to collect from the bottom part it goes from high index to low index these no face changes like so.
so unlike so and then they can meet here in with a certain thicken s. this wavelengths will be cancelled is it easy here you see they cancel each other so the of the sway links these no light coming old let's say it again right let's say. they that you have it daylight daylight is composed of a lot spectrum of colors that our eyes can see from the red to the violet on the on the side infrared on the side alter violet so let's say that this sickness. kills the blue wavelength ok so let's say that this is the blue from the whole spectrum so here comes a beam of the beams that come with all these other frequencies these are the other colors but once it is the blue and it is case it. is gone in a related so when you heat it with the daylight. comes out another color the says they liked my noose blue daylight mine is new is yellow and he was a physicist who knows it. ok so you get to get yellow ok let's continue so want to send the same physics with them have about of like if one of the colors that makes white light is obstructed from white lie about interference this is what we just the aid we see the complex.
when to recall all the rest my nose that light for example of the blow is subtracted from lights we will see yellow. ok so look at this picture this is a soap film on a for in a frame this actual picture so film in a frame so what do you see here.
because a day shape of the water if you look side way the shape of the water will be some of the legacies ok because the water because the gravitational water will come down so it will be something like the so if you be different thicknesses from upper end to the lower end and therefore you have these bends east.
something like it topographical map that you see these bands depending on the slope on the hill.
and you can actually tell the sickness by recounting his from our job vents ok so on the alternating meant light and dark on the sofa them are actually dance of cholera produced by the reflection and in to friends of light waves. ok to remember the scales on the morse it tears they have different thicknesses consequently different colors because of the reflection from the upper part and the reflection from the lower part and this we have shown here is the sinister top case like this becoming sick or two. was above them as the film sickness changes the color also change forming irregular then structure he was also bubble.
and you see the beauty of the cars is very beautiful you i hope you'll read and the it is beautiful because certain wavelengths from the white light else obstructed depending on the thickness it is seen at the top and secure and secure a double. however he hit a close look at us so bubble you find out very difficult as he is not stable the changes any changes like a storm and here is what they want to show you i hope we can do the other do this might mean a joke.
a i need your help at the bottom here. o'neal screen at the bottom here these some some mark ok if they can see what happens. should be down here on the left low quality yes this thing year heated. ok. how right. this is actual i'm actually kind frame ok it's not slow motion or anything this is what happens minute second by second.
can you imagine the very fast changes that are care within the soap bubble. it is scenery the top by the way every black spot every bill export means of these no water there that the two molecules touch and it will pop from one of these spots itself a warning is an example of what does these butterfly say he says i'm a big.
the guy stay away from me look at me you see is an a better guy right ok stairway another example.
another one. so warning is another one bit of bitten skin hair will the same phenomenon and if you look here in particular but here we see the changes of the collars.
also here. so is exactly say the same phenomenon you might think that this is not a very good practice because you are conspicuous people of maine birth can sue anyone coming get your butt infect it works very well as calm of flowers. now that was called was of insects now calls from insects so this is a scaling says cockney you.
neil is inserted looks like greece he goes on are pretty cool. fuld how would you call it submits to queue to color those a prick for a keen eye for the i a pretty for pretty purse. and it is the females are read i mean they look juicy right and i mean really and if you smash them this is what you see.
ok so those of you don't like the sudanese the earth of my. following a several applications for insect dies there will be only a few appreciation of insect dies the very many of them very many around the world india in particular are is is very good that they're in using insect two.
of color are different things and he was an example typical indian example and the red comes from these cornelia hard doctors a show you here's another example you can see the variety of colors that you can create just by using these and at the bottom you see these saying they just.
grinder the a little creatures and produces color and the states you can you can then i'll take it to the laundry and and it's fine.
but not only this however trip six rate isn't. and the boys who would like to keep us that leaps. so who work at redeye is the fact that from the female of the skeletons of coffee nearly says the same one of the many of them i talk about one and he has been reported that more than seventy thousand of these beatles are killed to produce just one pound of the eye which can be found in many cosmetic and other. products if any company was assuming of service and i have a few more examples that i worry for them to the following later on then on higher like you're bored.
for ok you got more effective than on his come under fire for including the die in the super products the green ince know his car mean car mean he is the name if you read the label it will tell you how much sugar hand and kamin ok economy who cares i know.
