Heidelberg Lecture: The Origins and Evolution of the Internet

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Heidelberg Lecture: The Origins and Evolution of the Internet
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2016
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English

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This talk will explore the motivations for and design of the Internet and the consequences of these designs. The Internet has become a major element of communications infrastructure since its original design in 1973 and its continued spread throughout the societies of our planet. There are many challenges posed by the continued application of the Internet to so many new uses. Safety, Security and Privacy are among these challenges especially as the so-called "Internet of Things" continues to evolve. The increased digitization of our information poses a different challenge: the preservation of digital content for hundreds to thousands of years. Might we be facing a Digital Dark Age?
Turing test Scaling (geometry) Multiplication sign Moment (mathematics) Plastikkarte Neuroinformatik
Satellite Artificial neural network Mobile Web Projective plane Computer network Control flow Mereology Computer Internetworking Internetworking Time evolution Software Optics Computer network Computer science ARPANET Pressure Physical system ARPANET
Satellite Software Bit rate Mobile Web Software Computer science Computer network Cycle (graph theory) Control flow Computer Neuroinformatik ARPANET
Installation art Mobile Web Game controller Group action Satellite Mobile Web Moment (mathematics) Computer network Control flow Plastikkarte Computer Neuroinformatik Personal digital assistant Internetworking Software ARPANET Quicksort ARPANET
Satellite Arithmetic mean Server (computing) Software Link (knot theory) Internetworking Weight Plastikkarte Cartesian coordinate system Neuroinformatik Physical system
Implementation Multiplication sign Workstation <Musikinstrument> Plastikkarte Student's t-test Plastikkarte Cartesian coordinate system 19 (number) Number Neuroinformatik Software Different (Kate Ryan album) Order (biology) Cuboid ARPANET Physical system ARPANET
State observer Kälteerzeugung Multiplication sign Interface (computing) 40 (number) Limit (category theory) Coprocessor Twitter Frequency Message passing Internetworking Router (computing) Router (computing) ARPANET
Trail Game controller Multiplication sign Mobile Web Parameter (computer programming) Streaming media 2 (number) Twitter Pentagon Frequency Very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line Bit rate Operator (mathematics) Videoconferencing ARPANET Endliche Modelltheorie Physical system Form (programming) Area Addition Information Key (cryptography) Weight Sampling (statistics) Bit Storage area network Diameter Software Order (biology) Self-organization Speech synthesis Cubic graph Right angle Quicksort Thomas Bayes
Satellite Area Addition Workstation <Musikinstrument> Standard deviation Multiplication Satellite Channel capacity Mobile Web Distance Software Bit rate Different (Kate Ryan album) ARPANET Error message Physical system Physical system
Operations research Implementation Multiplication Satellite Multiplication sign Number Revision control Frequency Internetworking Software Iteration Internetworking ARPANET Iteration Bayesian network Communications protocol Physical system Task (computing) ARPANET
Point (geometry) Link (knot theory) Internetworking Order (biology) Operating system Physicalism Communications protocol Computer programming Physical system
Link (knot theory) Link (knot theory) Weight Computer network Überlastkontrolle Bit Cartesian coordinate system System call File Transfer Protocol Anwendungsschicht Process (computing) Internetworking Integrated development environment Internetworking Telecommunication OSI model UDP <Protokoll> Communications protocol Router (computing) Computer architecture Data integrity
Email Multiplication sign Direction (geometry) Decision theory Data transmission Anwendungsschicht Frequency Web service Internetworking OSI model Communications protocol Router (computing) Computer architecture Physical system Link (knot theory) Netzwerkschicht Weight Physical law Computer network Cartesian coordinate system Googol Internetworking Internet service provider Order (biology) Universe (mathematics) Videoconferencing Table (information) Communications protocol Router (computing)
Web page Dataflow Dependent and independent variables Game controller Multiplication sign Web page Data recovery Fitness function Plastikkarte Bit Number Number Mechanism design Coefficient of determination Internetworking Personal digital assistant Internetworking Order (biology) Cuboid Office suite Physical system
Domain name Server (computing) Connectivity (graph theory) Coma Berenices Web browser Mereology IP address Neuroinformatik Number Web service Internetworking Hierarchy Physical system Chi-squared distribution Email Algorithm DNS <Internet> Domain name Software maintenance Cartesian coordinate system Web browser Type theory Numeral (linguistics) Googol Software Order (biology) Website Communications protocol Address space
Gateway (telecommunications) Point (geometry) Satellite Mobile Web Area DNS <Internet> Link (knot theory) Multiplication sign Weight Domain name Computer network Web browser Value-added network Type theory Internetworking Software Synchronization ARPANET Cuboid Software testing Software testing Router (computing) Thomas Bayes Address space
Mobile Web Satellite Gateway (telecommunications) Information Weight Physical law Computer network Line (geometry) 19 (number) Computer programming Value-added network Internetworking Bit rate Software Synchronization Internetworking Universe (mathematics) ARPANET Energy level Software testing Physical system Design of experiments
Satellite Dependent and independent variables Weight Multiplication sign Weight Computer network Arithmetic mean Internetworking Software Synchronization Collision Quicksort Pressure Physical system ARPANET Design of experiments
Weight Computer network Food energy Power (physics) Element (mathematics) Internetworking Software Internetworking Universe (mathematics) Energy level Communications protocol ARPANET Design of experiments
Internetworking Software Weight Surface Execution unit Computer network Hill differential equation Right angle Flow separation Physical system Design of experiments
Implementation Weight Computer network Cartesian coordinate system Graph coloring 19 (number) Web 2.0 Internetworking Software Internetworking Term (mathematics) Computer hardware Communications protocol Physical system Condition number Design of experiments
