The Structure of the Proton

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The Structure of the Proton
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she's. don't have to.
all the old you is the smallest nucleus the uses to warm to study its core kill and should want to take it a halt is of course in the best tradition all for physics we call that. the from this year about eighteen nine the fall forty years physicist started the structure of the atom. through a serious of brilliant experimenter and theoretical or discoveries during those forty years one was led to a comprehensive and accurate understanding of the structure of the atom we all recall that could mean a hit in one of the great revolutions in the history of physics.
in the discovery of quantum mechanics and i'm sure says satisfaction on the part of everybody here that we have with us some of the principal architects of this whole enterprise.
since that time physics of course try to continue the tradition and want to study the next smaller building block of matter and that was of course easily leading us to the study of the structure of the protests are at which physicists have been working for many years.
what is it that physicists have learnt half is just understood the structure of the proton what all the prospects in the next few years it is these questions that i should like to report to you this morning very briefly i were discussed the following items.
first the last six gather in that news as potent hold on collision going into only program protons and second in the last to scatter in all fragmentation process he answered lay our report to you some very exciting recent disc.
of race which i shower label a stock or a black or and black or profile and lastly some remarks about the future of this would be a sort of our the brief outline of what i would discuss with you during the next forty minutes.
let us begin from the end of the second world war there was a period it off perhaps but we could call the age of innocence in which people thought that if we get two points against each other and started the last experiment of those two protons we would know everything about. the elastic scan and hence the force between the two protons and from that in the same way that we were learned about the structure of adam will know everything about nuclear forces and the subject the would be successfully carried twenty in it very rapidly became evident that that was not sought.
because when to pronounce collided with each other at any does which is somewhat higher than the last images enormous number of other particles were produced an immense is this business behind the physicists attention was diverted to the public of classification and the study of the intrinsic properties of these other.
august that let to great excitement in the late for this and throughout the fifty's and early sixty's but the structure of the phone itself looted the study is for a long time now during the fifty's and enormously important set of experiments was started by a ba pasta.
and i think he really for to it this morning earlier in trying to find the electromagnetic structure of the profile and for simplicity let us just say that what he was trying to do was to study the charge distribution his side of the product and that was extremely important line of research very successful.
i carried out first by him and them by various laboratories all over the world so now we have a detailed understand in extra mentally of that structure now it was found that the pro down was not a single or are point charged it had a charge distribution which are in small time.
wages is somewhat like a gazan it's not exactly thousand and then it has a long tail and whether that tale is the precise shape of that tale is not very easy to completely determined but in general looks like that with a characteristic size of about point seven times tend to the minus thirty.
in few centimetres. the next topic that one would study of course was to go back to the origin or proton profound last experiment idea except by the sixty's people have already become sophisticated and knew that the scanner was not to be described as a kind of force between the two profiles but anywhere such experiments will start at first the.
cameron in the early sixty's then in son and now at circle of and at batavia such studies let tool very complicated results but it is fortunate for physicists that the results had rather dramatic and perhaps.
online features to it. water tool gives us a general impression of this let me present to a composite picture which was a recently put together all what lasting frozen province does risk at an angle of distribution looks like the ones in good above this is that they can focus of yourself.
and what is plotted here in that says are is this the angle of distribution what is plotted precisely is the three momentum transfer squelch in the scent of massa's the they have what is equal to two times case quell times when minus cause and see that what case the scent of mass momentum and theda.
is the scent of mass scattering anger and what is plotted in the autumn eight is the differential cross-section in terms of these in one of the deportees the system so these of monday's of course proportionate to the said monday or made up of well made us to solving but you see that these word the extreme under data that's. for income in three be the collision on a probe unaddressed that's four five be the seven b v etc etc now this set of data points so which no line is drawn is at the highest energy which is the equivalent fifteen hundred g. the proton colliding i phone and.
rest actually it is twenty seven t.v. programming on twenty seven t.v. program at the intersection storage ring at cern now i call attention to two important features of the slide the first three five seven ten the data were actually something like ten years old but it.
