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Wie Archäolog*innen GIS (nicht) nutzen

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Title Wie Archäolog*innen GIS (nicht) nutzen
Title of Series FOSSGIS 2019
Author Schuller, Doris
Kirschenheuter, David
License CC Attribution 4.0 International:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
DOI 10.5446/40684
Publisher FOSSGIS e.V.
Release Date 2019
Language German

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Subject Area Computer Science
Abstract In der archäologischen Forschung werden GIS bereits erfolgreich eingesetzt. Wie sieht es im Bereich Grabungsdokumentation aus?

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Well
my first archaeological I have it on it I hand over the same the first speaker, the archaeologists do not use dennis not consciously put in brackets namely a lot of fun thank you and also from our side a beautiful good morning we We are very happy that we are today we can present our presentation these are my collegiate doris school here today as a freelance archaeologists and I david kuschchen today here today as an archaeologist and doctoral candidate the high prehistoric archeology I would like to introduce a few first what words actually lose those words motivation for today's lecture is then I want a few bring positive examples like us forget about applications in archeology I would like to join then then pass the challenge the use of gis in the archaeological dig site
Combination will show the linkage of archaeological data with geographic data is for us nothing new in ours already made since the beginnings an example of this is for example this one on the right side alfred
slit in his work already 1904 precise natural spatial parameters
has defined by Drews Doric find settlements he just describes how to get started from modern geographical or geological maps on archaeological Funding can only conclude little
later recognizes that also albert Kiekebusch as part of its excavation He also lists exactly in Berlin natural spatial parameters for prehistoric settlements on and writes that she was the settlement dry was easy with water too supply and offered natural protection and thus draws the soil type the waters net in geology as crucial parameters for the choice a settlement stop are the prehistory
but now back to the present and to our motivation for today lecture here, of course, can we do not represent the two of us entire archeology here, however, speak Let us explain how we are in ours Use your own working environment or just do not use or maybe should not use this working environment is in bathing for us of course, and of course that too in relation to the generally valid ones I will take these regulations immediately will lose a few more words July will show how yesterday in the since recently private conducted field archaeological research is used as a documentation stool i want to show how are you in used for university research will therefore arise for us
simplified two Areas of application forget in the archeology that is once the evaluation and the Visualization of already existing material and then the documentation of newly revealed material a few words
to the company guidelines archeology after since 2017 in Baden württemberg the field archaeological research too privately run company and freelance were allowed to be carried out the denkmal specialist authorities guidelines placed around a uniform dealing with the cultural heritage of country to ensure this guideline essentially make requirements for requesting digs and service to such implementation to the concrete methodical approach documentation of procedures for dealing with the customers the finds in documentation finally but are also like the Cooperation with the authorities should expire
Now you can ask yourself what these actually up to do with the directive and the question is also like us now Actually it is use what the right agent is to do that dori will explain later since i am actually in my work primarily as an analysis tool in the I will use landscape archeology now on it given the landscape architects in archeology is a research branch of above all, the spatial manifestations of human culture examines this usually happens both local and global or regional scale We use many different ones methods of which I below Some would like to introduce a short one
very long used method actually the classic distribution Here's an example see
Here were just these cup were formerly drawn by hand and out of the Concentrations of the fundacies so we once, they were a Spread card stings band ceramics from the concentrations of the funds were then groups to culture groups summarized and thereby became Put simply, the settlement centers certain cultures determine the whole
is considered a purely intuitive over The procedure has been
Today they are a bit more modern and use until the localization of cultural phenomena At first you only serve this the visualization so I just see where are my settlements? or graves ideally lie now but this thing and geodaten digital in front that is, after this pure visualization can be a digital one what happens naturally work process significantly accelerated
such an analysis can be, for example a geo- statistical evaluation are about qualitative characteristics of culture in the
to investigate space so i can example as seen here in the picture investigate what the typical values of traffic british index to the certain settlement locations are too certain times so i can For example, notice that as a location was for a prehistoric Settlement topographical dominance first from the Bronze Age an essential feature is
project the results of statistical analyzes such as a cluster analysis or from Paintings in the room so you can also recognize propagation movements or culture groups in difference to classic distribution rate now just determine quantitatively and on maps represent as here for example the colleague Peter jablonka for
