Fuzzing Malware For Fun & Profit. Applying Coverage-Guided Fuzzing to Find Bugs in Modern Malware

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Fuzzing Malware For Fun & Profit. Applying Coverage-Guided Fuzzing to Find Bugs in Modern Malware
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Practice shows that even the most secure software written by the best engineers contain bugs. Malware is not an exception. In most cases their authors do not follow the best secure software development practices thereby introducing an interesting attack scenario which can be used to stop or slow-down malware spreading, defend against DDoS attacks and take control over C&Cs and botnets. Several previous researches have demonstrated that such bugs exist and can be exploited. To find those bugs it would be reasonable to use coverage-guided fuzzing. This talk aims to answer the following two questions: we defend against malware by exploiting bugs in them ? How can we use fuzzing to find those bugs automatically ? The author will show how we can apply coverage-guided fuzzing to automatically find bugs in sophisticated malicious samples such as botnet Mirai which was used to conduct one of the most destructive DDoS in history and various banking trojans. A new cross-platform tool implemented on top of WinAFL will be released and a set of 0day vulnerabilities will be presented. Do you want to see how a small addition to HTTP-response can stop a large-scale DDoS attack or how a smart bitflipping can cause RCE in a sophisticated banking trojan? If the answer is yes, this is definitely your talk.
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Presentation of a group Complex (psychology) Service (economics) NP-hard Computer file Sampling (statistics) Virtual machine Planning Insertion loss Mereology Attribute grammar Malware Semiconductor memory Cuboid Speech synthesis Endliche Modelltheorie Operating system Window
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Different (Kate Ryan album) Single-precision floating-point format Projective plane YouTube
so i won my name is maxim truck and friends called marks campbell researcher this is the last day of khan told as this year which is really said that but we're going to talk about my work wasn't in the next to forty five minutes we just cool so let's go first of all i'd like to send their fortunes who gave me a chance to speak on the stage. this is a real honor for me and this is a forced to live on in my life ever so i'm talking and this is foes that core i'm really excited to enjoy to be here and i did in the land from russia the front page do their bit more research into thousands the sixteen had the chance to work on model well not exist in israel for two. years and since two thousand and eighteen ever leaving the bay area so i'm as you get as you can see my background combines experience in mali went on i listened and five and so one day i get an idea why not try to soar fall box and mall where sounds like a crazy idea about. my good friend and drawn from draw sort who actually inspired me to present the historic or was excited so this presentation is logically do wyden it into three parts is the first part i am weren't to explain why where and how we can search for box and mall where and why corrugated five is a mistake.
you to search was his wife's what kind of problems we have to address to be able to fly and box and malvo and of course i am plan to show a demo my pfizer implemented on top of the in their foot in the last part i'll show you several cool or zero day i've found in different malicious samples and explain future directions of war. so before actually start prize and virus the i decided to find and look or are some leaked to the mall where source code while ask and just understand this a year make sounds and it forced to spend time on it and guess what runs one of the force of source called whilst i found this the comment and.
russian which can be translated into fall away so i was offered for a couple of months he looks like this idea makes sense and going to find some boxes in sample and probably in another was always caught up.
so when to write while where they have to do a lot of complex sees the lake initial infection way lord really rude and most importantly force communication is seen see our server on cell lot of scenes that can potentially the goal wrong here so an ideal place for us to search for a box with. do some complex partial refund common com wants from seen see or some complex a fall for much force officer well some samples leverage over to reveal all groups to communicate the scenes he sold of samples that supports are really complex communication protocols implemented from scratch. despite of this complexity you are bad guys usually and are only interested in environmental security court for many reasons such as local fire for expertise saw in most cases of almost sees things like us a lot of their point two hours or on to exploitation you can use which is actually who would force. and sometimes the cortisol with the region as a model where doesn't the war if environment has slightly change just to experience it or so and of course ocean for box and with a squad could not be boring so i hope you soon to say so hiking back in general is pretty well known research.
there are born to greet the talks at the conference at the present and use a boss. i can safely gives us a year has lived his hikers community to produce the outpost least a tool for the cool difficult also presented last year but what about the present mall where well as are much much less the publications in this field actually there is no systematic resource the on this trip. all i found are several research or papers published boy could be me. bought and the mind and all of this resource was the to find in trigger some and malicious called boss he didn't even while were using five and which is a mute oprah's it just all i'm focusing on box clinton and how we can use his wives at to defend against model where.