is already obvious from the first experiment a book of an up to about thirty g v that there are characteristic features of elastic scam in which one can summarize as follows.
the first important feature that one sees is that the segment the tea at lord's anglers is very small not too impressed with this fact that is go back to the previous life the previous transparency you know is that that's his art is a logarithmic plot these points where the.
first n r ninety degrees can you take let's say ten be the incoming energy you find that the ninety degree scavenge compare to the in common is down by something like a factor of ten million if you go to a thirty be a scattergun stung by a factor of about ten to the twelfth nobody has.
it's not a good for the fifteen hundred be the data because the cross-sectional at ninety degrees is so a vanishingly small it the presumably would not be able to be detected for a long time to come if you try to extrapolate the ninety degree cross-section it is she clear that if force like the explanation of some.
power of the incoming and perhaps the square root of the community. so i think it is very easy to go observe from the extreme in the data that there is this fact in fact most extreme assaulted in the physicists' ten years ago when this data was first found was the fact that you do proton broaden scattering at ninety degrees at seventy g.v. this is.
not yet been done but if you do it and extrapolate from the low energy data low energy been up to thirty the you would find that the last to croydon for them cross section which is of course the arriving from strong interactions is smaller than that to be expected from we contraction at the same energy now to a physicist who had to do that i saw.
but that the weekend action is just extremely weak compared to the strong pageant this is the most startling fact a second important feature of elastic scan and high images as study it in the early sixty's and that was true not only for people's got in both of these two features or to not only for people scattered but for all the other.
sticks got in which a later study. what's the statement that these monday d. plus six key is not very much dependent is not much dependent on the incoming image in others for fixed the it seems to become a function of the a lot and even.
have been coming in and let us go back to the slide and see whether we would see the future. but that's tennis is really not true when you go to let as a teacher to do because you see that the three be the craw second is higher than the five the five t.v. which is higher than the seven t.v. and source of all however if you look at this morty value less eighty were two point two.
these curves become very accurately a falling on top of each other. and this was started more accurately at small scattered and goes by blowing up these diagrams and it was indeed a general feature.
they are us slow dependence perhaps longer them weiss depending on the incoming energy are loggers unwise which we show neglect in this discussion because we are here talking about the general features you we do in god these asks the crabs characteristic general features of the last kick high end. this can get into had owns what is the a.p. all right or information that we should adopt in order to approach theoretically this question all very os more distance for of the habits now many schools of thought were developed kind of approach.
their high energy collisions and what i would be important to you is on my one particular way of looking at it which in my opinion has had considerable success and that is that these two important features i in fact not at all difficult to understand one as one accepts the view.
that the proton is has already demonstrated from cost of this experiment is a not appoint part of our but an extended object with a final time asian with many into the was a freedom.
you accept that view i would submit that these two important features are other natural every already consequences almost independent of the subsequent detailed mathematical structures which china can later be supplied but even without the d.d.r. not a cause for.
for you would see that they can easily be accommodated in this picture that's force national from this picture because the first teacher mill assess that you have to extend the objects with many internal degrees of freedom colliding on each other if you want to study the ninety degree lost across as.
in the last across liking is very small what if you ask your five two drops of water each droplet of course having many in turn of the was a freedom and i should them at each other at very high and adjust and ask what is the last ninety degree cross-section of high images as is also extremely small.
the every already reason is because the many into the was a freedom each droplet having his own energy and momentum would not collaborated with each other if you want to transfer a large woman them simultaneously to the whole droplet and therefore the probability of keeping the two droplets intact. becomes explanation us more so therefore every all right one to adopt seriously the structure of the theoretical or structure of to extend the object with many internet he was a freedom with localized energy and momentum it becomes almost inevitable that you have feature what.
the future to is also very easily a part of this picture because of the fact that of course t. is nothing but to case quilt one minus conceded by definition and force more that is of angus fix to be at large k. he does.
of course there's more this is because nothing but case course the this quick fix to the therefore is merely fixing casey to fix and casey into is of course a well known phenomenon that's the fraction because figure in case either and having it cross section which depends only on case eda meal at me.
