BLE Sniffing 101

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Video in TIB AV-Portal: BLE Sniffing 101

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BLE Sniffing 101
Alternative Title
You had better secure your BLE devices
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CC Attribution 3.0 Unported:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
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2018
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English

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Abstract
Sniffing and attacking Bluetooth Low Energy devices has always been a real pain. Proprietary tools do the job but cannot be tuned to fit our offensive needs, while opensource tools work sometimes, but are not reliable and efficient. Even the recently released Man-in-the-Middle BLE attack tools have their limits, like their complexity and lack of features to analyze encrypted or short connections. Furthermore, as vendors do not seem inclined to improve the security of their devices by following the best practices, we decided to create a tool to lower the ticket: BtleJack. BtleJack not only provides an affordable and reliable way to sniff and analyze Bluetooth Low Energy devices and their protocol stacks, but also implements a brand new attack dubbed "BtleJacking" that provides a way to take control of any already connected BLE device. We will demonstrate how this attack works on various devices, how to protect them and avoid hijacking and of course release the source code of the tool. Vendors, be warned: BLE hijacking is real and should be considered in your threat model.
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Asynchronous Transfer Mode Overhead (computing) Mapping Bit Online help Arrow of time Parameter (computer programming) Multiplication Connected space
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so please just give a warm welcome to virtual labs thank you very much so today I'm going to talk again about Bluetooth Low Energy but also a new vulnerability I found in this protocol so I am the head of research and development that iconic um digital security not the digital security in Russia obviously I've been studying low energy but for years now the three years now and I'm the developer and met enough Betelgeuse maybe you heard about it this is one of the framework of I worked on and I'm having a lot of with the knoteks of my conductors system and chips so let's start with the agenda so we are going to go through the BD sniffing 101 for those of you don't know how to perform very sniffing then really I'm going to present Beatle jack which is my new tool for BD sniffing and much more we are going to see what what is inside this tool why why this tool and the next last part of the talk I'm going to disclose a new attack on BD alright so let's start
with some very sniffing just me that so Billy sniffing 101 so basically if you're nobody is want to sniff B connections and Billy communications between two devices you need some tools and you're lucky there are a lot of cheap tools out there you may want to sniff with uber tooth one Steve beauty connections or you may want to use the other foot blue foot Eddy sniffer which is also a nifty tool or you may want to do it the SDR way with the new audio software suite so let's start with the first one the e-bot s1 so this is a tool that allows anyone to sniff existing and new Bedi connection I mean if you use this tool you can find existing connections between between devices and also listen for new connections that happen on the on the target device it did not support to name but channel map updates so it did not because obviously the aptitude of firmware yesterday through the DEF CON release and yeah so that it's updated the firmware and it's not so not supported by the Roberto's tool so this is cool if you have one just use this new firmware and trade with the trade by you know sniffing some beauty stuff but the fact is that the even with the new firmware but was one have some issues sniffing on existing connections and last but not least it costs 120 bags so it's it's ship but not so cheap the blue food ad sniffer made by other fruit so it's based on a specific software written by notic so my connector so it's a proprietary firmware that is used here it was the last it was a dated in November last year so it's a quite quite maintained but this Steve only allows new connection sniffing you cannot you cannot sniff an existing connection between two devices already established connection I mean so this is very interesting for you know security analysis but if you want to pack into existing devices or already connected devices you cannot do this with this bluefoot Eddy sniffer it costs around 30 EUR 14 bug so it's it's affordable and if you want to do this the SDR where you are going to have some issues because the SDR modules existing with Grimaud you are only able to get the B advertisements and buy the devices so you cannot follow any dat connection with this dis approach this the reason is very simple because of the latency there is some kind of latency between the linear audio software and the SDL device you are using and it do not allow to jump very quickly over all the channels use in the PID connection and that but not least it requires a 2.4 gigahertz compatible device that costs some hundred of dollars so it's again a foldable but and it's more expensive that the the two I talked about so just to summarize this be sniffing one one part of my talks be basically is designed to make sniffing difficult and it's working you know it's not so easy to sniff dat connections while simply because this protocol uses three separate advertising channels spread across the boundaries so you cannot listen to these three channels at the same time you got to be listening on each channel one after the other to get all the information or maybe to use three devices to you listen to these three channel at the same time the this protocol also uses some kind of frequency Europe it open mechanism so channel but what we can also call channel open so this channel hopping mechanism makes also sniffing very difficult because once a connection is created between two devices that these two devices are going to jump from one channel to another and then you need to to get the pattern they are using to to synchronize with this connection and get all the packets so this is not very easy when you are dealing with existing BD connections both devices can also reckon we negotiate some parameters at any time so when you are trying to figure out what these parameters are in order to sniff an existing connection they might change between the what you are measuring what you are trying to you need to recover these parameters so this will mess your sniffing so two cases here you may have a lot of money and you can father a lot of devices and make you sniffing on the the all fought each other for instance or if you want to do it the cheaper way you got to struggle with the PID sniffing you won't be able to sniff very easy to your connection for the first time for instance we can get to wait Metapod connections to get your your data so two
