The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

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The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies
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CC Attribution 3.0 Unported:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
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2015
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English

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Abstract
The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.
Video Electric power distribution Emission nebula
Typesetting Greenhouse gas Cosmic distance ladder Tiefdruckgebiet Effects unit Vehicle Emissionsvermögen Hochbahn Order and disorder (physics) Global warming Energy level Sizing Alcohol proof Internal combustion engine Membrane potential
Speckle imaging Fiat 500 (2007) Airbus A300 Bus Sensor Vehicle Hybrid vehicle Year Vehicle Clothing sizes Hobbing Energy level Kopfstütze Cell (biology) Porcelain List of light sources Oceanic climate Autumn Engine Electricity Natürliche Radioaktivität
Electric power distribution Electric power distribution Vehicle Hybrid vehicle Kilogram Emissionsvermögen Vehicle Crystal structure Diesel engine Energy level Cell (biology) List of light sources Sizing United States Department of Defense Model building
Impact event Emissionsvermögen
transport generates 60 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions and elevators and understood growth it is known that reducing emissions from the energy supply sector low it's not sufficient to avoid global warming of 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and 1 of the most important sector this in mind we can have achieved that goal was sentenced understanding and predicting chances of letters but most and movies is however highly challenging animals consumers and entrances which are higher than others
in this research we were interested in exploring how different people around the world choose the types of private vehicles the purchase in order to determine what might be the effectiveness of different types of taxes and policies to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses in the transport sector we know that vehicle fleets are composed of vehicles of different engine types sizes and technologies in that their emissions levels for distance traveled very significant in order to determine the effectiveness of potential government policies to incentivize the choice of consumers we must study what consumers choose in the 1st place and then determine how policies will out of those choices forget we get a
large database of rest vehicle purchases and 6 major economies the UK the USA China India Japan and Brazil we update numbers of cells by the formal although their prices dangers sensors and ambitious levels the kilometer driven as rated by manufacturers for all cells of private passenger vehicles in those countries Weaver is also that flute images are highly distributed and varies significantly between countries with definitions within this year the varied by factors of the fall we
also determined that comprises a highly disputed over an order of magnitude and that this is the oceans also very sneakily between countries another to understand how such taxes
reduce emissions we explore the structure of illegal markets across the world without that a frequency distribution of cells of vehicles in the UK for example related closely to the distribution of income this suggests that they could chances that let me made with the use of rooms which at different levels of income was happens it is consistent with other published evidence the effectiveness of
taxes incentivizing consumers to choose vehicles of different emissions levels can be inferred by using a chart showing rated emissions against vehicle prices where the size of the circles indicates the popularity of vehicle models we observed that in some countries a strong correlation relationship exists between emissions in the logarithm of prices while in other countries the relationship is we these relationships that was quantitatively what the most likely response of consumers is to vehicle pricing policies and with which level of certainty for example we determined that tax structure that is proportional to vehicle emissions is likely to have an effectiveness of between 0 comma decimal 2 and 0 comma decimal 9 grams of C predominant purpose set of average tax applied depending on the countries these values vary significantly between markets across the world we stress that to
understand the impact of policies to reduce emissions in the transport sector the whole systems approach must be adopted they coalition between policies interest as and Petrostrategies it's important understand evalution of the sector in the long-term this requires further research
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