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Making electronics

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Making electronics
How to assemble open source electronics projects
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hello okay yeah all right so the way
electronics design is normally using CAD tools where you have a schematic entry tool on one side where you define all your connections and then you have a PCB layout to where you then route those connections on a kind of physical model of your printed circuit board and that's that's how we that's how electronics projects are designed and if you once
you do this you can make a design that you can share with people and that's what we call open hardware electronics really and that's been growing really there's a lot of I did this kind of survey last year it was before for Sam and I repeated it just now and more and more people who are sharing their projects online so what this talk is going to be about is just going from a design that probably someone else has made and getting to the physical working assembled printed circuit board so
electronics is kind of completely and also light about making connections and the only way to get better at it and knowing what the right connections are is to try it out and this is this is called a solar spread road and with it you can just kind of plug components in and see if it works maybe something will blow up maybe not but when you're when you're getting started with this the really though the I would look at this what the inside of this red ball looks like because it's quite if you if you're just looking at it from the outside you don't know where the connections are being made so take a look at this picture and see and then you can realize where your connections are being made for you by the breadboard if you want to if you want something more permanent you'd probably use something like proto or vero or strip board same names for pretty much the same thing and they were there you can then sort on and the the components won't fall out anymore as designs get more complex though you probably want to have a printed circuit board and you can still make this at home you get a copper clad fiberglass board and there's a few methods of getting your design onto there you can use you can use their lithography process or you can use a what's called a toner transfer using an inkjet printer but the important thing is to get for the kind of ink onto this copper clad board that's gonna when you then do the etching process which is the next step it's going to keep those connections there and get rid of all the other copper so at the end you're left with just the connections that you want so if you're looking at an open-source Hardware project or you'll forget you'll be looking for the Gerber files and when you most open-source Hardware electronics projects will have multiple layers they'll have a sole resist layer and a mask layer a silkscreen layer and quite a lot of tiny drills like that root connections between the different layers so mostly you will want to use the industrial process for making printed circuit boards so it's kind of it is the same edging process in the end but they have a few more extra strips and they have a lot more precision so you can you can get a nice secure silkscreen or i dint player which identifies what if the design is well done they will show you well the components are supposed to go and what the name of the project is you have much more accurate drilling and the drills themselves internally electroplated so that connections can be made between layers and you can have a lot more different layers they laminate you layers together you can really do up to 16 or even 32 layers that's quite expensive but on the whole this is really cheap and there's loads of services that will do this gladly do this for you and it doesn't take too long either take about two weeks to get your printer to a circuit board manufacturer if you pay more it'll be quicker so but there are obviously the printed circuit board is only part of a part of the puzzle and we also won't need to know what components we want so when you're looking at an open-source
Hardware project we'll look for the builds of Bill of Materials so this is normally a spreadsheet that defines exactly what components you want to buy what I actually have an open-source project which is a browser extension that helps you get from the spill of materials to the browser shopping cart obviously you could do this manually as well but this is this is my project which this animation was supposed to start small so it's gonna just take a little longer but I mm-hmm anyway so in the end it's supposed to go into the shopping cart and you can watch this on the on the website itself
I went even further with this and made a kid space toy dog which is a platform where people can upload complete designs and they put the Gerber files on there and their bill of materials and you can easily get all the parts you need to replicate a project but let's talk about a bit about the components these are