years ago I took another approach for the for capturing beady packets I tried some kind of man immediate approach the idea of this man limited approach was to have some kind of device in between your phone for instant and a device it's collected too and then capture the packets it's basically the same the same
approach what we all do when we are going to perform some TCP in the middle for instance so how it works first you have to discover a target you get to find a target device so obviously this device is advertising itself so it's not there is nothing connected to this device so it's advertising I don't think it's its presence and so on so you can connect to it get all the information all these services characteristics and so on in a way that you can then impersonate this device you'll connect to this device is not advertising anymore because because of the specifications for oblivion for once the device is when yeah once the device is connected to something it only supports one connection at the time most of them most of them do this there are few devices out there that only accepts multiple connections but it's very difficult for the system-on-chip that unless all the other whether you're parts to two hundred two or three connections at the time because it refers to jump on different and with different setup different parameters so this is not very easy well you are connected to this device it's not advertising anymore so you can create a clone device with the exact same parameters exact exact same services characteristics even the exact same Bluetooth address so you can just spoof the device to see this and you wait for connections once your phone is connected to your fake device you're all you have to do is just to follow forward the data between your connection with the device and no connection with the phone so you are in between and you capture everything so this approach has been implemented in beetlejuice one of the tour I was talking about in the introduction and also in another
quadratic are written by Islamic Java music and these two tours implement the main the middle approach well so it was
working until the last few years and it has a lot of advantages because you can get rid of the free advertising channel problem I mean if you are using this management approach you are controlling the advertising of your device so you are quite sure to get the connection then don't miss it you can see every BDO person performed if there is some kind of characteristic write or read discovery you can get all of this and you see everything and also we can make we can top the data on the file since we are in between the two devices we can just change data on the fly making and changing some bytes and causing some some troubles in the security point of view but there are a lot of issues to one year after having developed the bitter juice software I got a lot of issues on github with people I cannot use your truth it's it's quite complex to install because it requires one machine and what else computer and some kind of network setup to make these machines communicate with the each others so it was a quite complex setup and the lot of people that a lot of issues putting all of this software on the computers and making beginning walking the other problem we have is that we only capture HCI events because we work at the adapter level where we don't get any link layer baby packets so real one way we cannot get all the information and especially all the pairing packets so this approach the man limited approach does not support all types of peering and this make code it caused a lot of trouble when you are trying to intercept encrypted connections obviously it's also compatible only with 4.0 adapters maybe you have heard about the cambree silicon wait.you USB adapters that some kind of bluetooth device address proofing well we got some troubles too with the latest version of the USB adapters or even the adapters provided if within the with the motherboard of your computer so the stock adapter of your computer may cause trouble with this software so these are the counts of the the magnum in the report so basically we are doing it more bottles BJT or cage works but is still has some limitations even with the firmware update released yesterday not extra mycotic testing first crossroads and maybe discontinued so we don't know if this software is going to be maintained and we don't know if if but what will happen if not exon icon it or decides to not to continue the development of this have this software so maybe a problem and the man remedial approach is great but very it's too much difficult to use and cause a lot of trouble for users and also it cannot get all these link layer packets because we are limited by the solution we looked it up we opted for so it's time to improve the media so now so basically what would be the ideal tool to sniff VAD connections well we need a tool able to sniff both existing and new connections we also need a tool that uses cheap hardware in order to make it affordable you know to lower the ticket for ble sniffing and of course we need open source software to be able to maintain it to contribute for allowing other researchers to to push new features for instance so this is something very very important here this store needs to sniff new connections I'm going to go deeper at the protocol just to show you how it works in the internals very quickly for new