The Haber Bosch–harmful algal bloom (HB–HAB) link

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The Haber Bosch–harmful algal bloom (HB–HAB) link
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CC Attribution 3.0 Unported:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
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2014
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English

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Abstract
Large-scale commercialization of the Haber–Bosch (HB) process is resulting in intensification of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use worldwide. Globally N fertilizer use is far outpacing that of phosphorus (P) fertilizer. Much of the increase in N fertilizers is also now in the form of urea, a reduced form of N. Incorporation of these fertilizers into agricultural products is inefficient leading to significant environmental pollution and aquatic eutrophication. Of particular concern is the increased occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in waters receiving nutrient enriched runoff. Many phytoplankton causing HABs have physiological adaptive strategies that make them favored under conditions of elevated N : P conditions and supply of chemically reduced N (ammonium, urea). We propose that the HB-HAB link is a function of (1) the inefficiency of incorporation of N fertilizers in the food supply chain, the leakiness of the N cycle from crop to table, and the fate of lost N relative to P to the environment; and (2) adaptive physiology of many HABs to thrive in environments in which there is excess N relative to classic nutrient stoichiometric proportions and where chemically reduced forms of N dominate. The rate of HAB expansion is particularly pronounced in China where N fertilizer use has escalated very rapidly, where soil retention is declining, and where blooms have had large economic and ecological impacts. There, in addition to increased use of urea and high N : P based fertilizers overall, escalating aquaculture production adds to the availability of reduced forms of N, as does atmospheric deposition of ammonia. HABs in both freshwaters and marginal seas in China are highly related to these overall changing N loads and ratios. Without more aggressive N control the future outlook in terms of HABs is likely to include more events, more often, and they may also be more toxic.

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article algae those proliferations of algae they contaminate seafood with toxins and alter ecosystem functioning in detrimental ways with resultant economic and or human health consequences halves the increasing globally in aerial extent in duration and in impacts when they do occur here we explore the relationship between harmful algae and nitrogen pollution resulting from the harbor Bosh process the industrial fixation of 2 2 ammonium for nitrogen fertilizer use this industrial process is considered the single greatest experiment in global engineering ever made worldwide nitrogen fertilizer
use has increased rapidly in the past several decades the rate of nitrogen fertilizer use shown in panel A. E. increasing for faster than that of phosphorus fertilizer use shown in panel B leading to an elevated into pure ratio in fertilizer shown in panel c this pattern is seen worldwide in addition to the overall increase there has been a change in nitrogen form with your now representing more than 60 per cent of total nitrogen used as fertilizers however from crop to
table there's considerable leakage of and leading to enrichment of lakes rivers and coast with both nitrogen and phosphorus and an associated increase in harmful algae among other eutrification responses including hypoxia and biodiversity changes challenges in
understanding the relationships between increases in overall nitrogen and phosphorus used and the changes in specific forms of nitrogen and the response by individual species or species groups using China as an example
we show that cyanobacteria blooms in like time or tied who have increased from about 1 month a year decade decades ago to year-round occurrence and this change is paralleled by the change in both total you really reuse in the watershed in the to phosphorus ratio similar
relationships for blooms occurring in Chinese East Coast and our South China Sea are also found
thus world nitrogen use is outpacing that of phosphorus use world nitrogen use is increasing and chemically reduced form specifically real many have striven conditions of high nitrogen the phosphorus in high availability of reduced chemically reduced forms of nitrogen efforts to reduce nitrogen export to fresh and coastal waters must be accelerated we know that balancing
the needs for nutrients and food production with the negative consequences of nutrient over enrichment will continue to be a global challenge however without increased efforts to reduce nitrogen the global outlook is for more haps more often and they may be more toxic
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