Implementation Server (computing) HTML Multiplication sign Clark, Jim Interactive television Bit rate Web browser Cartesian coordinate system Hypertext Supercomputer Formal language Hypertext Web 2.0 Photographic mosaic Graphical user interface Medical imaging Mathematics Internetworking Transportprotokoll Internetworking Videoconferencing Communications protocol
Photographic mosaic Internetworking Different (Kate Ryan album) Multiplication sign Business model Boom (sailing) Bit rate Communications protocol Markup language Number Physical system
Point (geometry) Multiplication sign Decision theory Bit rate Neuroinformatik Power (physics) Revision control Photographic mosaic Programmer (hardware) Internetworking ARPANET Energy level Address space DNS <Internet> Scaling (geometry) HTML Domain name Bit Image registration Cartesian coordinate system Hypertext Radical (chemistry) Googol Internetworking Transportprotokoll Software Boom (sailing) Information security Communications protocol Address space
Point (geometry) Domain name Divisor Code Multiplication sign Execution unit Coma Berenices Parallel port Mereology Dressing (medical) Product (business) Number Formal language Revision control Web 2.0 Mechanism design Mathematics Sign (mathematics) Web service Internetworking Energy level Information security Address space Form (programming) Physical system Mobile Web Addition Dot product DNS <Internet> Scaling (geometry) Electric generator Domain name Generic programming Bit Image registration Cartesian coordinate system Cryptography Googol Internetworking Software Integrated development environment Password Smartphone Internet der Dinge Information security Communications protocol Spacetime Address space
Point (geometry) Mobile app Game controller Kälteerzeugung Multiplication sign Authentication Mobile Web Transport Layer Security Plastikkarte Frame problem Moore's law Web service Cryptography Process (computing) Internetworking Software Internetworking Utility software Internet der Dinge Physical system
Email Scaling (geometry) Information Kälteerzeugung Weight Electronic mailing list Mereology System call Graph coloring IP address Machine vision Internetworking Internetworking Blog Website Family Row (database)
Context awareness Kälteerzeugung Artificial neural network Mereology Limit (category theory) Neuroinformatik Revision control Arithmetic mean Googol Pointer (computer programming) Internetworking Software Internetworking Right angle Endliche Modelltheorie Data conversion Resultant
Laptop Point (geometry) Server (computing) Hecke operator Maxima and minima Water vapor Product (business) Mach's principle Goodness of fit Internetworking Energy level Router (computing) Physical system Mobile Web Electronic data interchange Information Server (computing) Electronic program guide Food energy Degree (graph theory) Wave Message passing Internetworking Software Personal digital assistant Row (database)
Authentication Physical system
Degree (graph theory) Building Information Software Different (Kate Ryan album) Weight Multiplication sign Sampling (statistics) Mereology Physical system Number
Functional (mathematics) Multiplication sign Mobile Web Sampling (statistics) Number Type theory Googol Internetworking Blog Order (biology) Energy level Analytic continuation Address space Laptop Physical system Point cloud
Data model Bit rate Different (Kate Ryan album) Googol Sampling (statistics) Videoconferencing Device driver Endliche Modelltheorie Software bug Product (business)
Videoconferencing Software testing
Sign (mathematics) Trail Googol Radar Row (database)
Machine vision Multiplication sign Software testing
Sound effect Hill differential equation Right angle Independence (probability theory)
Data model Googol Software developer Endliche Modelltheorie Text editor
Netzwerkschicht Projective plane Computer network Mereology Rule of inference 2 (number) Photographic mosaic Medical imaging Message passing Internetworking Time evolution Software testing Internet der Dinge Communications protocol
Point (geometry) Web service Term (mathematics) Internetworking Googol Telecommunication Direction (geometry) Operator (mathematics) Evolute Fiber (mathematics) Taylor series
Coefficient of determination Dynamical system Robotics Aerodynamics
Coefficient of determination Aerodynamics Disk read-and-write head Stability theory
Coefficient of determination Googol Personal digital assistant Robotics Projective plane Videoconferencing Bit Aerodynamics
Dataflow Implementation Game controller Link (knot theory) Multiplication sign 40 (number) Roundness (object) Internetworking Ring (mathematics) Software Integrated development environment Internetworking Robotics Telecommunication Aerodynamics Quicksort Communications protocol
Metre Dataflow Expression Game controller Bit rate Software Surface Order (biology) Planning Orbit Spacetime
Suite (music) Expression Implementation Surface Multiplication sign Wage labour Source code Data storage device Set (mathematics) Real-time operating system Distance Information technology consulting Prototype Universe (mathematics) Configuration space Fiber bundle Freeware Communications protocol Pole (complex analysis) Physical system Spacetime
Expression Internetworking Multiplication sign Wage labour Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy Spacetime
Hill differential equation
a year. it. i know i could see already i have to convince the computer that it's me so one moment.
there were so first of all this is you have no idea what this is like i think well some of you have been up here before but but for me this is very daunting i've never had this many nobel prize winners and smart people in the audience at the same time in this scale so.
hope i do reasonably well stephen held in an absolutely spectacular lecture optical microscope the last year at the heidelberg laureate for him so i'm feeling a certain amount of pressure.
so let me start by saying i'm going to try to cover some of the history of the internet just to give you a sense for how it came about and then some ideas about where it's going in the future so let's start out by reminding you that there was a predecessor system called the arpanet the defense the.
the answer research projects agency agency which is part of our department of defense in the u.s. began to explore the possibilities of computer networking and had a very practical reason for doing it it was funny that doesn't computer science departments during the nineteenth sixty's to do research in artificial intelligence and computer science.
