How One Single Elementary Particle Can Make the Difference

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How One Single Elementary Particle Can Make the Difference
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Billions of Euros have been spent recently just to find out more about the tiniest structures in the sub-atomic world. One of the main tasks of a new particle accelerator, the LHC, was to observe a new particle species, the Higgs particle. Exactly this particle was one of the main themes of my thesis in 1972. This particle would have to be quite different from anything known at the time, but without such a particle our theories about the electro-weak forces would not make sense. We experienced it as a triumph when finally the detection of this particle, exactly with the expected properties, was announced in July 2012.
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the end to a soul. as young as expressed i'm also very thankful. highly all odds to be here no to talk to you and the driver also has all the other know it's so when you won't be flying an airplane high above the board have been found and switzerland.
you see this beautiful landscape you'll see more long has somewhere you'll see a beautiful landscape here to see the late of geneva and famous fountain at this spot.
what you will not see from the airplane is this the a circle because it is a tall about one hundred meters at some places on the surface what you definitely will not see in this tunnel is that our particles movie in opposite directions is patently the speed of light.
and experiments have been down to all measure the effect that these particles will have on each other when they collide is the highest achievable energy for particle want to have particles collide in opposite directions against each other that's the most efficient way to farm. the smallest this and skills in a universe that we can put our hands on and that he can study it. so the assignment that the this the machine can or should i should have firsts and at something else this machine is to be considered as the biggest microscope of the world that he can make today and them when you would be.
inside this machine inside the stone you'll find this construction these blue pipes that you see i'm magnets each fifty metres long and thirty five homes in the weight they said they generate the strongest magnetic fields that you can produce at this scale.
in. this state bielicki using superconductivity again and the does back minute a few the necessary to force particles to move in circles our than of state lines and then there is a tonic early also be accelerated this is one of the detectors.
that is made to measure what happens from particles collide and particles collide this energy thousands of other particles are produced and the fly off and all the factions what you want to do is determine the identity that the masses the velocities and soul and in particular. also the statistical distribution of how they are being pushed that you want to gain the maximum amount of information out of these the lowest picture to see year is the the so-called across the tattered being built today you wouldn't see it clearly anymore because the whole thing is now filled with it. comics and the other the apparent us to to measure the properties of these particles to just estate how big the whole thing is there's someone standing here if you hear a carefree so the door of physics is that if you want to imagine something actually and you want to gain.
in new territory the atlantis general has a big light in astronomy the bigger you telescope the further you can see the universe and some people that the mistake is thinking that if you make something very small you see very tiny things that's not the way it is a fly has much worse eyes then we. they're a fry cannot see how to fly as clearly as we can because our eyes of small have you need big eyes and and the bigger the machine is the more accurately you can see so while all these simons one of the first simons that this machine was given was the assignment to.
find the higgs particle and then at night of course you can ask why is it that the that we really want such a particle and why is it's a visit to read this particle this particle is responsible for the masses of the other. articles why is called the galt by to go well in this talk i want to claim that actually the story is about more complicated than all that it to expire tickle is not a particle that it creates master something like that it has nothing to do with god of course the the. at just the is much more interesting than the religious story because i want to claim that the higgs particle is a success a production of theory and other particles have been discovered but actual mental patients and shape side particles a beautiful experimental discovery and only see the patients who later say why they should have put the. to put it hadn't and that's many examples that that the higgs particle is the exception is really the outcome of of the glorious outcome of a theoretical investigations. so on this store is not about the social ajai of science for instance how to choose owns advisor on how to cheat on exams no in the i just had a plane i happen to be very lucky in my career hours at a high place in the right moment. at the heart advisor at that moment and the in spite of this all in spite of my clumsiness in this matter matters so this talk is about how to do good signs and i want to be to to inspire the all the people here and and make them a a real. i've got good signs he is is often not having a kate harney showing a cage seeing now we have to do this we now have to that way is about being precise and make a very accurate observations if your observations if you're an as is his a bit more precise and didn't know him. imagine it to them not your pieces of them you might be making important discovery and this whole so many examples in new the world twins as the year. if you just look at the up the history of science and just the as the force one hundred metres off from here there's a modest library shown all the works of of a panic as and kept my they were just more clever in the observations than their predecessors and that was the beginning of money is. discoveries of modern science the it happens over and over again you can look at the heroes of the past like a kid like a neutral or maxo einstein d.