connections the goal is very easy we need to get the connection request PDU which is in fact a dedicated packet sent by your phone when you're trying to collect to be enabled device and in this packet there is everything everything we need to monitor via or to follow the Pieta connection we got the see also a neat value yet also the chatter map and so on so if we capture this packet we we are able to follow the connection and thence need to snip the packets but we for sniffing this packet we got to be at a very specific moment listening on the specific channel when this packet is sent and as we saw this previously there are three advertising channels so you must just listen on one channel to another hoping that that the this packet will arrive at a specific moment or you may want to sleep on these three advertising channels at the same time in order to get this packet so in order for this to work we need this situation we need to listen at the same time to these three advertising channels so this one is quite easy to sniff news to see for a new connections the trickiest part is the active connection sniffing process so - in order to see if active connections you don't have all of these parameters you don't know the connection parameter so you have to get them and in order to get these parameters we made we are going to make some measures Mike Ryan the author of what was B TD so the the Toula i cited just before created is a contact his own technique took that to recover these parameters and each technique is the following first it tries to identify what the protocol calls an access address an access address is a photo - bit value used to identify a link between two devices so this access address is used through identify a specific connection one the access address is known we can recover
the COC init value that is used to compute COC this is some kind of seed used to compute the COC value for every packet and this can be done very easily then we need to get the hub interval the OP interval is basically the time the the device we spent on each channel so how do we do that very easily we just sit on a specific channel we are measuring the time between two consecutive packets on this channel and we divided by 37 since there are 37 that a channels used for the general ping pattern and of course we can also recover the top increment which is a number of channels added to the channel index each time the connection jumps from one channel to another by using some kind of recap table so Mike Ryan designed precomputed blue cap table and he the e-bot will be chilly for instance means all the time between two consecutive packets on channel 0 & 1 by using this this technique and the lookup table we are able to recover the hopping payment value so this is Mike Ryan's technique as it was implemented in the USB TV software and it's stable case even with the update made yesterday and of course Mike made some assumptions back in 2013 he made the assumption that the or the 37 that the channels are used but it's not the case now in 2018 most of the lot of the ble devices don't use all of this 37 data channels and a change that didn't determine this this data challenge by using some kind of table map this is a parameter sent in the connection request PDU that specify which channel are going to be used and which would not so if not all the channels are used then you have to keep a 37 channel sequence and to do to do that some of these channels will be remapped will be will used if you prefer so if you have a look at hopping sequence in this specific case you will see understand that the channel 4 is used twice in the seconds in the sequence but normally you would you will find only it would be fine only once in the normal sequence if it's not reused so by modifying the sequence order and making this channel appears twice if from just miss all the time between two consecutive packets on the channel 4 we will get two values two different values and this smacks technique use this this does not not this does not work anymore so how to deduce all of this based on this new behavior well first first thing to do is to deduce the channel map so how it's very easy to to deduce we just iterate over all the channels we are looking for packets and if we see some Q some packets send by the device okay the channel is used if we don't see any packet it's not used so there is some kind of timer you have to implement to get these these values and context sometimes for instance four times 37 seconds to complete well this is a this is a limitation of this approach once you get the channel map you can deduce the hope interval by finding a unique channel that is not repeated in the hopping sequence and then you miss all the time between two packets and you divided by 37 and you get the time spent on each Channel and you then deduce the hop increment based on this but we don't use a pre computed lookup table we are going to generate it based on the channel based on the channel map and then we are going to measure and did use the hop in permanent so this is basically the margin Erik version of Mike's technique but it works pretty well there are a lot more details in the proof of concept or get the out number 17 where I were to paper off with all the algorithms and the you know the math between behind this this technique well and all of this is going to be implementing little Jack there is also another another to trick here for sniffing this connection in the specification there is a parameter called the instant you know when the device updates and some parameters say is a channel map for instance it's in the packet telling the the device that the channel map will be updated at a specific moment in the connection but not now later on but we don't know this value we don't know this instant value when we are attacking existing connections so this might be a program since it is used for dating the channel map and if the channel map is updated we may lose our synchronization we may lose the signal and lose packets so the fact is that really we don't really care we don't really care because once a channel map update packet is issued by your device oops sorry so once a channel packet is sent by the device at a specific instant we don't know the hopping sequence will change and then we are going to sniff on channel 11 in this case once the sequence will go to channel 1 so obviously we won't get any packet on channel 11 so this may be an indicator that the channel map has been updated and we can deduce the new opening sequence and we synchronize with the communication so with by using this little trick we can just follow any connection and support the channel map update process even if we know if we don't know the instant value for this preset connection so all of this is implemented it better Jack and so I decided to click this this new tool and