is that as you go to hire highway for numbers you go to smaller and smaller angles that's of course nothing but well known to fashion phenomenal therefore you have two objects which half fine and sizes and if there's any coherence in the scattered picture you naturally would hold.
have a defection phenomenon which is a view all approximation to the statement. such a pitcher can in fact the extremely easily accommodated in what is known as the icon all approximation.
i cannot proximity is not new it was already a something which was discussed in optics because us you understood from what we just said in the last two minutes what we are saying is that feature to is merely away from occasion at various more weight numbers and that of course was.
the subject of optics so therefore the idea of i cannot rocks making off the x. is verizon a borrowed into high energy physics in particular i'm not i cannot proclamation in the variety of called the approximation of stationery face was used by morning a in the nineteenth third is to start it.
high energy leckrone scat it was further shop and and more clearly and rigorously work on in the mid nine and fifty is by shift and by t. do independently but anyway we have a very good picture in.
the description of i cannot approximation which was also made use off by sober in the late forty's only a service language was more expressed in terms of the force which are is are not the language that the is used in recent times. means that the spirit is the same in i cannot trust nation what one does the fallen first let's imagine that there is a scattering center and less of a plane waiting impinging on this not in i cannot cross an asian i cannot process of making is sort of a cross between the way picture and.
part of a picture so it as part of the characteristics of race but yet it retains some of the coherence of the wave picture it is in fact precisely the intermediary between the are a picture and the way picture and you can show that way probably asian under specific circumstances.
at high energies does rigorously give a expansion which to the leading water gives a i cannot proclamation but was laid idea is that if there is a region where this absorption then the incoming way front in going through those is described by race.
when i said this point it no longer has the same family did you hear them with it is one hear them to do is less it is not that much different from one at this point but is very much different from one of this mind because it has gone through a lot of matter.
and we describe that by s s is of course also all the high energy physics jaw them namely the estimate ricks all the survivor and do that would have a survivor and we do which is a function of b b's the impact climate.
for large b s is essentially want because there's nothing to obstruct for small the there's a lot of us will have social it turns out that for proton proton skadden at large to be the characteristic distance is of the size is about point seven times ten to the minus thirteen said.
and meters when you owe our much beyond that s. is essentially one when your debt center s. turns out to be approximately twenty four percent not when you're right s s s minus one plus one that's to college how are we can now use.
this point in his principal because if you use start from this one here and further probably gate of course you get the and them in common way for if you use now s. minus one which vanishes of large distances and his find it in this more distance that's precisely what comes out of the.
wave in going through a slit so the subsequent gavin after that goes by the oil in the organs principle and if you remember heightens principle you would immediately find the fallen result using what the d. is you could apply times to flip transform of this as minus one. because in the great in oil in a slit experiment is always the food or transform that's the outgoing and he did so this now is the formula which derives from the all i cannot proclamation which expressed these and muddy d. as a function of to ask meetings now feature be that i emphasize.
to fall says that this is a function of tea alone that translated into this equation the box miller says that s. becomes a function of vienna.
let me repeat sec feature the meal assess that the opaqueness of the proton when you go to very high and adjusts become only dependent on the impact hand it's thing a genetic a picture. so from the extreme in the date on these a muddy d. which we exhibited in one of the idea of transparency as you would be able to convert this equation and up in s. and that's why i said before that s. is about wonderful present in debts and.
now this kind of study has let tool a picture of what the president looks like and i were not going to the for the must not have ideas but they all extreme elements he and the balls from point as principal and i can a picture and doesn't need.
any real a drastic new mathematics but among other things a most important question yes what should the stress of the what should this the previous formula relates the differential you like a cross section will survive are.
my vision s. as a function of the impact parent but what is s. as a function of the impact ground.
here but one has to do some hand waving argument and eight essential feature which we had previously not built into the discussion must come to the fall and that is that when we were talking here we were thinking all the passage of a structuralist. wave through immediate and would get this formal however we know important role in scouting we have to extend it objects going to each other therefore this picture has to be modified a bit or rather it has to be summoned to a bit by similar teeniest.