and everybody kept asking for the latest computing equipment every year and they said we can't buy twelve new computers for twelve computer science departments every year so we're going to build a networking are going to have to share your resources and people were reluctant to do that initially because they thought well if we have to share resources the other people will see our work and.
well steal our software or is the color code or use up all the cycles an artist said just relax were funding all of you this is no longer a competitive issue we want you to share your ex experiences and your expertise so that we can accelerate the rate at which the research progresses so they built the arpanet and.
it was successful then they realized after the success of the arpanet that the computers might be useful for command and control because if you could manage your resources better than an opponent owing to the use of the computers he might actually be able to defeat a larger opponent with the smaller size.
group because you are managing to extend their capability better we call that a force multiplier but if that were going to be the case then the computers would wind up having to be in aircraft and ships at sea in mobile vehicles and at the moment at that moment only fixed installations have been built for the arpanet so that's sort of the.
background for why the defense department are up in particular was interested in pursuing this so this is all based on the concept of packet switching you're all using it whether you know that are not about some people don't fully appreciate how it works and is actually very simple if you know how postcards work you know how the basic internet packets.
the work as well first of all just like a postcard they have no idea how they're being carried a postcard doesn't know if it's going over the an airplane an airplane or ship a senior in the back of a postman her bicycle and the internet packers don't know how they're being carried they don't know whether it's an optical fibre or satellite link or radio channel are hard. wired internet and they don't care the design of the system was carefully don't to make sure that these internet packets were unaware of how they were being transported also like a postcard the internet package don't know what's written on them so if that's what turned out to be a very powerful tool because. the meaning of the internet package is only interpreted at the edges of the net by the computers that are a either sending or receiving them what that means is that when you develop a new application you only have to change the software at the edges of the net where the host computers are going to change the network because the network doesn't care what the.
station is which opens up no huge number of possibilities when you want to invent a new application you don't have to change on all of the network postcards don't stay in order either you put to post cards into the post box and they'll if they come out at all they might come out in a different order and in fact sometimes they don't all come out and so you.
of this disorderly not reliable.
system of post are electronic postcards and that's the basic package switching so you might wonder why would anybody make anything is full of that and i hope i'll show you that can work the original initial implementation of the arpanet had four nodes i was a u.c.l.a. at the time as a graduate student like many of you are and wrote.
the software to connect the cygnus seven computer to the first packet switching of the arpanet in about nineteen sixty nine seventy seven is in a museum now somewhere and some people think i should be there too but then i'm here so that's the beginning just before no network it rapidly groom over time what.
you see on the left is what a packet switched look like him stood for interface message processor we call impacts which and our routers this was the size of a refrigerator at the time and you can tell that things have changed over the intervening forty years or so you can hold a router in your hand now it's about the size.
a simple internet connected and of course it cost a lot less these were hundred thousand dollar devices that can the day so that's a how things have changed over forty year period this by the way is a classic observation usually anything that you do this new is big in expensive and with the. variants over time if it continues to work gets less and less expensive and often a lot smaller and so you see this trend from expensive equipment its own by institutions to maybe just departments and then eventually individuals whom these devices and carry them around.
we were also concerned of course about mobile communications and so we built a packet radio network in addition to the original arpanet this ran in the san francisco bay area we had repeaters up on the mountain tops and this particular nondescript them that was carrying equipment.
side which i can show you hear if you see i guess i can point to the hear these things over here and over here are a packet radios their about a cubic foot in size and cost fifty thousand dollars each back around nineteen seventy five and they were the sorts of things that you stick in your pockets now but said back then.
in the equipment was not quite as the as dense we were able to get something on the order of hundred to four hundred kilobits per second operating at seventeen she was the seventeen ten to eighteen fifty megahertz. and we were modulating this stuff that the fairly high speeds so one of the things that we tried to do in addition to transmitting this data around we recognize that for command and control we need boys and video and so back in the nineteenth seventy's we were experimenting with packet ties voice. the package ties video now have to tell you that the voice experiments were kind of interesting because a typical voice channel is a sixty four thousand it's a second you sample the voice stream at eight thousand times a second taking eight bits of information per second or percent full and we only had fifty. it's per second available in the arpanet back home and hundred kilobits in the packet radio net so we decided in order to get more voice channels in the system we would compress the voice down to eighteen hundred bits per second. in order to do that we model the boys track as a stack of ten so wonders that would change their diameters as the voice speech was being generated and that will stack of soldiers was excited by a pitcher form and frequency we sent the parameters the diameters of all of those model. now some wonders over to the other side and that got the data rate down to eighteen hundred it's a second although you can imagine that the quality of the speech kind of reduced someone you went from sixty four kilobits down to eighteen hundred so anyone spoke through this system sounded like a drunken norwegian and i hope i have an inside. more than any norwegians and the audience so the day came they were understandable but it was a very peculiar kind of them so they came when i was a by this time working in the defense department and i had to demonstrate this system to some generals at the pentagon and i remember thinking ok how my going to do this and then i remembered. that one of my colleagues who was working on the packet voice was in borrowing from the norwegian defense research establishment so we had in bars speak first to the ordinary voice which system and then we had him speak through our packet boy system it sounded exactly the same. now we didn't tell the generals that everybody would sound that way to the well as you can see on the right hand side that we've gone from these big bold key pieces of equipment they require a huge than to carry around the things that we put in our pockets or even strapped organise and once again this trend of going from big and.
expensive too small portable and often affordable by an individual is still holding true there in addition now because we also wanted to dealerships that see we decided that satellites would be the appropriate technology because you could go long distances so we.