I'm very proud to present it at Def Con this year it is a brand new tool based on the micro bit again this is a tiny device or some kind of Arduino sponsored by the British Broadcasting Company the original goal of this device was to you know help UK students to learn how to code but in fact we can turn it into some kind of psycho tool and this particular it costs only fifteen bucks so it's quite affordable and you can buy more than three of them for them for the exact same price for like the blue food other foot bluefin le sniffer for instance you can also stack them and create some sniffing regen she want to do it to do this so basically I modified the cluster art for Raspberry Pi this is a just a USB to USB hub but it's cutting
quite useful I had to find a name obviously since I'm not a very creative person you know it's got bitter jack
because because of the neuropathy I'm going to press on in the next section but anyway this this tool is is quite
you know quite useful but I won't do any live demo because I know you first I know if I put some kind of billy device we're going to connect to it and I won't be able to do my demo and of course this is a very noisy environment here at Def Con I made some sniffing during some tolls yesterday and it was very noisy so I got
videos so the first video showed that the record sleeping of a new connection so I specify the Bluetooth device address in the parameter and as you can see we are able to intercept this connection and get all the link that your packets we also get the access code where the co so you need value and so on so sleeping new connection not problem
sitting an existing connection specific device first we have to identify a nigga's valid access address so there is an option in the troll to scan and identify this address I pick a target yeah with specific access address and then bitter Jack will recover all the required parameters to follow to be able to follow the connection and then to a sleeve packets so it recovers the EOS individual the channel map obviously and then it did use did uses the hop interval and hop increment it's synchronized and if I do some read or write on various characteristics and get all the packets so again existing connection well not with your problem with bitter Jack -
awesome you know some of the features with pcap export possible so if you intersted package will be agile you can export this files into a pickup file well obviously it was expected for this kind of tool but it also support the specific format for the picot file that makes it able to use with quackity quackity - designed by Mike Ryan to break the encryption keys when some kind of pairing is used with the between two very devices so this may also be useful if you want to break encryption keys or parent code for PID so when I was developing this this tool this new sniffer read the specifications a lot I I went all in all the details of the specifications and I stumbled upon a very specific you know not a weakness but something made me feel bad I don't know what it was but I found I was winning the section about the separation time out in these specifications and just just to submit summarize it a bit so the supervision time out is and is provided by a device in the connection of request PDU so this is a parameter and sent in the connection in the connection requests video and basically it defines the time after which a connection should consider a connection device sorry should consider a connection lost so basically if you try to connect your form with the say your SmartWatch your is going to tell the SmartWatch job if no valid packet is received who has been always received after 20 seconds then your SmartWatch and the geophone should consider the connection lost and so this supervision timeout is unfold by both devices and I had a quite an idea about it what's that time a time what if we Jam
some specific packets are specific times let's see so there is three lines in my starts the central peril and attacker control is your phone this Android device the initiator of the connection the pod is obviously your SmartWatch or your medical device anyway so your phone sends regularly packets to the device and there are some there is some kind of a keepalive spike at that data sent just to be sure that the connection is still alive so many packets and we decide to jam the packet sent by the peripheral to the central device and since then the software device consider of the connection not lost but with nobody data so it starts a timer and we do this sometimes until the special timeout is reached and then the central device consider the connection is lost but the fun fact here is that the peripheral still gets packet from the master folders from the central device so it's not disconnected and then we can have some fun by impersonating the software device we can get the connection so it's based on joining first of all I implemented the German feature in bitter Jack so this is a fall video I don't know any time so I'm connecting on a specific device and
I'm using bitter Jack to to jam the connection happen if it's going to do any overhead so not to jump the connection you get to recover all the required parameters and all these CS in each channel map help interval hop increment and so on and once the bit at once beta jack is synchronized with the connection start jamming by sending bad packets and these
will cause some COC arrows on the front side and the phone is disconnected I don't know if it's already easy to see but here it's disconnected so jamming