it's fine with me i don't have anything against it i will eat it anyway but this is the one that produces the pink a column that read i always made of a dried coke in insects that are boiled in water to extract the rate caught in a camin is a bright red dye the right from the aluminum. salt of harm. a communiqu a seed i do i will not show you the chemical of formula i promised they will be no formula here but this is a known in the end you can make it the synthetically around for this article clearly bugs are needed to produce just one pound for this if now this is important if the year. in the year was two thousand and nine i think if the order the insects base collar additives car mean in cork in a extra to go on food and cosmetic labels they do not forbidden it is ok it's not poison in any way you can put the but he chewed safe on the label. and you may want to check the labels on call our own jell-o. packages candy is a yugo or slip six for these words career mean a communiqu a cd or premier extract ok so now you know what got an electorate that is. i want to summarize my talk by showing you some interaction of people with bugs in the iraq in which banks were very prominent in culture was the victorian period in england. it's the audience me. the first an asian a victorian time people within six i will show you a few things number one dress style he was one.
a bug usually looking dress and here's another and including helps a butterfly had look at the men at the bottom.
now hairstyle and heaths still continues in england although today the silence flowers rather than sex so here's one.
he's another one.
an here is another one.
now they were jewelry in the victorian times the mayo insects and birds in here is an example are you see the beatles the actual beatles are ok dried have an actual birds heads a is.
his hearings.
i know some literature some poetry this is it world leader eighteen seventy two i don't know the other you know these gentlemen you know of him ok world lear is a fan the percent and i'll show you too short cartoons of him and this is one he says the following.
there was an old person of rye who went up to town on the fly but they said if you cough you are safe to pull off you abstemious all person of rye these one and his second run there was an old person of sky who worlds. with a blue butterfly they buys this week you on to the light of the morning and and france of the people of sky so is part of cultural so. this dress which i will show now made of bitter wings. was won by the famous victorian actress elementary in her role as lady macbeth illustrates perfectly victorian fashion and in six combined this is the dress and this is a lady dress in the same dress sell the start of our.
the launch a number of bugs embroidered into the growth of lady macbeth i studied shakespear when i was in high school and i called site mecca beth from the first war two the last one and i can still do it now but i will not know. ok and the that is the only took thank you.
you. i feel woefully underdressed and.
i thought was a lovely introduction to various aspects of our relationship with in sex and the color. you know we have a problem these days making pigments new pigments that a long lasting and can understand heat. is it possible for us to mimic the way that butterflies and beatles produce color in an accurate way can we create color through using that refraction technology. in the lab we good at that store is that something that insects can do and people can't yet ready to ok. loss to quit first of a gimmick so bubbles in your free time so you've created artificially but the also it is nothing to do with the pig many to do with the thickness lower layer and the index of refraction soul the many ways the many ways through that. the other david it's a different been peak meant and colors are the produce this way exactly but the colors produce that way i mean they don't presumably suffer the same problems as pigments that they fade over time and things i mean they say it's a it's a physical it's a physical absolute that they will produce that color and presumably that is long lasting so i was wondering how good. we are as humanity as technologists in predicting how to make those thin layers that will produce give us some vivid blue or vivid green or right ok all the the on the structure of the molecule that produce these guys he's known anything done. are in industry you can do it by industrial mess was not a touching a any in six and a in the period of time each they were so the alternating people said all we don't more bags that we will use the commercial products and then some said ok but these a little bit posner's because of. the process let's go back to bags because the season a child and it's healthier for you right now the still use them look at the labels and it will save eighty fifth used on off and but the way there are many other uses le qur for furniture than think that he's also produce this way.
now and you're interested in sex is not limited only to color is it you like in sex in all sorts of different ways. with yes i have a long history with insects. i'll tell you to store is the one he is the eighth has to do anybody from australian year raise your hand aussies nobody from australia ok anyway in australia where ends that sort of green the new green.
wiener and that call the weaving and that they live on trees they take two or three lives in a bind them together in the leave the nest is about the size and they live on trees. now this alone and in supreme do think formic acid like all normal heart ends they produce city kes it is called lemon juice three and a way of bridges of because because city because it is important for your health. is a all british sailors found out in the history of the abrasions either eat them alive or cut to the whole less put it in boiling water while last levante he's so i was in australia with the new the cup. the two national park south of the are weaned and there was a tour guide who took us into the jungle as an he said over by the way they're breathing they do they do ace and i said ok if you can do it i can do it and i did this ok i can tell you that about my experience with the n.c.a.a. try to. right but but day they lose they lose the very low end it they they taste exactly like yemen choose this is one another of my involvement is the following are in i'm from israel is you know there's a town in his early and also a result called a fool a lot of very well known but the mirror fall. came to me and said i want to open a resource center for insects in a fool would you be with us said yes of course sounds very interesting so what will they do that in this and is being built now what will the to their they will study in six four. pauline nation you know that these problem with these today we need in six for pollination this is one survival of research how to keep the bees alive in the world and or how to develop different kinds of pollination system this is number one in sex is pest control. calls are in six that eat the bad guys that kill your veggie tables so he's called nature of them. control of our of different in sex and number three is in six for food. you can buy them in several countries in europe cookies made over our in sex you can also buy them in israel and there is a year companies are older produce them these are on a large round the made from lara of some fly. are they drive them they grind them and use it he said of the flower are it has of its more healthy for you because it's not directly car but you don't get fed just get stronger and healthier if you use these cookies and i eat there willingly.