put a packets out well we put a satellite standard satellite system in all set for a or used at least is some capacity on that network and we have multiple ground stations all contending for the same satellite channels sos kind of like an eternity in the sky and that allowed us to experiment with white hair. area packet switching over a satellite channel so we now had three different kinds of networks to deal with packet radio packet satellite and the arpanet of the all operated different speeds they had different error rates they had different packet sizes and yet the problem the bob kahn and i had to solve was how do we make all of those versed networks.
appear to be one network even though they were all very distant so just to give you a sense for on the course of this effort the nineteen sixty nine the arpanet begins. instruction in then in seventy three seventy four after having about for three or four years of experience with the arpanet bob kahn and i did the first design of the t.c.p. protocol which later became t.c.p. ip and then during the nineteenth seventy five to seventy eight period we went through multiple iterations of implementation task.
and refining and correcting of the protocols and we we found the number of mistakes that that we had not anticipated we have many different institutions working with us at the same time and so if someone tells you that you know the internet is purely an american invention the that's incorrectly had colleagues from everywhere people when you. there are people in asia and some in my lab at stanford before it came to a darpa elsewhere so there was a lot going on and then finally after we settled on the versions a year mostly using today you're using roughly speaking the nineteen seventy eight internet is only we began implementing the.
those protocols and every operating system that we could find so that in nineteen eighty two we could announce to everyone who is on all of the systems that they would have to switch over to the new t.c.p. protocols in order to stay in the program so in january first nineteen eighty three we turn the internet on and his but it has been.
running since nineteen eighty three although it wasn't widely visible to anyone except the research community and the military just to give you another important point about the design of the system is layered so the lowest layers are no physical transport over optical fibre radio links and things like that the internet protocol way.
there is that is the electronic post cars and those are the things that are forwarded of through the network and go back and forth between the post above that layer are the protocols that make this a more disciplined environment and finally protocols that implement applications so this is a layered architecture and its.
roughly of its is roughly one two three four five layers if you like physical way or the data links the discipline of the bits and then finally the ip layer and transport an application so the way the physically works is that the host of the edge of the net implement all of the layers approach. the call up to and including the application were but you'll notice that the things in the middle of the net that are responsible for switching internet packets don't know anything about transport layer protocols are implicated application protocols all they see our internet packets those little electronic postcards and so their job is very simple one.
they get a postcard they look and see where it's supposed to go the look in a table which is generated by eroding protocol running in the background and they descended in whichever direction that table tells him to go and so it's very simple concept and the simplicity and think has helped make this a system which is normally scaled over time but it's persisted. over thirty plus year period so this is another picture of the of the layered protocol architecture and what's important is the little guy in the middle called the internet protocol the thing which i want to emphasize in this picture is that because the internet protocol way or doesn't care how the underlying layers work.
the assumption is if you hand the underlying layers a packet that they will somehow pass a law meant channel and they go from router to router outer to the destination host the consequence of that decision is that every time a new communication protocol came along or new transmission technology came along we just what the in. to the internet internet didn't care didn't notice it was anything new is just another way of carrying bets by the same token the absence of knowledge of the applications in the internet protocol meant that when somebody wanted to invent a new application they didn't have to go get permission from every internet service provider in the world all the had to do was to go. implemented at the edges of the net and proceed to send packages back and forth so larry the surrogate when they started google in their dorm room at stanford university did not have to negotiate with every internet service provider in the world they just put the service up on the net and let people try it out that's why we've had such a cornucopia of applications coming. out of the internet despite the fact that there are literally hundreds of thousands of internet service providers all around the world so in order to make the internet protocol they are more disciplined became remember its last see it loses things it gets them out of order and everything else we put another layer of protocol in the top called t.c.p. and you can.
i understand very easily how it works if you imagine the problem of sending someone a book through a post office that only carries postcards so imagine what would you do well the first problem is you have to cut the pages up didn't get them to fit on the postcard then you notice that the post not all the postcards have page numbers on them because you could pay. it is up and you know they're going to get out of order and so you number every postcard one two three four five six seven eight nine ten and you also know that some of the postcards are going to get lost see him on the copies in case you have to read transmit them and then you feel you want to know how do we know when to stop sending know how to win. keep throw away the copies of kept because you have with the guy on the other industry see them then you get this brilliant idea you have the guy of the other in send you a postcard say i got everything up to you know postcard number four hundred and twenty and then you realize that postcard might get lost so now you whose side well i guess i'll just look at my watch and of have. i've gotten any responses back from the other guy i'm going to start sending copies until i do get a post card that says i got everything up the number four hundred and twenty so that's the basic timeout retransmission recovery mechanism you can filter things out because you know which postcards you've got of a duplicate shows up you can ignore that than the only other thing to worry about his.
the case where you have the thousand page book and you cut it up into two thousand postcards and you taking to the post office and you have given to the post office all at once and by a miracle the post office tries to deliver all of them have the same time on the same day and you know they don't fit in the post box at the destination in some following the floor of the dog. of eats them or they get blown away by the wind so you have an agreement with your friend that you won't send more than two hundred at a time before until you get a postcard back say i got all of those you can send some more that's called flow control so now you know how the internet works that's all there is too well i left out a little bit there's these demeaning system you know how.
when you type the your els and things like that in the middle or didn't are demeaning site www dot google dot com there's a whole hierarchical structure of servers that are scattered throughout the internet that your browser essentially applies to or your e-mail application is says i'm trying to send an e-mail. to someone at google dot com where i'm trying to go to google dot com to do a search you can't get their using the domain name your computer actually has to go and consult with the demeaning service and say what's the numerical ip address of the destinations so dumb a name lookouts produces a numerical advantage. guess which the t.c.p. ip protocols use in order to send packages back and forth across the network and so that turns out to be a very important part of the network well so you have the b.b.c. transport stuff you have the internet packets you have the t.c.p. protocol to maintain things in order to recover from failures and you have to maintain.