foundations in turkey
also due to the increasing
simple technical implementations in the in recent years, the tool becomes popular it is the analysis of the analysis the view field of fund can I locate theses on settlement and territory conclusions about communication traffic close and trade in the example on the right is the combined field of view multiple heights Fortifications of the Prussian era in Baden Wuerttemberg are marked in green areas of most settlements be viewed and therefore possibly as an important settlement area or could be considered
But I can also compare the view fields of individual settlements this for example, categorize and so on Example hidden from exposed Distinguish settlements and me then consider that maybe a different one functions held
Now I look at the visibility of Foundations I can testify to their meet character so can increase visibly settlements, for example, eight times as symbol of power besides, I can referenced between For example, you can create foundations between settlements and associated burials places between traffic junctions and fortifications or between settlements of different hierarchy for example, an agricultural one settlement and a high fortification
few used but more and more come in are let buy price analyzes this can we help testify to traffic and to meet communication networks as a parameter these analyzes can be used for example of the details of the delicate waters network to the ground to the next site or to command the time here as no Go areas with what I have but In the end my command to for spiritual reasons, for example passable are all these parameters can be incorporated here you can get many more a superior picture here in times very simple example to cross the Ridge of the Swabian Alb in red
are the residential estates we are have there and it just shows that certain parts as preferred may apply exactly one more field but one more
very young field of gis applications in Archeology is the area of predictive mapping or modeling this is about predicting founding places and so the press to reconstruct russia's landscape to set up models here we are already an area of machine learning and data science i can do one here use entire bandwidth of parameters set up models eg can not give information on the topic aquatic network of ground to the already to accept known sources to see right here in the example the result of an archaeological forecast schleswig holstein the 2016 polo ii colleagues was published longer and for at every point of the work area based on natural parameters the height near the water etc for each put on one of working area Probable value for that
present in a Neolithic settlement was determined in the picture with red just that
highest probability with green the least likely it shows so that certain areas are more likely than settlements location i hope so i could
show that this is all in fast
archeology is widespread too would be worth mentioning fund solutions However, I suspect they are very popular that's why not just the program openness but often also only the free program I think interesting in the future this should be stronger as an analysis tool
be understood and not only for Sign of a distribution card used will be the next but only intuitive as previously evaluated
by linking with other tools such as work processes to become even better in the future Software development for the
landscape architects rarely, however we can here on a wide range tools used by others Discipline has been developed I would now like the application case this as an analysis tool for the application case transfer gravel as a documentation stool pass yes thank you so at the beginning it has been mentioned since 2017 baden württemberg especially private enterprise and freelance archaeological Accompanying or digging in advance of also carry out planned construction projects
conditioned by the guidelines for this
So called company archeology is it too a paradigm shift in the dig documentation instead of hand drawings cad and vector graphics cookies are now used parallel to this, independent of The guidelines are increasingly finding structure of motion so ffm instead classic photogrammetry fg use
at an archaeological excavation The floor features are usually irretrievably destroyed we lay the Things in the ground through targeted investment of Planners and profiles gradually free and this already part of the planning the research process
roughly denote one more or less horizontal surface artificially or better informed oriented So it's gonna be over here clarify we are seeing a planning here which is anything but flat now but befund oriented was created a profile, on the other hand, is for one artificially applied vertical surface to see here in the foreground Planner profiles must now be documented we measured and described So, do something right now precedent for a geo information system factual data with geodata against this background it appears At first amazing that this is not already long in the dig the workflow has kept documentation
on-site has been around since the analog time barely changed at first glance
First, we photograph the finished profiles and planners with blackboard scale and
emergency that is certainly a kind photo as each of them has already seen even if he has nothing to do with archeology has to do afterwards we manufacture the
fg or sfm photos in the case of
fg are one or few shots necessary as we are right here above me see with equal measurement points inside the be measured or quite a few for sfn after that one is measured and
of course leveled with the total today station and now we come to one point at which the change is shown earlier became the authoritative drawing