they are you know everybody thinks i'm sorry didn't bring examples the others are very love to show you how it with how we eat them that would be good because the women there is a bit of a taboo about eating insects at least in the west but that shouldn't be a prisoner of this institute believes that it can be a serious major protein source for the future. ohno question only hey guys let's say they serve you shrimps shame so he insists on the sea basically speaking and you need them are it's wonderful now let's see the give you a warm exactly the same size as the shrimp cooked and and nicely with soul.
even paper but it looks like a warm what will you say you say no i now let's find out what is the same thing we have an audience of young scientists year can you also teach people what they would learn by failing in their first experiments.
yes absolutely absolutely ok our of failure are in experiments can come from different reasons of course one reason is the date you been a lousy job then your will you have an art effect or you failed controlling the prom.
letters we don't talk about that let's assume that all of you i mean hey you've got here you must be very close to purge being perfect so let's say that this is not the case are many experiments fail he said ok to fail it's fine a look at the child who starts. walking or why he makes who he or she makes two steps for the loops gets up make two more sets falls done ok and a week later they walk and and months later you run after them don't catch him anymore so it's ok is the same thing with experiments scientific experiments same thing went to pinar del. endeavour's he said failure is ok but learned from your failures. ok want went wrong and allies to failure. you know in the military operations the won the world all countries do that uses a failure these investigations what went wrong we don't want you to happen again on the same thing with size something went wrong in our experiment don't just jump to the second one what went wrong. analyze what went wrong once you know it find next time it will not happen think last thank you.
ok we have more time for questions please of him. thank you it's more like a follow up question on this so i also don't want those the comments i compose look and i burned out during my first shows a cordless because i just couldn't cope with all the feb during the time i get a very high risk again project and its of course failed. and i'd like to know your opinion about how to cope with failure because that's what we do all the time all the young scientists year we are doing experiments which are ninety eight percent of time failing and how do you what is your device how to deal with this to thank you just to summarize he absolutely he it's a question. about fade its continuing the same fate as he is now in his second post talk he gave up on his first post-op because there was so much better at it and apart from learning from your fate is how do you cope with the feta your help. it's a very good question because health has to do with character and the we have to learn. q deal with failures is in so are you have to tell yourself i understand why i fail if you understand why you failed and and say ok i can i can overcome that the cement of caracter many people more almost everybody fails some wary.
in his life for her life when we encounter many favor most of them luckily our small failure i you fall in the street you break your neck happen sometime a case of failure happens right so ok learn look look at the road when you walk learn from your failures. and learn how to overcome of the disappointment and discuss phone from the fell of a carry on carrion your younger men you'll have a fantastic chance to succeed in your own case a lot of people were telling you that you are on completely the wrong track than resume ugly you felt i mean i don't know did you feel like a fade away.
the new for instance lost your job because of ok i have to explain to a british beat the when i made the discovery of quasi periodic christo's that the game eventually many prizes including the last one which is the nobel prize you know that the nobel prizes the last price you can ever get.
once you get it i sit. so. i made a discovery by transmission electron microscopy i was an expert in transmission electron microscopy expert means that you know how to use the machine you want to understand this theory to take send it you can teach classes. so great is students transmission electron microscopy this is how i got myself and eight. and the i knew that i was right how did they know because i checked my serve many times over to convince myself the worst critique over me to convince myself that i did saying quite know what effect on everything else. in fact on the first day of the the first half a day when i made a discovery i knew i repeated all the experiment needed to know that i was correct. the people who contradicted me where the higher echelons of the scientific community in do world led by porcelain aspiring to time nobel laureates chemistry and peace are really the greatest kameez of the twentieth century definitely in the united states. he was the father of the american cancer society and the godfather american cameras study and he led an opposition and he was standing on stage as saying done it shocked me stop the nonsense that no quasicrystals ask was a sign tease. he was wrong. and the people who supported me was created you very far as a growing scientific committee of the avant garde to scientists around the world who repeated my experiments found the same phenomenon and started to develop use science. based on my discovery why did he fail the greatest scientists and why did they win because he may be the greatest scientists of the twentieth century in chemistry i was an expert intellectual microscopy and he was not and that was left serve.
the problem so is that a bit one recipe for how to deal with federer that you just need to know what you are doing and it may not work but at least you know that you are secure in your technique that.
i like short outsourced.
you know he's right we might as well and there was a good at what a good place to and thank you all very much for your time and thank you don't check.