system to figure out where things are supposed to go but she is easier to remember the domain name that is the number and finally you have the routing algorithms and that's basically the components of the internet that make it work so in nineteen seventy seven i'm now at the defense department running the program and i've been at it now since a ninety seven teeth.
three at that point and i really really wanted to be able to demonstrate this stuff actually worked we'd only done paralyzed test among the various nets and to be honest with you if you take to packet networks and you're just trying to connect to them together you could probably build a box in between them and do some crazy thing and to make it work but i wanted. the show that a standardised box which we call a gateway at the time because we didn't know they were supposed to be called routers. where would it work where mobile networks that have different types so we had the mobile packet radio network in the bay area where the van going up and down the beige or freeway radiating packets through the gateway into the arpanet by this time the arpanet had been extended by an internal synchronous satellite link all the way to sweden and norway.
they and then down to london by land line where there was a another gateway that connected the extended arpanet back across the packet satellite network over the atlantic back to the arpanet in the us into another gateway that all across the arpanet to u.s.c. information science institute in law. los angeles now between the packet rate of the mobile paid mobile packet radio van and los angeles is about four hundred miles but if you follow the path of the packet it's gone one hundred thousand miles because it's gone up and down to synchronize satellite level twice and then all across the atlantic and the. the a in the us as well and it worked and i remember sitting and jumping up and down saying it works it works that i couldn't possibly have worked its software and it's a miracle one software work so i was pretty excited about that this is the most important demonstration in the nineteenth seventy seven period in as i say we standardized.
shortly thereafter so another kind of timeline which i wanted to share shows you some of the other participants in the growing internet program the arpanet comes in sixty nine the university of hawaii did and aloha net system based on a shared radio channel in nineteen seventy one and they call that.
aloha because basically you transmitted whenever you wanted to and if there was a collision you and you didn't hear response you assume there was a collision in you read transmitted and you are careful not to read transmitted to fix time later otherwise have continuous collision so instead what they did was to have a variable timeout. so that if he had a collision with someone the next time you eat three tried would be in a different time and so aloha as a sort of a very hain with this kind of network of the pack a satellite system was based on that same idea of using the synchronous satellite channel.
i mean bob metcalf visited the aloha facility and decided that he could do the aloha system on a piece of coaxial cable and he invented the ether net is iraq's park in nanking seventy three at three megabits a second that was fairly impressive of course then we were going through all of our software did.
element we turn the internet on a january first nineteen eighty three the national science foundation in the u.s. decides maybe this packet switching idea would be good to connect all of the universities in the us and they build the n.s.f. net backbone to connect three thousand universities around the united states including some intermediate level networks nasa and the department. energy also decided that they would adopt the t.c.p. ip protocols replacing their high performance on our high power at eight p.m. it was news that what is it it's high power in high it up.
i came to stephen what the hell was that it was the hype. doesn't matter it was for doing experiments with high energy physics happen it was a high energy physics them and so they replaced all of their networks with t.c.p. ip and then around nineteen eighty nine i got permission to connect some commercial systems up to the government backbone and in that year several commercial network.
it's got started unit p a sign and certain it there's a whole story behind surface and i didn't and i won't body with the right now but i didn't build it they just borrow my name in the stocking on it they did ask permission and i remember thinking if they mess up my be embarrassed and then i thought wait a minute people name their kids after other people and of the kids don't come out right.
they don't blame the people the name them after so i said go ahead go ahead and do it it's ok that actually work out all right.
so this is what the internet looks like now it's his giant big ball of of the hundreds of thousands of networks the reason that i wanted to show you this is that the colors represent is different networks we call them and thomas systems formally but the thing is this is not a top down system and so the people have run pieces of the internet.
pick which hardware they want to use they pick which software the one thing is they decide who they are going to connect to an amorphous terms and conditions and and it just all comes together almost organically which is what bob kahn and i hope in the first place we published our results and nineteen seventy four saying if you can build something that works this way and. find someone to connect to it should work and so what happened is the network grew in a very organic way it only works because everybody's using the same protocols even though they're implementations might vary so that's how the internet has grown up until the world wide web is one of the most important applications of the network and i.
to distinguish between the two because some people get confused about that world wide web is what many of us use all the time tim burners lee and robert cailliau at cern built the first hypertext market language and hypertext protocol implementation the browsers and servers at cern and nobody noticed to be. quite honest however two guys did notice they were the national center for super computer applications marc andreessen eric been a they did what was called mosaic which was the first graphical user interface for a browser it made the internet or the world wide web look like a magazine it had formatted text that had images of eventually.
he got video and audio and things like that it was a very spectacular change in the interactions that people could have been so a guy named jim clark who had built so little graphics in the so within that only saw this and it brought marc andreessen and others from in c.s.a. to the west coast they started netscape commune.
patients around ninety ninety four they have their initial public offering in ninety ninety five the stock went through the roof was the most spectacular i.p.o. in history and that started the dot boom which meant every venture capital company in the valley and elsewhere would throw money at anything that looks like it had something to do with the internet he didn't matter if they had a business. while or anything else is a huge amount of money went in and a lot of companies failed around april of two thousand that was called the dot bust but what was interesting as i was tracking you know how big is the internet how much is a growing and it was doubling every year for quite a long time even through the dot us because people had. we'll use for the underlying internet even though a lot of companies fail because they didn't really have a realistic business model just to point out to you about economics want to one don't spend any more money than you have that's point number one and the second one is don't confuse capital for revenue revenue is continue.