which in turn is an interpretation and
the result of an understanding process is made on-site like you can imagine what is too consuming and took his time especially if you still have the drawing has colored as you can see here one had the fg recording on the spot
usually only one at least authoritative sketch made the actual drawing in the cad was on The office could be shifted in principle
that's still how it is today However, for us now as
proved useful that we the drawings directly with the tablet the photo finished now has nothing gis or the guidelines to do it's just faster here too shifts the finished the Drawing on the office for closing
the findings are still on site Describe the workflow in the office like
Of course you have seen here changed and the tasks are grown Very sooner one made survey and
overall plans by hand so that was too elaborate with such transparent paper and So you have to introduce every one of them here is a drawing and then is there just the wall with you? transparent paper quasi- adjusted and all again made also harmful consuming used cad and fdp has
First, the photos or the like
There are at least four photos here also gaps were created pro plan my profile there is a set measuring data then the findings are drawn around and labels what in different but teaching is ultimately organized saved in a file at the end you have pro planning and profile a set of about 20 files also total and overview plans were created and Everything printed at the end of the problem and
profile is synonymous with sfn and clever
a set of photos and measurements in the case of profiles but still converted Need to become later the suv model will be more calculated and georeferenced and that planum exported as otto foto and Incubus will now be imported
Results drawn and numbered provided and the car foto tilted me admit in this instance I have the Cribs not made but here you can see the marked findings with the numbers in these circle so we do it rule a bit of problems and Profile ever a clever project with average about 20 chefs after certain specifications as to the attribute table concerns with certain be created For example, we have the dig border below which is drawn here then there may be the dig border above the marks number of the marks lines so if the findings number can not be found in the findings but with
his line must be somewhere else There is an extra empty for that we have a wave points we have points caption by neville here we have fillings disorders upcoming ground will be the finds measured and so on per ship as that is known to have at least three files In addition, there is the link single shape if with an average of about three csv files Adding to my profile is about per plane 60 to 70 files come here too creation of total and overview plans and the creation of print editions added a short
Excursion to the profiles of the profiles at your presentation in the gis in the room they would have to be tilted so that you look like a planning for the Print output is a height frame too manufacture that's why Book value of the profile to be the height should there be no uniform not everyone has their own way own solution develops and makes somehow my solution process around rice I just roughly become the 3d model here
initially as a whole for the case that plane with profile together
the car photo will be documented Planning can now be exported and be further processed So I demonstrate how to do this profile here we are watching from above On top of that is a flat surface So we see the iks is up here and it's about this profile then I solve the geo-referenced measuring points again from model and cut everything away the profile includes the measuring points of the Profiles are converted so that the profile as planning appears and the high quality of the height corresponds to that profile becomes new spurious coordinates are referenced again and
So it looks like so if you look up which compares the axis one sees a bit bad but out of that profile is now here a flat surface and so you can almost a car
export photo again and incubus import and continue accordingly to process I'm sure there is one
variety of individual solutions for this problem all more or less awkward and tinkered this time the development of a unified and simple procedure with graphic user interface would be necessary and desirable yes then I come to a conclusion
Lawyer of the excavation documentation for Our news case will be a smart one all relevant drawings created something with cad programs or vector graphics program currently easier by the hand goes the number of files and the The inconvenience of their creation is im moment a clear disadvantage of gis opposite cad program or vector artwork program the processing of when application profile documentation of the Descent not provided the strength of gis is the linkage of factual and geographical information is still not fully exhausted and required for a real use currently a lot of special knowledge yes
I come to our common conclusion to the wishes for the future yesterday, archeology in the about the excavation documentation outgoing archaeological research can and must continue to be used the education and training of Archaeologists should be in this area not only the university education of the students but also later beat it is basically suitable for the So dig documentation actually yes even more than cad or vector artwork Program is with the show this However, they are expensive and cumbersome
a bit cumbersome clever may not as a cost-effective alternative to the cad and vector graphics program conceived become funds of institutions and Digging companies should take the place license and proprietary programs in further development and support be invested by forestry solutions thanks for the attention and the [Applause] [Music]
it's light must be on ok yes exactly