existence of find its size all each of the colliding objects now this is a topic which is extremely complicated and there is no universal except that picture at this time but let me first presented you with a hand waving.
argument which in the last five years has received amazing support from fewer theoretical calculations and that idea is merely the fall ill let us think of the week scan and let us now emphasize that we have a stationary vote on in the laboratory system and.
of even vote on which now i do all as a flat in disc because of lawrence contraction and this income in britain goes through the station are called now they really mean it was nice of course all the different laws of the incoming bowden would see given sicknesses of the station or post.
now as a cause it was this picture all the survival of course visioned becomes a much more complicated matter where that handwaving argument which is a very simple one would say the fall ill that the survival efficient first has to be an explanation.
that is in the simpler tradition of saying that if you have sickness why the double the fitness the survival questioned would go down dramatically when the sickness increases with medically the survival of a vision of course goes down dramatically.
and that is this explanation. the next statement is what should be just as a fund of the be in this case is the distance between the two sentence. this the is not complicated dating due to the fact that the of two objects but a moment's reflection would convince you that the easiest assumption is just say that there is a dozen to distributing in the first road and there's a dozen to distributing in the second row down and this is nothing but.
i'm losing integral of the two is overlap conclusion into the mist overlap in to go and that's of course the average in process so would write this as the is it just a billion the first one in the first road on common who did it with a dozen distribution of the second problem now this is of course not based.
on. didier feels the or a one written down nor was just what these tool one hand waving arguments made some six years ago the very interesting thing was that through a serious of theoretical studies have to use of an energy behaviour of field theory.
in high and just gathering diagram by diagram both of these two features are found to be you amazing agreement with this the study is unfortunately these studies are not regress they have been carried out a great lengths required you know most and enormously.
that lengthy and powerful calculations but nobody has succeeded in something all diagrams noise a clear what is meant by the summation of or fineman die ones because there are so many of them therefore there's a question of in which order you should something but let it be stated that these into.
of ideas where are very much support it. by much of this very complicated mathematical analysis of fine and diagrams not what i want to say now is that from the excrement today i want an obgyn the us from this one up in the omega which just a opaqueness of the profile of the proton conclusion.
if you something you that in here you'd be able to get the days of the distribution of the profile it was already others speculated about ten years ago that perhaps the stands the distribution is proportionate to the charge this version of the proton which one has measured are locked hostile and this was all very.
very good experimenter agreement it is not precise but it was an excellent agreement consider in the route the crudeness of these arguments the the agreement was really amazing in particular if you do this process backwards and feed the extreme under charge to swing into here and go.
into this combination backwards and arrive at the last six cabin you would find the elastic skadden has a dip which up to the moment of the calculation which was in nine hundred sixty eight was not fun but that did was later discovered as high in a just because when went at so.
one to about twenty g.b. one began to see what was no less a shoulder at you go to one point three now the most reason i s r result which to my knowledge is not yet been published in fact shows extremely good day at this point it is natural to actually this an odd.
you that high and adjust if i'd just it would become more pronounced. all current ideas to try to fit this type of data proceed along the lines of approach with minor variations that we have been discussing in the last few minutes.
if we depart now from the question of classics got in the next i would like to amaze an elastic skadden and this the elastic scandone discussion which is also call the fragmentation process was what professor hostile to refer to when he was.
discuss in the inclusive reaction process the elastic scanning the idea behind this discussion of the last in aspic scan is about a generalization of the ideas that we have been discussing about the elastic scattered i should say it i recall with great pleasure. especially the fact that in developing the idea of the fragmentation pick just on the book one of our collaborators is a max plenty of of the max planck institute the mission you now let me outline what is the general idea here the idea as that.
if you have a proton with let's say a pile impinging on it and high and adjust we said that the last six cabin the survival and bloodier s. becomes a function only of the impact time.
that's the zero of order picture that living emphasizing up to now however we all know that the last six gathering is only a very small fraction of the total costs action at fifteen hundred equivalent g.v. oversee the last six county is only about sixteen or seventeen percent of the total cost like.