works pretty well so the idea of this attack which I got a bit of juggling because of the tool but anyway it's this attack abuses be a dispersion timeout to take over a connection so basically we we get our hand on the neglect exhibit sorry we get our hands on an existing connection so without changing the internal state of the device itself there is no disconnection at all so it offers some some troubles it works on all versions of the Bluetooth Low Energy protocol version 4.0 one two and five but it was proximity because you need to be close to the target to jam it if you are not close but five meters from the final five meters is good you can join the target and now with them about this attack with some example devices you are going to start with something everybody loves drones so I found a drone on the Amazon and this drone uses be ad for the the communication between the smart optic a small application you install on your phone and and the drone so I decided to
test it in my testbed stroller I guess [Music] yeah so you can see it's difficult to keep it in the video but anyway I stopped it at Jack and I'm going to to hijack the connection by using this D stroll so we got to recover this y'all seen each other then map and so on then we are joining the smartphone to disconnect the the smartphone and it get this it gets disconnected quite soon so
yep the smartphone is disconnected or the owner of the of the joint cannot
pilot anymore that's wrong but I have the I love the control over the connection and I can Becky lon well I know this is not impressive so I made another video so this in this video
I'll trigger the emergency mode that causes a cut off of the motor zone [Applause] so it's basically the same attack with two payouts and I also played with with
from other devices and especially sex toys I'm not a great fan of sex toys anyway why sex toys because Pintas partners made some research last year they current the term screw driving there were for me some kind of were driving and found this ash from love ends and they were a complete post on their website stating that this is completely crappy and and not secure on so on obviously the vendor of this sex toy so this article so this post and unfort back the issue the statements saying that if you're a sex toy is on but if your smartphone is connected to this sex toy you okay since it's not advertising anymore nobody can connect this to this the sex toy I guess you know what will happen in the next slide so the next is connected to
my to my smartphone just to make the video short I had to to cut it up to cut it a bit but in fact disconnect the smartphone by taking over the connection with beta Jack takes some time there is a little pop-up on the smartphone yeah this is disconnected so there's Matt phone has no no more control of the the sex-toy and see it's you are over ble it's quite easy to make it vibrate there is no Sun here just no but it's still visual you'll get my point I found the character characteristic and I wrote to the to this characteristic special string vibrate semicolon to with there are 10 levels [Applause] so I don't know if some of you we are this kind of stuff maybe turn it off so
what are the impact on this reliability so you get an unauthorized access to a device so obviously it was the case for the sex toy even if it's already connected of course if there is some kind of authentication perform at the start of the connection then you can bypass it so this might be cool for some small talk and so on and also since there is the scene but since there is absolutely no modification of the internal state since there is no disconnection of the device this may leak valuable information if some characteristics are available in you know and for read and write you can make get back some data that have been written to this to this characteristic so this may be interesting how to avoid this well the specification provide provides some kind of city of connections by using pairing so if you use if you're using the parallel mechanism and the encryption mechanism provided by the Bluetooth specifications should be ok there is some kind of injection protection there is a message interpreted code added to the other packets that avoid this kind of manipulation of this kind of you know consequences but the fact is that the keeper left packets don't have this message integrity code so basically can take over the connection even if you are using this this this set really connection can do some kind of denial of service so I don't know how you can do it at the application level by using some kind of H Mike some kind of authentication for the data use you're going to exchange so there are some printer measures but it's up to you to use them correctly so the tool is available online it was I mean it has been released this morning on github you can also install it with tip if you want and so for this Pony bill I'm French it's also available and unpeople so this bit objector is about to sniff already established connection and new PID connections is also able to jump connections to perform a takeover hijacking like baser and is able to export in pickup and there is also a multi sniff for support I mean if you are connect two of them or three bit microbeads to your computer it will use them to paralyze some tasks the channel map recovery is a sped up if you are using a lot of microbeads with your computer you know we get the 37 channels speed info for instance if you are using four of them and it speeds things a lot so to conclude a bitter Jack well maybe you're not in one solution for body sniffing if you want to drop a look at this tool or two to try it you're more than welcome also if you want to put some issues or show files bags and so on already under the under them so it performs Billy sniffing charming exactly i checking what's on all versions BD insecure ability connections as we may all know up front of sniffing and I Jack Enya so in might get worse with first version of BA D because the Bluetooth SIG is trying to extend the range of the Bluetooth Low Energy protocol so the Bluetooth 5 version of the protocol is available yeah it's capable of about 800 meters connection so we can it's quite impressive and in they might you know extend this venture in the future of version of this protocol so if you are some kind of ble device vandal you're more than welcome to secure your beauty connections ya do it thank you very much you [Applause]
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