Thanks in the lecture for the same the question is there are questions from Mr. yes Hello short question about svm what a solution again some open source solutions between there is one open source solution but admittedly due to lack of special knowledge I often use it to know photos or that means now I think is not now technical question okay it is not technical question but a question too the field of vision analysis is mine for the Now it seems logical to me but you do in the prehistory just then reconstructions of settlement structures if you can, yes only if you maybe only the one höhensiedlung takes each other otherwise refers to the level as would have to yes, it is true that there are ancient river courses throughout the country vegetation and everything know because and without and you would have the antique everywhere according to horizon is very good question this topic is visual field analyzes Of course very, very difficult You have to use it very carefully this tool you can actually do it too do not use it alone you should always combine with other analyzes because quite right when I analyze a sight based on today's topics or This is a natural way to make songs the modern landscape surface i but not for example where in the prehistory forest was where no forest was and I can imagine a 30 meter tall fir that influences mine field of vision already very clearly the same as well as for example a because of course I'm on it too sometimes a point of view very different therefore it is very difficult you always had to be very careful with bypass other analyzes to pull Round still accept and look to know maybe the spread of certain of types et cetera we of course very simplified now shown exactly have you ever considered the variety of shape files by a geocache too replace yes but the specifications so there is yes Simply correct from the state office for monument maintenance and the demand shape if exactly [Laughter] hello a world champion from dresden of archeology as a computer scientist or as spokesman of commission archeology and I would like to or you could probably be here now to discuss another hour or more I just want to make a few notes So this is this transition from cat In Germany we have gis in the look and there are reasons for it there reasons against what is the clearest reason for that Do not go with flying flags Change is almost like that but the smart one is unfortunately still not able enough 3d is when we work with cad we have the possibility with appropriate software the surveying process instantly track in 3d and to see does not offer googles currently also also the evaluation possibilities that we so far are more likely to 2d or two and a half the limited at cubes or when we are free we say it like this when we are us in the in the professional move it looks a bit there different but of course there is also again the cost questions in the background Two short notes still we had february in frankfurt ten years is one great advice to dig digital excavation documentation any direction this is in dresden had maybe it will be a continuation give we have so yes in the following lecture a bit more what might you hear? or try it too to bring in what we have joined the nation archaeologists because there also a website about what we do what we try I want the whole Do not talk about problems we have but we also thank on the way yes Thank you for the lecture so the Last paragraph I can definitely help understand very well the like bibi state office for monument preservation Baden Württemberg as the representative of I do not want any of these institutions question now stood a little Correction and indeed it will be in the Guidelines do not require you to be with Googles works with every giz work because what is required at the donation exists the current one and constantly update projects of digging without naming of a program to the mess files and So essay price so who among study of course, support the fund movement but not exclusive is a cure of course, by that So I can not do anyone else Used as smart as it is to become quasi-standard without it demanded that's absolutely right So maybe there would be something to add that this paradigm shift of Although now essential to pour card since just this is common private field archeology there but in my opinion has the at least at the universities too that's what it started earlier has been used and there too especially cube He likes to work in Arctic as well in the meantime also to cookies I pass on interruptions we bypass Unfortunately, we have to relocate discussion, it's nice that it's on ring The many thanks again for the lecture and the feedback and close it we only times the lecture dankeschön
Parameter (computer programming)
Hospital information system
Parameter (computer programming)
Visualization (computer graphics)
Texture mapping
Geostatistics
Local ring
Internationalization and localization
Visualization (computer graphics)
Internationalization and localization
Index
Geostatistics
Höhe
Data analysis
Position
Internationalization and localization
Abbildung <Physik>
Geostatistics
Höhe
Internationalization and localization
Höhe
Parameter (computer programming)
Information
Texture mapping
Parameter (computer programming)
Parameter (computer programming)
Automation
Software
Automation
FuturERS
Computer-aided design
Vector graphics
Motion (physics)
Information
Scale (map)
Scale (map)
Abbildung <Physik>
Scale (map)
Abbildung <Physik>
Computer-aided design
Computer file
Abbildung <Physik>
Computer-aided design
Computer file
Coordinate system
User interface
Coordinate system
SIMPL <Programmiersprache>
Moment (mathematics)
Computer-aided design
Computer program
Computer-aided design
Computer program
Structural load
Inference
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AV-Portal 3.8.0 (dec2fe8b0ce2e718d55d6f23ab68f0b2424a1f3f)