The contribution of ecosystem services to place utility as a determinant of migration decision-making

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The contribution of ecosystem services to place utility as a determinant of migration decision-making
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Environment migration research has sought to provide an account of how environmental risks and resources affect migration and mobility. Part of that effort has focused on the role of the environment in providing secure livelihoods through provisioning ecosystem services. However, many of the models of environment migration linkages fail to acknowledge the importance of social and psychological factors in the decision to migrate. Here, we seek to provide a more comprehensive model of migration decision-making under environmental change by investigating the attachment people form to place, and the role of the environment in creating that attachment. We hypothesize that environmental factors enter the migration decision-making process through their contribution to place utility, defined as a function of both affective and instrumental bonds to location, and that ecosystem services, the aspects of ecosystems that create wellbeing, contribute to both components of place utility. We test these ideas in four rural highland settlements in Peru sampled along an altitudinal gradient. We find that non-economic ecosystem services are important in creating place attachment and that ecological place attachment exists independently of use of provisioning ecosystem services. Individuals' attitudes to ecosystem services vary with the type of ecosystem services available at a location and the degree of rurality. While social and economic factors are the dominant drivers of migration in these locations, a loss of non-provisioning ecosystem services leads to a decrease in place utility and commitment to place, determining factors in the decision to migrate. The findings suggest that policy interventions encouraging migration as an adaptation to environmental change will have limited success if they only focus on provisioning services. A much wider set of individuals will experience a decrease in place utility, and migration will be unable to alleviate that decrease since the factors that create it are specific to place.

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I the talks about another way in which
environmental factors and the decision to
migrate so this quite the lecture on the role of the environment where and change in climate change immigration all of which
focuses on the material aspects of the environment it's and the way in which the
environment as a form of capital allows us to migrate or analysis
dedication for example if there is any time innocent food people
might migrate to access food or they may use the capital from farming to find migration is all about farming and products and natural
resources this thing is about another way in which the
environment enters into the that the decision to migrate which is the the attachment people from place and so people actually
don't just use the physical aspects of the environment but have cultural links to the learner texts symbolic meaning to the environment because of this actually means that the cost of the Environment Committee the decision to migrate and it means that you have to be a pharmacist and 2 will be involved in natural resources management and used to be affected by climate change if
for example the glaciers melted and that's something that you value or for example if the
hillsides of green renal favor tree
species is gone the place that it loses some meaningful and effective and so this although it will not actors push tractor you believe your village because the loss of Garcia Manjul
Village less attractive than is less of a pull
factor and so it actually to make it example factors are stronger versus
the village so the point is is that people are attached to the immediate environment
forms part of that and people who be affected
by environmental change will be much higher than those who are directly linked to the natural resources job will send means migration as a form of adaptation to climate change is limited because it can never
replace those unique elements of where you live that actually make you happy make
you want to