the rest all go into the last expect that's of course a very natural thing in this picture to name a you can draw but symbolically like this that after the scadden this is the pion this is the problem on this board on becomes a vibrating or doing something on his own.
and the question i would like to race now is is it conceivable to have a picture in which this income in high and after passage through the problem remains intact in all written the last uk state and this embedded becomes a fungal be a long and independent of the incoming ended.
the at the same time fall and even last a process not to have to us you last week as medics also becoming a fungal be along in the end of the community not as if the last to guess is independent of incoming energy shouldn't the elastic s. also be independent of the community.
now if you'll try to make any model any mathematical model with many constituents policy or with any kind of interaction between them you rapidly come to the conclusion that it is not possible full as you already have this approaching intimate and this not approaching island because in the. most of passage there's a lot of energy and momentum and quantum exchange between the constituency or and the constituency here and the elastic scan is all no one of the outcomes in the last expanding invariably comes out in the beginning of the incoming energy than the mastic which represents the other channels must also do the same.
if you do accept this then of course after this time has passed this vibrating protocol would not remain stationary for their long and have something to disintegrate and that process was core fragmentation and you in particular would arrive at the statement that the fragmentation product.
what have a momentum distribution in the laboratory system which is independent of the incoming and thus we call the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation.
let me repeat what i was his of them develop new says is the simple statement that if the in the laboratory this approach on and i hit it with another how long after that had on has passed by this hasn't had wrought with fragment this laboratory potent would fragment but the ladder from protons fragment distribution.
and i'm distribution would be not dependent on the incoming image if you sweep the average vote on at ten times the income in momentum the fragmentation product would still remain the same now this idea has reason lagos rule a precision test at the highest all during the last three or four years.
it has gone through many other test some of which was very much like the data that provides a hostile or was presenting us but at i was on through an idea due to our youngsters could see it became clear that one can do this experiment in a precision way because.
what that the statement we said before can be translated into the fall in fiction the if i consider a twenty seven g. the collision on twenty seven g. the proton beam in that picture this hotel is not addressed but his rest frame. if it were fragment in the part of course and therefore in the eyes are frame it will become all going particles like this and this would come all going particles like this.
these fragments they are confusing fragments in the center but let's forget about them these for the movie ones are as spray which come from the fragmentation of this and these are the fragmentation of this now suppose i could light them in the fall away in an estimate of the collision with fifteen t.v. on one side.
but and eight hundred seventy the on other side says the fragmentation of this twenty seven g.v. hard core is the same for this one and this one that's the concept were just development and says the more the lawrence transformation from the rest of this program to the eyes are frame is exactly the same as that.
that for this program addressed to i saw frame independent of this one so therefore this for distribution in this case should be the same as this case while this distribution on this side would not be the same now this is something which can be test you know precision way because that john.
many of the detectors for these and the drama to for the detectors of these are exactly the same and therefore you need no damage to the corrections and that is an experiment which has recently been performed i think the papers had not intervened published in the eye of service life but i don't think a i have the time. these are just a present you with a one and desist not the most interesting one.
this is a angle of distribution all the facts charged fragments of two i s r beams of the outgoing products in our eyes occupation and the circuit points are fifteen t.v. on fifteen g.v. and the this is a forward and are these are back.
what angers is spotted with log of kenyan defeat over to for convenience but for our perverse we need not worry about that let us look at the fifty g.b. would also grows and look at the two hundred seventy the hundred seventy the which are the triangles then they switched to the it as a mental note.
all twenty seven on the side and fifteen on the site and they found the black boys is a black points followed very closely the triangle on the side and follows their closely the sword on the site showing that the fragmentation of a fifteen t.v. in particular are all over twenty seven t.v. pod or are.
respectably independent of the energy of the part of which is pretty and that's of course the basic premise that we were discussing now though other tests which i'm sure not bother you is now i were not skip to does serve the public which is the question all is their doctor. or and dakar potent in a totally unexpected manner within the last have your there's been great excitement at cern because of the summer teeniest result of two experiments one is a role so our collaboration the other is a pizza stone the book collaboration.
