Adventures in Building Unikernel Clouds

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Video in TIB AV-Portal: Adventures in Building Unikernel Clouds

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Adventures in Building Unikernel Clouds
or a Crash Course in Building L2-L7 from Scratch
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You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
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Unikernels are often touted as being the building blocks of next generation ofcloud infrastructure. However, even the process of compiling and booting themremains daunting for the average developer let alone building outinfrastructure for them to live on. In this talk we'll dive deep into thevarious layers of infrastructure one needs to understand in order to build outtheir own infrastructure for unikernels. What might seem simple at firstquickly becomes difficult as one needs to cast aside preconceived notions ofwhat an operating system and application are and how they might interacttogether. We'll approach everything from hypervisor orchestration tofilesystems, networking and best practices for CI and testing. The attendeeshould be comfortable exploring unikernel cloud concepts by the end of thetalk. Unikernels are often touted as being the building blocks of next generation ofcloud infrastructure. However, even the process of compiling and booting themremains daunting for the average developer let alone building outinfrastructure for them to live on. In this talk we'll dive deep into thevarious layers of infrastructure one needs to understand in order to build outtheir own infrastructure for unikernels. What might seem simple at firstquickly becomes difficult as one needs to cast aside preconceived notions ofwhat an operating system and application are and how they might interacttogether. We'll approach everything from hypervisor orchestration tofilesystems, networking and best practices for CI and testing. The attendeeshould be comfortable exploring unikernel cloud concepts by the end of thetalk.
Adventure game Crash (computing)
Covering space Musical ensemble
Compilation album Utility software
Uniqueness quantification Rule of inference Task (computing)
Operations research Software Operating system Physical system Product (business)
Source code Musical ensemble
Server (computing) Game theory Cartesian coordinate system
Shift operator Term (mathematics) Software developer Videoconferencing Cloud computing Neuroinformatik
Implementation Virtual memory Software Right angle Shape (magazine)
Computer hardware
Computer network Musical ensemble Volume
Integrated development environment Software testing Musical ensemble
Data management Virtual reality Virtual memory Integrated development environment Cloud computing
Service (economics) Chemical equation Energy level Natural language Quicksort Proxy server Reverse engineering
Medical imaging Scheduling (computing) Context awareness Multiplication sign Source code Scheduling (computing) Formal language
Mechanism design Uniform resource locator Mobile app Virtual memory Software Semiconductor memory
Programming paradigm Service (economics) Computer-generated imagery 1 (number) Type theory Medical imaging Virtual memory Personal digital assistant MiniDisc MiniDisc Multiplication Physical system Booting
Befehlsprozessor Wechselseitige Information Googol Software Software developer
Uniform resource locator Kernel (computing) Visualization (computer graphics) Real number Uniqueness quantification Videoconferencing Tracing (software) YouTube
Wiki Implementation Different (Kate Ryan album) Uniformer Raum Interface (computing) Operating system Bit Ordinary differential equation
Computer network Computer network Musical ensemble
Musical ensemble Frame problem Wireless LAN
Execution unit Computer file Twin prime Data storage device Menu (computing) Price index Computer programming Connected space Direct numerical simulation Uniform resource locator Different (Kate Ryan album) Right angle Figurate number Physical system
Gateway (telecommunications) Direct numerical simulation Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Message passing Bridging (networking) Auditory masking Volume
Point (geometry) Wiki Fluid statics System programming Website Physical system
Computer file Computer file System programming File system Quicksort Cartesian coordinate system Formal language
Personal digital assistant Musical ensemble Volume
Human migration Backup Personal digital assistant Operator (mathematics) Video game Volume (thermodynamics) Database Volume
Standard deviation State diagram Multiplication sign Operator (mathematics)
Serial port
Execution unit Continuum hypothesis Duality (mathematics) Stapeldatei Linear regression State of matter Quilt Speicherbereinigung Software testing Musical ensemble
Data management Cuboid Configuration space Musical ensemble Line (geometry) Information security Window
Mathematics Mobile app Kernel (computing) Uniformer Raum Canadian Mathematical Society Maxima and minima Volume (thermodynamics) Volume
Kernel (computing) Video projector Code Demo (music) Boom (sailing) Musical ensemble Partition (number theory) Window
Installation art Scheduling (computing) INTEGRAL Uniqueness quantification 1 (number) Primitive (album) Instance (computer science) Mereology Workload Data management Uniform resource locator Process (computing) Maize Internet service provider Computer hardware Order (biology) Energy level Right angle
Classical physics Demo (music) Uniqueness quantification .NET Framework Instance (computer science) Product (business) Neuroinformatik Web 2.0 Medical imaging Type theory Uniform resource locator Software Computer hardware Software framework Physical system
introducing from for panic we have Ian I Berg who will be
talking about adventures and building in [Applause]
this room because that's its own utility just to
show you how to orchestrate certain tasks with unique rules because at the end of the day it's not just about running smack here and so we can say
this is an operating system but yet I'm going the Batmen of you host actual production software on this on this operating system
[Music] [Applause] we're talking about that you know once
again you think about the source of this
of this game and then you think about how dramatically different this application is from this
application it's making engine X work versus the prior application and and you start thinking what is appropriate to be putting all my servers so what is this
important like I've asked these questions but why is this really