-ark we all know a famous names of office six than what these people have gone models they look more carefully more actually. the they had more imagination about what's going on and that's the way they may discoveries are so a my time i'm still in there were the the happenings inside atomic nucleus in particular inside the support of particles were one great mystery. there were lots of things known because many of our presenters of course hundreds of nobel prize at every been awarded in this field so yes many important observations had been made but there's still the many mysteries that for example the weak force we knew a lot about the weak force we understood. that are certain conservation loss if you make substitutions of the sort then you see that you have to substitute two partners at the time and then a week for seems to be a very universal kind of force so that our conservation loss conservation of electric charge but also cause of asia have something you could call week. chais or something that makes this forest remind us to the electricity and our forces that are most have much better than this particular force so one of our problems was understand the weak force besides that there was also the so-called strong force of that was another chapter in our. history of the subatomic physics equally interesting by the way but my talk of mean you'd be about the weak force and and about the new particles that are being a suggestive by investigating the properties of this we all this before so if you look very carefully say hey. it looks as if there are more particles involved you heard the purpose of help once a talk previously yesterday and he explained that the young gets some impression that is weak force is mediated by another particle called the wu particle w four week. although maybe why might like to think that the debate is for wind that may be. it's really the intermediate force carrying particle just like a folk don't look like a forum. and then we need it and other particles which already mentioned and which is very important the so-called he's particle and our people say the experts can produce is mass and that is sloppy way of raising things because a it is was very well in publicity statements so. if you want to to impress the public is savior discovering the particle that makes a mass of awful to think of that and the it also works very well making these much proposal they want to find the origin of mass if you know what that means please tell me that i don't think that the higgs particle is responsible for mass. but it is strongly related to the way massive particles work and its interactions they can be seen to be strongly related to the masterminds the iron the creations of particles there is something however it doesn't carry mentioned when people talk. what the higgs particle is the only response whole mass it is it is very stormy related to another property of particles besides mass they have spin everything in the universe's whenever it moved freely in outer space it ok it's galaxies rotate star as a whole.
ted planets asteroids they are all coming around in some way and so rude or supplement particles now have to apologise to all the tennis fans and soccer fans here that i'm iron could find the vote at the soccer balls i've tried to make it look like a tennis ball over the anyway day. most of all kate and spin as you know very well is very important when you play tennis or when you play soccer for that matter so the spinning particles is is a is very very essential and so on. i have. so a detailed description on the week was revealed that support on particles indeed on how the thing just like a tennis ball which is affected by the fact that it hoped gates also the motion or sometime particle is affected by the way a hotel rates so if you're clever enough you can. to get around the hotel to emotion what you use years at the very simple location is it is associated with a conservation all the conservation of anglo mentor and their real note anger meant to influence of what it is and our it is a property kinetic property of things which is a view the way that objects move. so yes by carefully studying the motion of i have our articles you figure out the particles can actually rotate them so i'm so when you consider weak force and you realize that actually he for the request takes place in two steps then you find that the pie. but it was that can they change their electric charge which means that indeed these particles from the most well i fervently different mechanism the latter had a force never changes to charge of a particle it that it affects part of which have mass with them. mass itself remains the same during the week for us when you look carefully here this could be neutral particle and this or this could be charged possible this could be neutral particle so elected charges transported from here to hear so this is a focus on is actually town smith's electric charge it also tells me this week charges these things in some sense. but you can only describe mathematically these parties also carry week charge and that turned out to be very important because it looks as if this force did the amount of the charges you see in these particles somehow seems to be the same old the week interactions so there's something universal about week china. such just as universal as we have left to china as you know you study atomic physics or even subatomic physics all particles have very typical amount of charge easy to charge of the act on the phone sign a different some of the neutral but the charge comes in very specific world. find units and the the have somethings some a lot going on in the is in a weak force so so far what we understood what we force but day is more again. all of by a noble pines horses have read that as something funny going on with a weak force when you look at left and right handed objects so i like to collect shells particular even a notice of some shells rotates opposite another shells and this is a poverty of the species.
what you see in this picture is that as a right handed object and and a left handed object and they look very similar as it may be some are doing they have rouge in nature made a little error and turn this one to that on and it's his properties remains nearly identical then they've all to be so we use. the calf is not exactly the same but it's nearly the same we have a similar situation in the elementary particles some particles look very much like the mere are object but not quite there are subtle differences and them these have already been studied and on the stoop quad. but if you reasonably well but they also cost a problem and it was this problem that eventually led us to believe there must be such a thing as the higgs particle or because how can you how can you understand that there is a left her eyes asymmetry among the forces of particles well.