resistors that's what they look like that you can act through a hole or surface mount there's no scale for this but this component is tiny I don't know there may be a mistake to make it so huge on the slides here so a surface mount just means that you don't have legs and you went on the printed circuit board it sits on top and it doesn't go through the holes when you solder it the capacitor has come in all kinds of shapes really the big kind of the bigger electrolytic s-- they're normally polarized so you have to watch out what which way around you have those but they come in surface mount in tiny surface mount versions as well it just depends on what kind of values you're looking for inductors are really a just coils of wires often wrapped around a ferrite core and have very interesting electric magnetic properties they come in surface mount as well diodes come in a lot of different shapes too but most people will be familiar with our light-emitting diodes also known as LEDs and that's a great way to add lights to your project Joanie's transistors are normally like three pinned black packages sometimes four pins if they need to dissipate a lot of heat and integrated circuits are
normally rectangular packages with pins coming out so now that PCB let's say our PCB has arrived and we want to go for the spare piece of e to the assembled board the first step is to make sure your PCB stays in place you can use blue tack for most jobs they are the only problem with blue tack is that when you heat up the board as the board gets hotter it kind of melts away but it does the job and I use it a lot actually you might opt for something a bit better like this kind of third hand cracking tool that will hold everything in place and obviously there's even more professional tools if you if you're inclined to spend more money on your tools so through a whole soldering or
any kind of sorting really the the crux of it is that you want to get heat into the into the two bits of metal that you want to join so you you put your soldering iron onto the pin and the pad that's on the PCB and then you add solder to both of those you you what you want is a soldering iron in the station not a soldering gun those are normally for plumbing or other kinds of metalwork I would stay away from these really cheap kind of stands where you just lean your soaring iron on there because you'll probably burn yourself on the whole you're probably going to burn yourself but these this meet these make it even more likely choose the chisel tip is the most versatile versatile tip really because as I said for still during the it's all about trying to get heat into the into the bits that you want to solder so the the the kind of the bigger area on the chisel tip makes that easier pointy tip does have its place for really kind of fine bits but really I would recommend you start off with a chisel tip and use it until you run into problems with it so you heat the pad you add the solder you continue heating for a few seconds and you let it cool down and as you practice this more and more you'll be able to see when when it doesn't so good you will be able to see from the site you can have you know too much solder or not enough or a cold joint where it's just attached to one the the pin really rather than the the pad or you've just burn to add it to had it held it on there too long and it's burnt it all you have shorts in your circuit where things are being bridged I think
one of the tips when I was starting out that helped me the most was just to try and relax and again get in a really comfortable position and do your soldering that way and makes it a lot easier to hold your hand steady just try and take all the weight of your body and just just that helps a lot so I would
also say don't be afraid of surf smell soldering you can easily do surface mount soldering behind you can missing a slide okay you you can do it on proto
board or you can a bigger pitch components like this one one in the animation there you can easily do that by hand it's all about the sides really and for me like once it gets below Oh 603 Imperial I I I move away from using an iron and use a different process and if you have packages like this chip here which has it has no leads really it's called a quad flat no leads so then you might you probably don't want to use a soaring iron for that and the alternative is to use solder paste and you use a step you can hand apply solder place or you can use a stencil which you can get from a lot of PCB batching services as well and you apply the solder paste and then you place your components and you can probably still do this behind unless you're doing a lot a lot of lot of boards and then you can use something like toaster oven to heat the whole thing up and hopefully everything will sort itself out the the the the soda when you see the in the animation there the solder has a lot of surface tension so it will like if your placement isn't totally correct it will you know it will kind of pull it into the right place often I had a slide in here about the kinds of solder which I'm missing so I think I is the last version of my talk I know well I'm gonna run out of time if I do this stuffing around but there were a few projects that I wanted to show just to kind of inspire you to try and get
started let me try this
well I think I've run out of time and I miss I won't be able to show you those slides and this has gone out of sync Oh disaster at the end mm-hmm yeah well I just wanted to say you can learn more at your local axe pace there's a there's a lot of them around they'll probably have a modified toaster oven and yeah that's all right if you like hardware checkout Kidspace durog there's a lot of projects are actually I wanted to show you some cool projects and you just check that out and maybe try and make some of those I've got a kind of curated list of resources well if you're trying to get into electronics there's the open CAD an open heart whatever room so if you if your intellect Ronix go come to that in in 15 minutes really start and I'll be giving another talk about using programming languages to do electronic designs and there's some new cool CAD tools coming out that's all [Applause] okay thank you very much are there any people that have