both of them measure in the total cross-section at the highest ice are images and it has been sort of general a believed without real grounds that perhaps cross sections would remain fixed for peavy at about thirty nine minute bonds on believe this because the low.
energy data was clearly a poignant in the start but the two sets of i as our data those showed that that does not seem to be to what is lot of the other is to data from one of the two collaborators this is that the sustainable collaboration the other one gave exactly the same data same result.
but within the comparable heiress what is lot of the year is the laboratory momentum and that's one hundred you couldn't jeff that's thousand you couldn't jeff and what is bloodier is the total costs i can this is not zero this is thirty five forty and forty five and these were the only a data.
including the sort of data up to about seventy guess these so course are not their accurate to national access to the laboratory data with but which embers and as you know but which embers give not good enough statistics so these have a lot arabs these are the new i asked are they.
if this is about thirty nine million pounds this one these have clearly indicated a ten percent rise to about forty three minimize currently these experiments are been pushed to the limit of the cern i asked our machine at thirty one the the t.v. on so.
the one t.v. that would be equivalent to about two thousand deaths a preliminary indications were that indeed the cross-section has risen a little more. now that is let's too many many discussions because it was while not generally expected it was not discussed either the first person who seem to have discussed us was professor heisenberg who in an altogether i think it was in the early fifty's but i'm not absolutely sure.
or discussed the possibility all a a cross-section a total costs i can see through increasing importance of graham's following like processes which would rise with the incoming energy like log of the laboratory on the energy square to my knowledge this discussion was not later picked up.
very much and then in about nine hundred sixty eight sixty nine seventy did you have harvard and home can have an id in there are massive study this all of the high end of the limit of all fine and diagrams which i previously it.
the first two were let to some sort of the impasse the ambassador arrived from the fact that some you side they had about the how to some diagrams let the results which were inconsistent with his unit heritage by looking at does for a long time and.
debating between themselves long time they finally become very bold and came to the conclusion that everything would be consistent if you make to have offices that the total costs action would in fact rise like log of the squid as professor hybrid had discussed.
the picture that they discuss is very complicated because it comes from a symphonic summations of enormous number of fine and diagrams and they have not been able to make any recourse arguments and or i personally am pessimistic that any.
it was all government is to come out of such kind of pictures but nevertheless the general features the physical features are quite obvious from their discussions and it is that the icon on fox an asian and this general explanation picture that we are discussing and the convolutions ago ideas or all.
amazingly blown out by these insights that they arrived from their mathematical status of fineman diagrams you take these pictures then the picture is in fact physically extreme a simple one increasing cross-section at high and adjust the rise from the fact.
and that the proton appears to another proton asked darker and darker object so that even i know plot the opaqueness as a function of the in that time into you would find that it becomes more and more dog and object enjoyed symmetrically. should be symmetrical course you go to a high energy is very much higher in just the opaqueness rices now however the opaqueness they say as we define it is and i'm a journalist quantity when becomes very large compared with one of course lead to the mine is only got his quenched and becomes very small so.
you buy now plot the survival of vision which is not somebody to the minors owning a then those to be just translated into nothing but this this is one that means no opaqueness at the center this absorption now of debating us becomes very large now goes it would look like this.
not every other business becomes you know must then this picture becomes a dish eventually made the pro just something like this this radius increases because all taken us is everywhere pushed up but as so was not taken as large compared with one s. is insensitive do it because as is already zero.
and this is s. i didn't mind as s. that's the shadow that's how it scatters and that is what gives the last six can so he did this picture you would find that you with them and then more maddox into it was on the stadium's increases like lot of the incoming energy and therefore the process.
one which is the toll across action which is two times the domino size of this would increase like longer view squirrelled the last six carrying compared to the total cost second would be like that of a black disc which is well known to be one to do so there would be minimum of scare into which.
are just the most of us have these all predictions which were made by china and will in mind in seventy and there's now a lot of discussions went up one must buy the whole package from them if we now do believe that the total cost second is increasing now this is a topic.
just under intense of discussion and there's no generally accepted consensus yet also the question of the implication of the increase in blackness along the elasticity bends is another topic which is under intense of discussion now i don't have much more time or so.