so a legal issues and it's less really want was this talk about anyway i want to say that i can work isn't were worried deep graze on the elevator for questions of his dark attributes runs an ascot so far crow and a lot of other things so what no one can stop loss to search for walks and mall where soul. it's obvious will now understand own what you wish and legal aspects let's say we found some blocking model where what kind of benefits we can get firms that let's imagine that he found some memory corruption boxes to tick roshan some sample that the spreading around the plane and such barca actually might be quite.
it's useful i guess many of you remember air famous kill switch farndon them want to cry which significantly help the slow dollars britain of the sample if your place one while the special name in one specific falter now want to cry will not affect your machine of course as a lier left the school speech on your purse. but if you can automatically or seven after want to clarify and the summer corruption for example in some complex while parts of britain to need such gifts from them we can just the boys this file an operating system and all were real not and fax machine. besides it if we can somehow trigger such was remotely we will be able to do a lot of other cool things.
i'm like we can stop more worth from spring or fall in that war or slow down and the or should darling system agents does way to modify and for what is coming to and from seen see it's especially cool if we can do that against book matters that are trying to reform where did this attack against us for example. all you've bought have some i've already to use the victims response sparser and just need to send all explored with the boards and the it will cause a crash later in the dem or i'll show that's the action it's possible well it would be really great if you can trigger remote what exactly should he of course we can take control or boredom. plant or shut down existence agents or turn it on but not all nurse do a lot of other ad course in secure and of course also you dream bark is a bit more called the execution on scene see in this case we have got more and can do everything but in my opinion that's less likely to the vehicles.
more soon see or eaten in memory safely and which is like fight on beach the goal line out i don't see any reason to write that it's your simplest boss ok how can these surfaces box until they find is the most efficient you to search for and box of memory and safe level which is.
actually it wasn't was very important for software security toll at up to call when you saw a huge open source projects who are integrated to wasn't reason development life cycle all report that this technique to improve security of their products are stored recently say that wasn't actually improved security or four. linux girl which is really cool.
it was pfizer wasn't is actually really simple to you you are white potentially violent or malformed you put your program and wanted to reprogram for crash lesson heart soul you'll start to was a wise and generates in pulled and some simple into your program and all you need to proceed and pray that it will find some will crush for you. this picture of sure precisely explains my feelings the when my pfizer reporting your you knew crush usually do when you could really help.
how he would score is good it was when years ago when present was dampened glance pfizer's consider the program as a black box and to reach was sent all at this cases it was a war that you would the material walks of that a look at modern humans have called people wanted to find more complex box the deeper of the court so they decided to you. instrument program on the distant compilation stand and provide this course because it off was to be able to prove this kid generation so is the best example of such pfizer's american for the local or if it so records good fires and if he managed to find that this case of the triggers and you could possibly no problem. and the fires of safes. this case and son reform subsequent station on people who do so and you fired. the same for the next four boston for the next and this way we can touch are much more called deeper into the program and find more box into real of course the dumb blonde was of some point can also finds as the boss but you can take a look of got time to find them so all the best example of the school.
in case of porridge guy that wasn't going to take bought several means the for an additional point of direct fronts but in case of dumb bland pfizer it can it can take years to find the same problem so you see why coleridge goes pfizer is a really powerful tool it can be so effective. lucky today to state of the art quaters its effort to poison and sell out of their full force implemented on top of their failed soul for example i really recommend this girl was careful and what is more important force of these been there for.
the report of a full half of india's mourners.
and three. seoul f. and injects and instrumentation reduce the drums a compilation step so as a result in binary will have this f.a. and maybe longer and find traction injected in each new ways of war. in case of my work because for one tiny problem.
we don't have source caught so i guess it's no surprise rate actually have even more problems. now we're usually year and park and exit you to the court most important part of mall where they manically a tramp time in this case a source court instrumentation is useless we have to find some way to be able to provide worked all boys are all rich of such dynamically and parked and executive called us and we can try something.
other tools and techniques have a much more worthy of discussion but the in my opinion it's the worst scalable and works on new for specific subset of four samples so besides that if you want to search for box in seen see communication we have to increase of this case is the same.
wait a small world so we have a lot of problems here. but things got to be their friend the doesn't need source called for whiners flies and so we don't need the in the knockout source quarter fall sample instrumentation is implemented on top of them are you a dynamic by the instrumentation frame or what is a dynamic by instrumentation i'll call you back.