important he's pretty famous in the body works too at 8016 now and he has this video that he month ago called the end of cloud computing if you've got like 30 40 minutes the ball in the next week I would just watch this it's kind of cool and he kind of talks about these shifts in computing that we've been taking like switching away because closer and closer to so called edge computing this is going to force us the developers to deploy and compute resources in a different manner than what we've been used to for a while and I think this is really going to start driving a lot of things and in terms of infrastructure and so forth and this is why I think this is one reasons why I think this
matters so versus you know that we use day to day in and out right now if we
look at something like OpenStack is like the canonical you know if your own private cloud solution I mean nobody psyche is probably like where you're starting right you have to think about like let this was booked for you know is for vm's years it's not the size of the shape the the implementation that we'd
be traversing but the reality is is that
you know the physical as well [Applause]
[Applause] you know
[Music] [Music]
we got a testing environment staging that you know we depend on what we're
using you know cue and so forth and downs manageability
to me is kind of what really defined modern cloud computing environment it was that ability to just like instantly create 100 vm's and then trash them or cloning them and then push them to somewhere else and and I think that's that's a key thing that we we don't even think about anymore I mean like to bitch about wind like AWS region goes down for two minutes out of the year you know and then compare that to what things were like maybe 10 15 years ago so so what is
that well there's things like your service discovery so zookeeper and that's you being all that sort of stuff rich which a lot of people I think a lot of shops don't really need this level [Applause]
[Applause] more familiar with like with the reverse proxies on in genetics that sort of
thing and then you know your resource aware of scheduling I allow me source and so forth once again this is not something that I would expect most small shops to ever even so something as
simple as deploying most compiled languages you're actually going to be creating the new VM each and every single time you had that deploy button and you're going to push that image up to I don't think a lot of shops actually
do when you actually are because once again you're removing that VM from that bouncing pool or wherever it's residing and so you have to think about how that works the mechanics of it same thing
with fellow gerber so in unique URLs that's pretty pretty typical to have virtual memory it's just not really a concept that seems to work and you curl and and so if I have an app that just keeps on requesting more and more memory and all of a sudden it runs out of memory you know and it stops responding to requests and so forth how do you handle it do you kill it do you switch it out you know there's the software that we've learned him to handle this for today's orchestrations that software doesn't quite work in new current land because of these reasons
and then you start thinking about things like Lamba and all the service and functionalist type of paradigms on top and how they interact with containers and vm's and so forth and how about different ways we'll come in to flavor
the ends you can't whatever but in most cases most people they're going to be working with vm's and so you might have ones that are compliant and that's great because then you can do lots of tricks but not all of them are and system you'll just get like a straight-up disk image to be working with so you know
every CPU in the past like what eight nine years has the extensions necessary but they're not always turned on obviously if you're on Google you're not gonna want me to do a hypervisor hypervisor you're have to actually burn your own AMI there's software out there that does that it's it's painful not that it doesn't work it's painful that the big clouds weren't really meant for it and of course the
hypervisor situation on the OS X sucks [Applause] it's one of these things that you know as developers we haven't like really had to do walk down this path before and so there's so much software that's kind of missing that can be written hopefully by people in this audience so
one of the things we're gonna discuss real quick was debugging unique URLs this is actually a video up on YouTube of us where we were debugging a go unique kernel and of course we're catching the panics and the stack traces and you know the GC and everything
not to mention gdb obviously the most maybe you've all known the bugger out there besides you know and that's Visual Studio you know works perfectly fine
here's another example of gdb debugging ago uni journal this is actually on runs github wiki and different implementations have their own interfaces so this is include os's here which looks a little bit different now this is and then one from OS V as well
so the old notion that they're not debuggable is kind of the next topic
networking and so so once again working
with [Applause] [Music]
[Applause] [Music] [Music]
[Applause] because you can't pass the frames and so after you like little tricks with that and so forth - for the traffic appropriately from a1 to and so forth
this is a common example what you're going to run into when you're rolling your own locations in the program there was making outgoing connections but your 509 right and so there's a pretty clear indication that wasn't fine - sir okay we'll just pop the certain whatever needs to be figure out where that is and of course the distro out there and every single you know different system not only has a different file name for this but stores in a completely different location which is just completely batshit insane that this is even a thing this is the that you normally probably don't have to do when you're on like Ubuntu or whatever but you do have to kind of think about and deal with in and
of course you can play with DNS and so
forth as well and DNS mask here is probably gonna be your friend although most people just kind of like pass it on through whatever gateway traffic but you can also use this for like DHCP so if you have like a multi-tenant situation then you can just like DNS mask on that bridge that you're serving dhcp through
kind of a large subject because there's so many different things that you can do with them obviously and so once again if
we go back to some of these tutorials on the wiki a lot of them like the point at which is great for some things like if you have a static website and there's absolutely no mutation going on that's great to use that one pod system that is