so let me scared to go the force item which is some generally monks what is it that one has learned how this question if you address it tool high and just curious today you would get different answers from different people because as is evident.
everybody was observed a few the field is by no means near the end all its efforts we have learned and them a very interesting things with lots of details which do for into some sort of picture but different people or would put emphasis on different points of. this rather complex phenomena which is high in the collision and as a consequence different people would make different predictions what the future will tell us about the structure throat so what i wear be saying to you is a highway person a view of how things perhaps would be going in my opinion what is clear.
is that the concept that had long is a particle of it i'm asian of point seven times and a minus thirteen centimeters with many internal degrees of freedom is so obvious from all the experiment the data that perhaps that should be taken as the these evils order approximate now you mail object.
and you may say that that may be a dangerous thing to do because after all when we say that there is a judgmental size of point seven times tend to the minus thirteen centimeters that is a theoretical statement or the study is always angola.
distribution name a we study the momentum transfer the momentum transfer is the canonical conjugate to the court in its place and says nobody has succeeded in lining a series of photons together crystal fashion how do we know all that the.
idea that the momentum transfer of al gore and the court in its most valuable is not just for theoretical comedians in other words is the calling of babel a really meaningful concept other than the fact that is if we are transformed all the momentum trends for which is starkly next month will double.
i think that's a very moral question but i believe that there's every reason to believe that we should take the court in its base description seriously because as we heard from was hostile quantum electrodynamics experiments independently have had on the structure has.
told us that economy over the next name it managed of quantum mechanics feel theoretical concepts and fair the max was lighter than an excess have given a picture all you like the magnetism in space time which is accurate down to at least let us say it.
tend to the minus fourteen centimeters perhaps better in fact that means that the classical concept of space and time at least a lot like the magnetism so only holds down too much smaller sizes than the point seven times and a minus thirteen centimeter which is the characteristic.
it had on size so therefore court in this space can mean ball a be described through electromagnetism like you couldn't space asked we have been extrapolated from atomic slices was accepted as you would then tried to describe or if you accept as you enter.
i to describe hadron exposure asked a manifestation of a decision not have wanted the ways of freedom on the space time structure which is based on our few the erie and electrodynamics and these i believe that this is a reasonable at you. however we must bear in mind that this had on structure which is going seven the had on distribution which is about point seven families his size is a drop and as many degrees of freedom so in that sense it has many features which are very similar.
a tool what we have being expected from a drawl and we had lots of experience with drops we have experience with drops of water or with experiences with drops of new limit.
i want to emphasize that we must always very mind that this problem which is the hadron has some features which also extremely different from that all the only a drop in its that we have been familiar with for example like a drop of water or drop of new command and that difference is best.
described in the fall in fashion. in the only of rob's you always think of couldn't that drop into do you can take longer nucleus and cut into and becomes to dramatically small a new client fact that's nothing but fission for fishing is not in but one type of that cutting into due process.
similar you can do the same thing for a drop of water but not approach if i take a pro down and take imagine a knife and cut it into do what would happen is that each region would then go back to the original size and one of them would become perhaps the problem the other would become a time or one of them to.
commuting daughter would become a pioneer oil role but the proton and the role of the proton the pile on each one of the region the size so in some sense this point seven families is a minimum quantum size of had on physics that various to it is automated about point seven.
families and therefore any theory with which you try to explain had on physics must have this feature in an otherwise you are having constituents which is not an agreement was what we have so far observed is not inconceivable is that a consistent idea that.
you have some sort of a matter of minutes was a freedom you cite and yet this exhibits a minimum size beyond which lower than which you cannot goal that answer is yes this is not strange at all when you have a even have degrees of freedom system strongly probably each other it is very easy. make the most natural thing is to have elements are excited asians whichever find of size and define a minimum order of magnitude size however this is extremely complicated mathematical or subject and we are only beginning to look into this but.
ideas like those give many of the practice in high and as a physicist great excitement and the whole that slowly were learned to deal with these and understand more about the structure of the proton thank you.