g b a's you can you call fire on the lies and behavioral for buying the implication that from time she throws injection of instrumentation court i just want you to give their basic idea how it works let's say we have all or to be a engine and one that we want to use treatment and still won and then i worry a lot.
was this binary suspend that inject instrumentation library who are going to pour into rid of control for into instrumentation the library and museum exhibit you should not so at this point it looks like a traditional classic the deal injection and control floor paycheck but it's the four stars the magic. then are you a taste the first the ways it bore corpus it and in special place called court cash isn't it performs transform nation of this basic war to be able to inject instrumentation reduce the construction specified by users and then executed in the spirit to special court cash the most challenging stuff is to. makes this executive and transparent towards instrument and winery and then amadio north dakota loses it's really complicated task on the moon pretty good for them it takes next basic war putin corp could care reform transformation injects our instrumentation recuse executed take the next one and so on fuel of british. makes a point of all program so you can see this way we can instrument ever seen that executives on our c.p.u..
so we've had three challenges like of source called office creation and encryption real their philip last day no more you will solve the first problem and actually creates a new one in their first supports only a file based wasn't so we can actually perform wasn't or for that work traffic partners which is a very. reduce human patient costs. but as this problem i decided to implement a watch for a watch on top of the n.f.l. and called the that if it supposed to have all wiser and all model were instrumental by they know where your in my mind let's assume all sample sound some requests to seen see instead of actually send that this. seen seaview reader exists request ball was are all fours and generate new you this case and creams is just this case if it's a necessary and then census the response the but into all sample then we probably all callers should be mop and three good ways it's just keys is to might quote over. which now provides a school board with to all our pfizer and the eyes of generating new test case restart or sample or target function in our sample and to be open to steps in slot it sounds like a view to the complex scheme but it's actually pretty easy to use all you need to specify. ip address or to the sun on and suit while that the father will do all of the wrist for you. if you need to increase your test case and before send them back into or sample you can provide the boss to your custom and corruption library and that a full meal or just laboratory and will use this expected fashion to increase the test cases if you don't like the default seen see a you can define your old won the for example. we need to implement from really complex a communication logic to use your target.
ok let's see how it actually works.
q you.
so is this virtual machine i have the release milk or for that they are fit but before actually start or officer let me explain the quarter were trying to analyze so it's dixter version will always designed to steal the point of sale so.
the design to steal greatest and debit card information from point of sale souls terminals so on this fashion is to be when they have so it's a visitation so that to generate the agent stream then the open connection recently seen see using standard in the us a pair functions sold the real. use post request to send the on the constitution see than a dozen some information about victims machine and then picture of census data we are astounded to induce a pair functions if so the successful of census data they called his fortune get so is going to fashion and. and in this farm shown they receive the com wants from since you come in but real. browsers cuckoos sos his fortune into a good cook you. used for this purpose so it's fair to drill function just call it and you'll get your command and you get what you see in the calm on the variable soul then to perform some flies and of the performers are some of those this come on and that was go back there. if they manage top ten and they in oman started is a door they want to exit cute now come on so this ways he implement communication the scene see so as you can see the needs and to implement some. so why are some non-trivial communication logic reduce our c c so we need to implement all activist on my seen see library argue it's actually not heart all we need is to define to fortunes so this is so custom since you need to define seen seen you did receive. it's ever quarterly so long. then we have to extend our to the realisation of the circuits and then we call the police and on the sport and we have to implement the second largest since iran it receives the this case from the airfield for each generated the risk is that and that therefore wants to send in our sample soul. or is this case we have to accept this connection receives it is the to come in from all mall where generate or response rate have to see all more where that everything is ok receive your request this is your response and you can get your could use them to generate these nine. yes the fortune from microsoft internet said cook you to generate the school countable for on top of the to provided by that they have failed and that's it so all this way we can while this binary and provide cost or on fire.