but actually won so easy but what you can say is that a political move very fast you can look at how spin it a go as in the relation with indeed emotion in part to move so it's a particle move very fast use a dozen spin to the left what has been to the right. those are two mere are opposites that you can have and since particles do a spin this property called felicity is very important poverty that you can imagine and you can check how things were hate and then or something very remarkable going on with the force those who recharges particles can. they seemed to depend on this city so left they already particles have we charged were wiped out at the bottles are often new clothes so this whole snootiness friends since katrina is only few the weak force nothing else you can't even make right hand of the voting on routine was so for long time they were thought to be. to rehab sons only more recently in advance of the standard model it was discovered that yes right wanted him to use do exist but they're very difficult to observe but the see their efforts so i'm not as something mindless something very nice about electromagnetism if you have a photo on it. back in with a particular the then the list as he stays the same so if this is the left hill is a particle then the thing that emerges are so focused that keeps its left eliciting that holds for fault owns it was found there is a similar conservation offer the weak force and that is how weak force can function. in that he is the is conserved and recharge upends of lizzie and do it charges conserved and now all this is fine but all this that create a problem and he misses the can be very well defined for particles without any mass and that is because those particles than half. the move with the speed of light they can never stands still has a standstill have to master new energy nothing the particle simply his pint of the vacuum space itself such particles do not exist so only massive particles can be put to rest. in fact almost particles with mass can always we put cause it to stay at the rest now what does it is evil party goes to his arrest of says account the final which the action moves i can kind of the finalists do so if partners move very slowly that this is an ambiguous com property of particles if you move faster than the article. it's listed as flip side on solace the is a hill the five quantity for particles with mass now here was our problem all particles that are associated with the force carried some amount of mass so more than others but have mass enlist is not a well defined concept so now are you. and here was the other way in which the poem manifested itself so the veldt on explained in his talk how he kept finding infinities when you have the closed loop see you die comes here as a closed loop and have a closed loop your competition of what happens in his in these the process is becomes a lot more complicated. and that's for something can become infinite and in fact only zygote did carry in villages in them that it seemed to be impossible to normalize doors and the help on the unexplained in a stalker well the year he feared are these particles a must read that must pay into it the more complicated ways as well so. we stumbled upon the young will say which was a theory which was designed for pure arrogance of your abstract ways of thinking that since we bought more beautiful in other ways was kind of particles which behave bill it like this object but the theory didn't quite the sky to be. force protected because these particles these it means by the scary mass again and when they came last again then they show problems with spin problems with more complicated the mother said about the about these animals which are rich. have either least he left his the right but this but there's also have a mass and so here is the for them is also not a well defined concept that's also cause difficulties in formulating what electromagnetism and how it's a man who should be generalized to this conference particles in other words that were difficult.
these and get the accurate description of the weak force do with have noticed his difficulties if you didn't do accurate calculations that's fell from two very very well he had was in fact one of the first to design a computer program for doing our own computer here to remember this was a nineteen six as so nobody had gone out. our computer computers the enormously complicated things that the big computer set for which he had to have them so them every time you want to do calculation of those the computers as much less compute competition power the new telephone has today but a year to go grams of them to a vis the hope starts full of. punch cards which had to feed his computer and then had to wait for day in and computer came with his ounce or so that was very a difficult way of doing things but only if you did things so after the new found that there were difficulties in this theory so what was the cost of this difficulty and how could you. does all the difficulty and then help explain this talk out of thin acting a particle with our spin and the particles the higgs particle and it's all my problem. well i want to stay here that this wasn't point out of thin air there was it was very accurate and not even reasoning that was needed to understand how this fix particle who is all the remaining difficulty the difficulties with the spins of all these particles and the the resolution. actually already existed but had not asked that the jet gained much attention and these two gentlemen the peter higgs air force one and blair for their discovery in the united sixty four on the time that has come we may gain the attention off the nobel committee but only much much later.
in the early days what they discovered seem to be so stupid as a parent but they found a procedure that is called as from pain since breaking as a third name hear about but it took so long for this week's part of the be fine fine being observed when these two gentlemen against no ties together is a. but the clip and and glare of the author also hicks who both expressed their deep soul for the fact that we have not had the disease just a few years areas so he couldn't feel the joy of his his work fine would be nice in stockholm. so that's the way it is as so calm doesn't give any post mortem pies as you would be enjoying it so much anyway so of if so this is a sad but he expressed his money except no prices are so happy that they are just two of us that the north why so the left. the space open for more power who should have shared despise and they propose something called spontaneous symmetry breaking and what they are simply making means is a well it is put this into making changes everything in the behavior particles that the path. others have and fences it as mass two particles so it's not so much to expect itself its whole phenomenon most of them simply breaking that can and a master's from to the creations of particles so on. this was a civic can be very is the be explained particular come from mexico where a mexican hat than this mexican hat has a perfect quotation symmetry so if you put the a book a tennis ball height of top hat it will stay there forever.
well maybe if you are theoretical physicists you say stays there because of its can't choose an intervention to fall into that an experimental physicists in on it or for an inevitable. but then the part because he is in them theory gains a new because we have freedom that it can go around in them but this particle then takes a place of the few have some new degree of freedom in nature the remaining the you describe a new particle as was a particle was sitting of said. as it had four degrees of freedom to cope eight forty five branches of which only to have been displayed in this picture but once the city the m three or four that had just become indistinguishable so they do not cost want to particles only won component does correspond to particle and that's when the particle. moves in the day of the action because the topical nation whole feels remains constant thing you toss won it and that combination of field response corresponds to a particle that was going to be the higgs particle so yes this requires some advanced the content his unit ago reasoning that i was you menu. you will not follow in detail on want to save his picture is that as a phenomenon called symmetry working spontaneous because same debate is not the new creations but it is in the physical way these occasions behave and the dark on that is that the the air.