listen capital runs out when you run out of capital and you don't understand the difference then you're not surprised or you are surprised you just going bankrupt so this system grew very very rapidly in spite of the dot boston course all of your using it today for many different purposes including much of your scientific research the internet itself even those design.
in forty years ago is not static it has continued to evolve in many ways especially new protocols a new applications and i have to confess the the that bob kahn and i did make at least one fairly major mistake apart from little details on the protocol design were trying to figure out how many termination points are going to need for this internet thing. and so remembers ninety seventy three and where you know writing or little design and so we said ok how many networks will there be per country because we'd already thinking global what we just finished doing the arpanet and it was not cheap to build that no nation wide scale so we thought well maybe they'll be to networks per country because there are to be some competition. and then we said how many countries are there and we didn't know and there wasn't any google to ask. so so so we guess that one hundred and twenty eight because that's the power of to an answer programmers think and so two times hundred twenty eight is to fifty six and that's a bits and then we said how many computers with a deeper network without know that you know let's go crazy sixteen million that's another twenty four bit so that's thirty two bits of address space is required.
making this decision at a time when computers are great big expensive things they were an air conditioner rooms and they did not move around. the so sixteen million level it was a was pretty ambitious and that actually worked ok the four point three billion terminations of ip version for which is what you currently using mostly lasted until two thousand and eleven and then we ran out.
it's so good at fortunately the engineers including me started to get panicky around ninety ninety two when we started seeing either nets all over your is that we develop the new version of protocol called i p version sex and it has one hundred twenty eight bits of address space i don't have to tell you can do the math no three point four times tend to the thirty. the the dresses which is a number that's the big enough for the even the congress would appreciate that number so we ended up by the way some of you would wonder what happened i p version five that was a protocol that was designed to do a streaming video and audio but it didn't scale very well so we abandon that in the next number with sex so i p version of sex. this is the production version of the network and that's what you should be using and if you're i.s.p. is not providing with i p v six service please pound on the table and say you give me a date certain when i can have i p v six addresses because i need them for the internet of things in the mobiles everything else. so we were a bunch of americans and we only spoke english anyway so all we had was asked the characters for the domain names but it was pointed out to was later that there's some languages that can be expressed with ask the characters and he said all yet we forgot about that so we added a unit code which is what's use in the world wide web in the domain name so now you can have the main aims. in russian in cyrillic in arabic in a berlin selling the original generic top level domains really no seven like dot com dot net dot org dot edu got milne dot gov and so on but the internet corporation for sign aims and numbers decided to open up the generic top level domain space a couple of years ago and they got two thousand. thousand applications for new generic top level domains you don't like things like dot travel and dot corporation and so on. so all and they charge hundred eighty five thousand dollars each so they got three hundred fifty million dollars came in upon opening up the top level domain space there are additional things which i don't have time to go into much except to say that there were security risks in the system which had been designed in a very friendly environment mostly engineers we didn't want. to ruin everybody else's stuff and so we were attacking anything but once you release the internet into the global community or bad guys are out there to so we've been adding more mechanisms for defending against various forms of attack against the domain name system against the routing systems of those are the last two in the west we've also been.
pushing to factor with an occasion especially if google were you have to have a device that will generate a cryptic graphic password in addition to your username and password so even if somebody gets is your username and password they don't have the little gadget that does the crypto password generation as well and so they can penetrate the camp we've added. transport lawyer security which encrypts the traffic on the t.c.p. layer and the inhibits the ability of somebody to snoop on mortars sending through the network and of course mobile smartphones and the internet of things have become part of the environment just a brief footnote on smartphones.
the mobile phone was actually develop the nineteen seventy three by name already cooper working at motorola bought in a bob kahn and i didn't know about that but in nineteen eighty three marty cooper turn on the first mobile phone service and courses phone was about this big way and three and a half pounds and had a whip and ten. on the top and i call them up to ask some questions with one of his phones and one question i asked him was how long as the battery lasts and he said twenty minutes but it's ok you can hold the phone up longer than that and. now it's up they got better since then but it probably is so we were so we got launch the same time mobile phones and the internet started officially informally ninety three but they really didn't have anything to do with each other until two thousand and seven when steve jobs came home with the i phone and at this point. now the phone is capable of interacting with the internet and what's interesting about this of course is the two systems usually reinforce their utility the mobile phones apps use computer power on the internet the internet is accessible for many mobile phone any smart phone and so the two main themselves more useful and finally of course. as time is going on and people started to use software instead of mechanical the electro mechanical devices for control and that this leads to the internet of things i will confess the the nineteen seventy three it did not occur to me that someone would want to attach their refrigerator to the internet or or a picture frame.
game or or even though i used to tell jokes that someday every light bulb will have its own internet address it except now i can tell those jokes anymore philips makes one call the heel which you control from their mobile both the in intensity and the color of the bold through the internet. so i did wonder you know what would you do with an internet enabled refrigerator and well in america the way we communicate enter families is to put paper and magnets up on the refrigerator door so this improves things because now we can communicate with websites and blogs an e-mail and things like that but we also thought what would happen if the refrigerator. i knew what it had inside me what if everything had a little are a fight the chip on it and you could you could sense what was in the refrigerator so when you're out of work are often school or something the refrigerators surfing the internet looking for recipes that it could make with what has inside so when you come home using a list of recipes on the despite that sounds pretty good.
but a good engineer will always extrapolate the see what other things may happen so you can imagine that you're on vacation and you get an e-mail its from the refrigerator and it says it says that milk has been there for three weeks and it's going to crawl out on its own if you don't do something about it or maybe you're shopping and your mobile goes off its the refrigerator collings don't for. yet the mariner a sauce everything else i need for speed getting dinner i'm sorry to tell you very japanese friends is boiled this idyllic vision of the future because they invented the internet enabled bathroom scale and when you step on the scale it figures out which family member you are based on your weight and it sends an information to the doctor and becomes part of your medical records.