like inherently totally immutable because work on any popular language out there I guarantee you you have some sort of temp files being read and going somewhere you got uploads doing something there's so much crap going on like I would say won't be and so it's it's something to think about you know certain applications that make sense and applications makes no sense and so when
you're choosing your file system you want to think about you know which one to the other
once again this gives you running like that it's and that's the case based
volumes and volume copies so obviously you probably won't push assistance for some of these you know the backups and so forth and of course for life migration and so forth you know the volume copies kind of come in handy too so if I have a database running and I don't really want to take it offline but I want that copy of it it's a great way
to go about doing it so these operations can be done with like ETFs or SX news it's probably like the I think I think that tool comes on any Mac right away and so you can do most of those
operations that make the first I think it's time to move but once again this is one of those tools that you find that we
probably want some standard you know we actually ship these things to like a
tenant situation you might just mount another block device and then if you're
just playing around and actually
something like what's the worst thing today and what's the most needed improvement I would say testing like is a complete and just to show you how how crazy this actually is we have a problem with the go we maintained run for and basically garbage collection wasn't happening for a particular it wasn't happening so we had a batch come in it fixed it and we're like we should we should make a regression test to make sure that it actually is that state and so this test actually [Music] [Music] [Applause]
design basically means ssh is off the window right once again a security feature we're just gonna make it into like ten lines of PHP or something it's not necessary it's just to show you that if you think outside of the box you can easily do the exact same thing thousand different ways and here you can kind of see the hosts file through like a tin wine [Music]
something with volume deploy workflows so this is a really interesting thing that once again really only works with like uni girls you would never do this with a big vm because it just does not make any sense but if i want to spin up like 100 Newton kernels and then like push out changes to them without spinning them down this this change
might work and so basically the trick here is as you can kind of see in this global proof-of-concept thing CMS or PHP app says it includes like and so
obviously it's not only continuing the code because once again we don't actually have to recompile the actual kernel itself we're just mounting a new partition and boom and so this is this is like Windows examples like you would never ever do in a regular VM it's just it's just kind of stupid once again I'm
not sure me unfold screaming this so we'll show this and HTML 1 I got to drag this window as well [Music] all right so because I apparently am not so great with the ad the projector but basically you know we have the HTML example and then you know we can we can run like a PHP example doing the same thing all right so this one is at 4.4 it
us six dot
so and you know you can also search for like other ones you can kind of see that gives you ideas on how to kind of improve certain workloads and certain tooling around the ecosystem anyways questions Thanks thanks for the talk actually lots of problems you were describing are actually soft by kubernetes and mazes today they they are not scheduling or managing único notes but they're managing docker containers why not build on these primitives to like have the management layer and just get a unique URLs on bare metal provider like take it for example so you mention Asus young missiles but more kubernetes I know there's Dell EMC there's a unique yeah so so yeah good question so I really glossed over that but there's there's quite a few problems Mace's is a great example because they kind of they were working on this before kind of the whole container hoopla kubernetes is not a great example unfortunately a lot of like kubernetes installations are already provisioned on top of beams to begin with and so having two layers of provisioning like that don't really work too well you really need the orchestration layer at the hypervisor level not on top of that VM if you do it just needs to be kind of like out-of-band and so forth so yeah unique for instance out of EMC they do have integration with kubernetes but once again like like trying to do that on Google Cloud it's gonna suck trying to do that anywhere else is gonna suck you really you really need the hardware acceleration and in order to do that scheduling that needs to be kind of built at a lower layer and as for like meso s-- that's another interesting thing because that's where scheduling layers kind of compete so meso is is more for that process level right because now you can subdivide those resources so like that scheduling part where I showed you but when when you have that VM that scheduling has effectively moved down into the hypervisor and it's probably not like the best place for it at least we don't
have software that were like really takes advantage of it very well yet but NATO's that much works a lot better up here on on top of that VM layer yep yeah so like pakad dotnet for instance they do they do a lot of bare metal provisioning and so forth so yeah that's that's that's what I'm saying though is home there's a there's definitely frameworks out there like OpenStack for instance obviously allows you to do that but those frameworks are built for kind of classic VMs whereas you know like some of the like include OS for instance you run some of their demos and it's a megabyte tops so that's that's a very different VM than a gigabyte image I'm able to say that I don't have experience with this and but they have experience on the old type of computing world how far away are we from from a production system yeah so I mean there's production users today you know I talked about not talking about IOT not talking about nfe but in a fee is probably where like the most production stuff is running today big telcos are starting to utilize this base basically a lot of the telcos old hardware stuff is being eaten alive by software and like a lot of the nfe stuff is actually used utilizing unique URLs Ericsson in particular I know is using that stuff on the web side there's definitely some people that are toiling around with it there's a lot of tooling yet to be read in though so [Applause]