ok this is all want to run for it. that if it's it looks like to reach a warm c'mon but actually do it's not hard to understand the first argument defiance the pasta or at customs seen see the library and the second for amateur use a or police and on certain second and force for amateurs. standard airfield in our do trees and you you you should have received while one is due specify the address of all or on them or your buyers must use timeout then we have for internal have been their failed. arguments you can find detailed explanation on the top and then to have really bored important argument was due to ration is as is an argument else let it fail how many iterations the should cost before actually started the whole target or sample so this parameter. and directly affect the stability so this is very important so in my case it to his wife solvent it works pretty well for me. so and the last parliament the use of boston also a model where. gillis run. so it's insulation everson loaded successfully the shallowest and a few seconds we'll see you sunday to fail on screen and it is. such really do so as you can see it all are positive thoughts the oxbridge you healthy we have to have already fallen to like to six the path.
or which all stability looks pretty good ninety seven percent and execution speeches drawn but its fuel or worse law because we are in a way to the floor show machine is normalisation but if you can leave power for their legs use for couple of hours.
we can find box. .
it's. the. so if you fall was of for four hours and is no polarization it will easily find several blocks in our sample argue grit and let's see what they managed to find him all will cost more were selected to the for my experiment was the right right is mile was a target spoke to the wisest and uses you.
this is a part of borderlands for large scale and you those attacks the small were was used in some of the largest and most destructive you'd also talks and history.
which goes major internet platforms and services to be on the way level for large amount of users in different regions the of the world in two thousand so inhuman and source quarter from where i was leaked and different from the riaa like lance adopted this court and stew or the region in the while the fun factor walking right that it looks like. like after spewing forward samana security practices and use memory and a bargain to electric fence to search for him or floor sinews of to free box which is the meat unusual formal world and there i did last couple of religious are based on his g.p. fought and several wall and that.
more attacks the most interesting part costs in terms of exploitation would be this issue to be response or parsing the right needs to parse the should use points come and work from victims to be able to perform fish deeply flawed attack sparser has the wild a constant search year lions have called hundreds of. potentially dangerous corporations is a memory was point their strings so this is a wonderful target fall off wiser.
associate file i decided to use and is where the bodies of its g.d.p. response and are on my father for twenty four hours and managed to find to forty three new crushed which was caused by a single walking realty fuel standard execution speed was around what sounds and the executions per second which is breeding.
wood and pfizer managed to find the approximately four hundred thirty new the boss which is also pretty good and what were the rules is bought and how it should be to sponsor contents are relative or your l. this coin ranch is a trigger it in case of the incorrect or religion for your old.
variable double i always equal people negative when use which are caused by memory while issue and crush this is logical built or so after hours or forward to an asset bubbles or argument to zero the use of the record your employer to sit in case of religious view. else so this is one example or for this case that was a crush so if you see that your eye on their i like what might this trying to attack you can just answer of these boards of his is the stupidest points and they will all crush so.
but the show so to actually work.
ok so in this virtual machine in the right the terminal behalf all or. second. and the right terminal have all or and its g.d.p. you sir are all victims implemented in vital so it's just a simple issue to the server and the left a part of the have the body builder for me right and divide bill because the we want to see what's actually going on and indeed build their printer no different. for much of which is useful for them. a killer start or server so i guess the start and run. and before actually to start near i let me explain one thing so. before actually started his chief lot of talk they need to connect the scene see and i was too lazy to deplore actual scenes you server so i decided to implement and despite on and script the scene see and just a response like all round the to the wall on the rise sample and surprisingly for me too. or so after a dozen sort themselves to actually start the should be flawed was would so it was like really easy solution for me so or to be clear and my pipe and server an hour down two jobs of the first one is to be his g.p. and response every victim and the second. one is to be seen sue for all the right to answer that the reasons like a mop let's start so ok let's run. so you can see started a blog more trust got them to the connectedness the scene see and after dozens of attempted to receive some meaningful data and actually start the ship afloat. i get hit so he starts and deeply flawed its own initiative the request war by cancer and biden said it was going to answer a result of this money shoes wish to sponsor shown in the previous life. ok so it does have significant fall and crush so referred to this way we can stop poem the right to attack us.
ok i think there's more box in different samples. soul. already presented the sample when i was strong that they have failed this is the extent of russian though the first version of the extent was one of the cost and normal what nancy the targeted point of sale at terminals so already savings of them up dexter communicates the decency or issue protocol real.
most request and receive c'mon score the response could use.