that the the there is sufficient are a symmetry which also affects the week charge the recharge can now be communicated to the vacuum so it's normal exactly preserved and this way the to figure out a carefree looking at the equations the that this way to change everything. and to make to the conservation of the charge still a useful property that you can apply to see how the infinities to disappear from the firemen diagrams so the also the infinities as feltham explained has to do with what happens is very small businesses if you have a very close and others who come very close and partners. i'm very very close the city breaking disappears from now you can use the perfect symmetry of the weak force to remove all the infinities that you encounter so it wasn't completely an accident is also a a a fallen to physical property of space since breaking that would now.
the result difficulties so should you call this a god particle well the word corp article comes from a business in a year. since topic of physics who call this the year ago experience is needed but ago and the. so than journalist the mo d. more the during which he said there's a fuse to put the word that he used but the sat on let's call just the god particle and the and than gone says god must use one's of her creating mass this was picked up by the public and now of course added mr. them to host through and i announced my goal is here to remove the mysticism again nothing mysterious about what you're doing so this part of eventually provide for the last link in the standard model this is my way pickings than a mall as a box of of of toys because we have the love to play with.
these things but they are the fundamental constituents matter but now this is one particle this is perfect announce symmetry the higgs particle his boss now won missing link in the standard model. it is now funded finally being observed and the measure it in the l h c so yes ninety eight in two thousand and twelve this particle have actually be announced as being discovered by a scene measurements how is it going back to swear it's very difficult if you can lie.
particles with the energy i just explain the much amount of energy that you can reach about seven terror electron volts particle an app that energy even finally make this week's visible that even at that energy only one out of a trillion collisions produces exposed to go a physical tics by the. because you can measure and the is produced in the number of different ways you can have two rooms going out making us the timing of i am and our comes the higgs particle you can have two rooms produce different ways of his party was a top and on the top.
but ago produced and as older the choir should come together and produced in the iraqi higgs particle so and the six parties in turn can dk in many different ways so they checked all the decay processes that can occur and and phone to find their and.
identify the possibility of a party reproduce so what does all lead to where you have a turf and again curve here is a curve if you sue no express and anywhere in this domain and little bump here or curse when certain are coming particles have a joint energy of a little bit over.
but no the summer on the hundred twenty five and g.e. he need to act on false at that point his war peak appears now it's a problem of experimental is to find out how significant is his speech distinctly and they find at some point the big it and more info than five seconds. five standard deviations significance and them and this turned out to be a way to have exactly the properties of the article this is his cover but if our generals also a beep hear a bump at exactly the same the must tell you about hundred twenty six.
later they found him the more precise number now have more accurate measurements on the twenty five point one mm ge v. is not a mass of the higgs particle. other army minutes to have left the about wants are very briefly very briefly mention about present investigations because this takes particle was i think it was a girl is result that we all seem happy that that is the the files flying vindicated we denounce to sell more better.
i have before so what are we doing now well aware of the major difficulties in our field of science fundamental part of the matter is the occurrence of black holes black holes are very mention several times here but it's the idea that the space and time gets curved i am here to regions of the universe here. here the the green in the brown region a to pass the universe but the black hole or kurds it occurs necessary in the corps einstein's equations a put too much mass together and then this thing will happen there will be able to call a warm all that connects to even have two years it sounds very. mysterious so mysterious to sell some people doubt there's actually a curse but if you do the calculations again precise enough there's no doubt that black holes can be made and and fact there have been observed by some as many different ways as no doubt about the existence of black holes but the difficulty becomes the only. comes when you type of crime quantum mechanics with the system if you say well the black hole should as a whole thing also have begun laws of quantum physics of the time is a means of matter now black holes normally a very very large and not have a time and be largely don't notice and quantum effects but if you. do this all sorts of latest discovery nothing is very important if you understand what it really means there's something very strange if you have a again a black hole like this and you would enter a decisive black hole usually immersion thousand five people had never realize that this is a collection point of thieving the.
you coming months i you emerge at the other but you emerge time evert that the averted charge of are so very very strange way you emerge that you say the county possible it isn't because of the problem here you'd only the merchant inside you go faster speed of light you count and therefore you don't really. you all. to emerge but the quantum oscillations do you much a quantum also patients here are correlated to conduct operations here or and tangled as you say today a modest new discovery and i think this is gone for something about the structure of space and time a way city on the ascent the future in other words says. lots of things to be down and often in the future and the chair is want to me that what time is over here much has happened.


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