which is probably ok except for one thing the refrigerator is on the same network. so it just go when you come home you see diet recipes coming up and. or maybe just refuses to open it because it goes around a good bad. so they are. the it in the lower right you seeing our version one google glass mean model by sergei brand co-founder of google the reason i put this up is in course one thing it's a it's a computer enabled internet enabled device but what's interesting about it is that it allowed the computers to see what you see and hear what you hear and that's. it's an interesting experiment because the possibility that the computer could understand what it was seeing and hearing which again is pushing some of the limits of artificial intelligence might mean that the computer could become part of the conversation and so while you are having a dialogue with their colleagues and try to argue over some particular design pointer or other. the speculation you might be able to invoke the computer which would have context as a result so it's very much like star trek you know when you're in the captain kirk would say computer and you would hear major roddenberry's always falling and from the sea so this is actually an important experiment and were in the middle of designing a new version of the google blast left a guy in them.
little for last though this is an internet enables surfboard. that i've not met this follow but i imagine him sitting on the water you don't like to go down here waiting for the next wave thinking you know if i put a laptop in the surfboard i could be surfing the internet while i'm waiting for the next flight. so so he put a laptop and the surfboard any put a wife i server back of the rescue shack and now he sells this is a product so what else is coming well sensor networks are already with us some of you have them at home already sometimes it's a security system sometimes of heating ventilating and air conditioning.
my case i have an i p v six of self organizing radio network at home each room in the house has a sensor which also doubles as a little router radio router and every five minutes it's sampling temperature humidity and light levels in the house and records that information through the network to a server down in my basement. i don't only he could do this but but the whole idea is that the end of the year i now have good engineering information about how well the heating ventilation air conditioning works that we can make adjustments instead of relying on anecdotal information now one room in the house as the wine cellar and there are two thousand bottles of wine in there so i care a great deal about keeping the ten. picture below sixty degrees fahrenheit and the humidity up the above thirty or forty percent to keep the courts from drying out so that room has been alarmed if the temperature goes above sixty degrees fahrenheit i get in an s.m.s. on my mobile. i want point my wife saverin and i were away from the house and i got the message saying your wine is warming up and nobody was there to reset the cooling system so every five minutes for three days i kept getting the message saying the wine is getting warmer so if you've got up this like seventy degrees or something which is not the end of the world is not great so i called the guys that made this.
when they said you guys make remote actuators and they said yes so you know i'm thinking i could remotely reset the coup or they said you do strong authentication they said yes i said good because there's a fifteen year old next door and i don't want to messing around with my heating and air conditioning system so we installed that and then i got to thinking you know i can tell. well have somebody went into the wine cellar because i could see that the light went off and on but i don't know what they did and there are so i have or can he do about that and i said a hot i put it on our fight the chip on each bottle and then i will put in our f.a. the detector in the wine cellars so i can do remote inventory no matter where i am to see if any bottles have left the seller without my permission.
fashion so i'm posting to one of my engineering friends about this brilliant design he says you have about what the meaning of about these well you could go into the wine cellar drink the wine and leave the bottle.
i. and so the so now i have to put sensors in the cork. its own is i'm going to do that i might as well sample the esther's which you know tell you whether or not the winds ready to drink so before you open the bottle you interrogate the court and if that's the bottle that got up to seventy five or eighty degrees that someone you give the somebody that doesn't know the difference. so this is actually a me that the future really is going to be heavy in sensor systems all around there were the buildings will be instrumented the cars will be instrumental.
manufacturing facilities and even ourselves their bodies with the instrument is well and that will all be part of this in vast quantity of information flowing around in the network. so we look over the next twenty years time some of these are of course just gases but today we think there could be ten to fifteen billion devices that are capable of communicating on the net they typically are not all on it once necessarily but there could be that manning and in in twenty thirty six twenty years from now the numbers could reach a trailer.
in me there are or will be on the order of may be a half billion people in the world in twenty thirty six and they might have anywhere from one hundred two hundred and ten devices on the either on their persons or at home or in the other places that they inhabit so these numbers are not totally crazy but they do. certainly motivate the need to get the ib sex because we need all that address space for all these devices here's some of the things that were experimenting with that google verily company is on its experiment in with his not manufacturing with this experiment with a contact lens which can sense the glucose level in.
the cheers of your eyes that's related to the glucose level in your blog although there's a delay function associated with going from blood glucose to the tears of your eyes the idea is that if you're a type one diabetic you're tired of picking your finger to take blood samples all the time this is an alternative way of gathering the data and since its. potentially continuous monitoring system we can establish a baseline of what is normal for you and then excursions away from the baseline can be detected very quickly and so you can recover either by adding more insulin or taking eating something with sugar in it so this idea of continuous monitoring i think is very important theme.
which you will see repeated over and over again continuous monitoring let's use the anomalies that you would not normally see of the sampling is a to lower rate that we think about the guys never go to the doctor until they are sick so really sec and so the doctors model of you is your always sectors are never see the doctor when you're healthy really see him under sect.
so this continuous monitoring could make a big difference there are also google self driving cars what you're seeing here is model number two but i have a video showing you the first model that we were testing with one of our blind employees to see whether we could actually have the car driver plead work so if i've done this right i should be able to get.