actually in case of dexter you don't unifies and get all of them all were called to do so with your return to the can just ask the reason the longer you want and to will crush and actually it's to remortgage executive and you can find the true see this you're ill because two hundred fifty five wives. we can send the moment longer this then this two hundred fifty five by its and it'll cost to cover floor and become explored and it's a said before those nor and to exploitation you can use its late ninety's we can use it to cause or more to execution sold really old school book. they knew and then increases your style bond control john designed to perform when is a broader attack or use and opened checks it has a process from the lord or projects and the name of this financial mess is pretty self-explanatory it is designed to ask soon see sarah or provide the oil law.
thought to be injected into the victims browser and then this the responses its representatives to soft injury some form are exempt boston dollar caught custom and do some parts of this day some parts of the action is really complex the implemented from scratch so it's really would target force as his example of suit.
while i used to feed in that they have failed and after twenty four also five and a good to be good results three new boss of the eight hundred exhibitors per second and for you crash as the route the of this crisis is as is unfortunate because you finish your question.
in case of the wheel.
wrong response which can dance on the open brought its soul in my case it was like themselves so it will cause it would reduce your car from its takeover floor and it finally will trigger a crush on our target so last example an acute.
in says a bond control john and fully based on leaked use or source court with some are minor technical improvements so old boxer found in queues are also related to his use this example has been used to attack financial institution in europe.
it is the issue to be response bar sort so i decided to use a simple issue to pay to sponsor a suit i mean as a trojan received the award and concept from i.c.c. or its g.d.p. protocol the should be responsible to the boss but too complex for a q. and a life's issue to be.
wants and analyze the issue to this point what you and or gained it's really interesting target costs.
and twenty four hours wasn't between twenty two you crash as which was a very good boy one problem this time it was a bit more complex so fashion get my heater is used to extract away or were content lancs from issue to be this point but is this team can dance.
it will you and i existing doesn't content they will you have constant levels at all it was an intruder overflow and as a result the fontainebleau rich or negative will use soldiers get mine to the real rich own negative will lose but then put the x. and his core business will be joined by get my name he did so.
so in my case it was always an average of three it will try to or read the whole my mother wild for simple so if you try to court to these negatives three means that we are trying to or read the whole memorial while it's probably exploitable can sometimes the control this or negative where but the end. which are one hundred percent so this is example for crush keith just need to send content lancs use language.
ok let's discuss challenges and you shoes and first of all of course in my case down to say that gives the hardest part and divorce in june insertion for target function i took source called the reduced time of searching for target of course for real world the samples you to perform. normally the initial divorce engine you have your sample and find this target financial you want to analyze and sometimes it can the it can take a lot of time secondly of course boxing mean they're feeling that they're fairly they now more you especially when you reduce the highly up with skated samples and third. you need to find the skis so you need to see foil sometimes it might be really difficult especially for seen season down or you don't know what kind of wild more world wants so it might be changing. then we have a problem use the encryption soul sometimes encryption a group is very complex and i know it's my be really painful to perform reverse engineering because it's all very well in this case you can try to watch program just to disable and group genital it worked for me sometimes. and stability and stability in places like critical role in the euro doing already did file so if you're stability you if your call which was always different when you send are the same this piece in your target it means the and your target is unstable and your father doesn't understand what's going on their true so it said. in one file and of course different called boss it's strange and usually and it means that you waste york already good the bad boys of last so you have to pay attention for this i also found its way to install were useful when the you want to find the target routine in them.
in your sample i have implemented this tool on top of it then. for you it's basically a trace or four he knows what the transparent the towards an instrumental program so it all to raise all a p a course in ma were and green there's this information is a file saw its less the victim will then standard a pickle tracer so i hope they suit your. or for you you can try to use open source of news the license don't think in future i guess it would be really cool if you could if you can and somehow finds its target financial qualifies after my ticket i also would be great to increase stability i implemented some respects to make it.
more stable to work for me i hope to work for you and it would be great to have some cold callers from was a relation to four wives or and although some of them but the two degrees toward up to four negative for it. and of course can prove to be ok so i hope i can use to the box and model where might be useful and you can really to find the boxes and wasn't you of course the net to fail can and should be used to find boxing that were based the application so its general. we'll post for pfizer's i design and had to be general purpose you can use it one box and benign software so i recently fallen wants to be in it for least implication for been those so you can try it.
and i'm also current clear no urgent this project is a been there for just a reduced amount of different projects on this planet. so this i'm going to finish this work in two or three weeks so you don't need to continue doing that they are full every single day march was a regional branch of in their fail and song probably in september i'm going to release the f. that they're fully looks. i hope in september center for your attention from. you tube.