Ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in Lanzhou, China

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Ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in Lanzhou, China
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Congenital heart defects are the most prevalent type of birth defects. The association of air pollution with congenital heart defects is not well understood. We investigated a cohort of 8969 singleton live births in Lanzhou, China during 2010–2012. Using inverse distance weighting, maternal exposures to particulate matter with diameters ≤10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were estimated as a combination of monitoring station levels for time spent at home and in a work location. We used logistic regression to estimate the associations, adjusting for maternal age, education, income, BMI, disease, folic acid intake and therapeutic drug use, and smoking; season of conception, fuel used for cooking and temperature. We found significant positive associations of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) with PM10 during the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 1st trimester = 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 11.53; OR 2nd trimester = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.57, 8.22; OR entire pregnancy = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.62, per interquartile range (IQR) increment for PM10 (IQR = 71.2, 61.6, and 27.4 μg m−3, respectively)), and associations with NO2 during 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy (OR 2nd trimester = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; OR entire pregnancy = 2.32, 95% Cl: 1.14, 4.71, per IQR increment for NO2 (IQR = 13.4 and 10.9 μg m−3, respectively)). The associations for congenital malformations of the great arteries and pooled cases showed consistent patterns. We also found positive associations for congenital malformations of cardiac septa with PM10 exposures in the 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy, and SO2 exposures in the entire pregnancy. Results indicate a health burden from maternal exposures to air pollution, with increased risk of congenital heart defects.

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the Manjul is a northwest city in China it is an important industrial city which can represent other major cities in China the
rapid economic development emissions from factories and traffic contribute to serious air pollution
5 or the health impacts of air pollution is not well at 1st so all our knowledge
this is the 1st study investigating the associations of air pollution with congenital heart defects in China in
this study we use the information from a land birth cohorts directed by Professor Gallaway jumped a yell School of Public Health this call for the it wouldn't 10 thousand women who gave birth at a local hospital in 2 thousand and 10 to 2 thousand 12 they provided detailed information on demographics medical and the reproductive history a lifestyle choices using this information we were able to consider residential history and work locations in exposure assessment and control for amending confounding factors in risk assessment which is an advantage of study you like most people living in
the city center where regulatory airBaltic monitors are located in our main analysis we included the women living with the 50 kilometer offer minor daily monitoring data
of PM-10 nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide were interpolated at each home and work locations so as to maternal exposures during pregnancy periods of interest is periods include weeks 3 to 8 the 1st a master the 2nd to master and the entire pregnancy we then estimating the associations of air pollution exposures with congenital heart defects adjusting for the least the 11 factors
which found positive associations were pulled cases of congenital heart defects with PM-10 exposures during the 1st and 2nd to master an entire pregnancy and with measured in dioxide exposures during the 2nd trimester and the entire pregnancy taking the PM-10 exposures during the 2nd trimester as an example I interquartile range increase in that exposures was associated with ordered 3 times increase in their risk of congenital heart defects we found similar results from malformations of the great arteries the most prevalent satire our call for it this
results were supported by extensive sensitivity analysis for example the analysis restricting to women living within 6 kilometer at kilometer of a showed consistent results we
conducted a systematic review and found that previous studies on this issue are still limited and showed inconsistent results Our findings agree with that matter analysis but we did not find any association during weeks 3 into a which is always considered as a critical period for the formation of 1 possible
explanation is that although major cardiac valve emissions developed during the 1st 8 weeks after fact smoker or progress with the benzene gestational age the most prevalent set a cohort is patent ductus artery ulcers which may develop later in pregnancy
future study is needed to understand the pathways through which air pollution of facts were the facts for different types and timing of exposure


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