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you couldn't answer were pretty excited about all hoping to keep at it we have the new models as you can see under development and there are other things that are happening drones for example are everywhere for almost all it sounds like resold in the offseason to the plate europe already later.
sorry about that. they were. i. old who was the only bank the beginning and i want to do that well.
there you go fast forward. now that. their rooms ok so you all know about these they're all over the place in the us is very exciting the federal aviation.
ministrations been going a little crazy trying to figure out what the rules are for what may become twenty seven million drones flying around in the us know. jeff bezos wants to put to use the drones to deliver things for amazon and if i had dinner once the with him and i had this image of a cartoon that showed the drone hovering in front of somebodies door and sending a text message inside saying i'm here with your delivery and if you don't open the door. the next thirty seconds i'm blowing it down. and now and jeff laughed and i got nervous that he might actually do that so so so and i hope he doesn't so that's another part of this internet of things and then there's the project loon with because it's a loony these are balloons that google has built the are operating up about sixty thousand feet in the stratosphere.
as they move up and down their blown in different directions depending on the wind and so we actually steer them by changing the altitude the idea is that they are doing wife i or and or l.t.e. long term evolution the radio communications from the stratosphere and the ideas of a circular. i roughly given latitude they look for taylor wins to get to the next service point and then they look for headwinds to have or where they are but they continue all the way around the world we are in operation now in sri lanka and who been experimenting with this for about four years ago the idea. here is to provide access to internet in places that would be very difficult to bring fibre to grow up in the andes mountains for example or the sahara desert or the middle of the ocean for that matter.
and finally i thought i would show you the boston dynamics latest little robot and this one is called little dog.
the.
that's big dog decade.
only it had here. that's google. her.
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look at how so that's amazing the stability of the head is incredible.
but that this is really impressive.
the. i. there's a care in the mouth the turns out. you don't have to build these the way dogs are go. the.
ah. the. you eat. he is this is also pretty impressive it going stairs is fairly straightforward.
by the waiter fifty one videos of these things on you tube in case you want to go work. not just the dog but all the other robots these guys make.
so. the. on. you tube ok so i have a little bit more than i want to show you but what i'm going to show you now is not a google project it's a project that was started.
in the jet propulsion laboratory in pasadena my colleagues and i begin this work in nineteen ninety eight i been a visiting scientists there since that time so this is the implementation design and implementation of an interplanetary internet to support main robotic space exploration in the ring me.
senior of this sort of twenty first century so we met right after the pathfinder robot landed in nineteen ninety seven successfully on mars at his after many many attempts to get to mars after the nineteen seventy six viking landers and we got to speculating about this because of the communications to support the pathfinder was a direct point to.
don't link between earth and mars and of course that was a pretty limited kind of networking capability we thought what would happen if we had a richer networking environment kind of like the internet and we actually started out thinking that. we could use the t.c.p. ip protocols they work on earth on out of work on mars but when we started thinking about this it didn't work very well those protocols didn't work very well between the planets and it should be obvious to the speed of light is too small between earth and mars women were closest together three and a half minutes the one way delay and women. farthest apart as twenty minutes one way round for time is forty minutes the t.c.p. protocol was not designed to deal with a forty minute room to run for prime for protocol it for a flow control the flow control is really simple when you rent a room you tell the other guy stop sending around a room and if it that's only a few hundred milliseconds that's great but if it tastes.
twenty minutes for that single to get the the guy and he's blasting self at you for twenty minutes full speed the packets are falling on the ground for a little overboard so flow control didn't work then there is another problem of the planet's a rotating we don't have stopped that so so if you're talking to something on the surface of the planet rotates after well you have to wait till it can.
his background in or if it's an orbiter it's a problem so by two thousand and four we had the two rovers that were sent to mars.
we're not fertility the original plan was to transmit data from the surface of mars the way we had with the pathfinder and the radios overheated and everybody got all worried about that and they were only rated at twenty eight kilobits a second so the scientists were not too happy about that kind of data rate coming from the surface and then we said we're going to have to reduce the duty cycle because we know. want the radio to overheat and harmony the other instruments or itself so there are all upset and one of the engineers and j.p.l. said well there's an expat and radio on the rover there's also expand radio on the orbiters which we'd send earlier to map the surface of mars to figure out where the rover should go so we reprogram. from the rovers and the orbiters so that when the order came over had the rover would squirt data up to the orbiter and the orbiter would hang on to the data and transmit it when it got to the right place and its orbit to reach the deep space network which is the big seventy meter dishes three places on the surface of the year that's.
store and forward and so we develop the whole suite of protocols called the bundle protocol to do that the prototypes are actually running now pulling all the data back from mars and when we drop the phoenix lander on two of the north pole there wasn't any configuration that had a direct path back to were so we use the same set of protocols and.
when the mars science laboratory landed we did it again so all the data that's coming back from mars is going through the the prototype bungle protocols of the interplanetary system we have uploaded those protocols on to the international space station we've had the astronauts using the bundle protocols interplanetary protocols to control over.
years on the surface of earth in real time because the distance is fairly small they're using the interplanetary protocols which work just fine in short over short the ways just like p.c.p. does but they also work over these long invariably connected systems so what we're hoping frankly over time is that as. but we've always standardize the protocols with the consultation of committing and space data systems so now anyone can get act access to them they're fully standard as the protocols are available the the implementations are available and source mortgage for free for anyone who wants to download them and use them in fact there's a german university that's him.
many of these for android mobile phones as well so what we're hoping is that as new missions get launched by the spacefaring countries of this planet that they will adopt these protocols and use them for their missions or even if they don't use them for the scientific mission if they could reprogram the space.
perhaps after they finish their primary missions they can become nodes an interplanetary back down so we literally grow the backbone over time as new missions get lunch to the solar system so that's the ups and the minute story on the interplanetary internet and that is my last lied so i'll finish and think you all very much for your time.
that's how.
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