The impact of European legislative and technology measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

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Video in TIB AV-Portal: The impact of European legislative and technology measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

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The impact of European legislative and technology measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate
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CC Attribution 3.0 Unported:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
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2016
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English

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Abstract
European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, affecting air quality, human health and regional climate. We used a coupled composition-climate model to simulate the impacts of European air quality legislation and technology measures implemented between 1970 and 2010. We contrast simulations using two emission scenarios; one with actual emissions in 2010 and the other with emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of technological improvements and end-of-pipe treatment measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors. European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon (BC) and organic carbon in 2010 are 53%, 59% and 32% lower respectively compared to emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of legislative and technology measures. These emission reductions decreased simulated European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, BC by 56% and particulate organic matter by 23%. The reduction in PM2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 80 000 (37 000–116 000, at 95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually across the European Union, resulting in a perceived financial benefit to society of US232 billion annually (1.4% of 2010 EU GDP). The reduction in aerosol concentrations due to legislative and technology measures caused a positive change in the aerosol radiative effect at the top of atmosphere, reduced atmospheric absorption and also increased the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe. We used an energy budget approximation to estimate that these changes in the radiative balance have increased European annual mean surface temperatures and precipitation by 0.45 ± 0.11 °C and by 13 ± 0.8 mm yr−1 respectively. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation and technological improvements to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality and human health over Europe, as well as having an unintended impact on the regional radiative balance and climate.
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air quality and can also have a lens and impact on climate so for example talks later ozone could have warming impact on climate particles in the atmosphere can also have a cooling effect this is 1 of the largest uncertainties in the latest IPCC report so in the last 30 years countries such as North America and Europe they enacted clean-air laws to try reducing the amount of science emitted over their regions and to try and prove air quality of inner cities and a lot speed going on we see improvements in these areas was over areas such as India and China which see the opposite trend now where qualities that tend to get worse well cities such as Beijing and of cities in India seem quite high evidence of pollution events over recent years and making this particular problem for the health of their citizens in these countries there are specific emissions and has been
developed here which considers the non-implementation offsets in European air quality policy measures but also of the stagnation of technology improvements since the 19 seventies such measures have not been applied and the pipe treatment technologies such as diesel particulate filters awfully just as a physician and also such measures like not improving the sulfur content of coal so this emissions there's not considered the impact of these measures to compare this to this emissions as have occurred has shown that the antigenic emissions of air pollutants have actually been substantially reduced of Europe because of implementing these measures so taking this emissions are and the business-as-usual emissions our applying this in our Cobol composition climate-model repeated to calculate the change in by particulate air quality due to the difference between these 2 emission scenarios we show that I been substantially improved due to the application of these air quality policy measures and fine particle masses as induced quite significant over Europe the demonstrated exposure response mattered to
calculate the impact on human health production farm parts due to faculty policy measures of Europe we can take these measures have reduced the
number of premature mortality is by 80 thousand per a
year we can also calculate the economic benefit to society from the pretation these measures using Google Health Organization study device life this equates to approximately 232
billion US dollars annually across Europe which is approximately 1 comma decimal 4 per cent of the EU's GDP in 2010 because particle mass tends to have a cooling effect on climate the reduction in particulate matter due to the implementation of the European air quality policy measures is actually cause the warming effect on climate it is an energy budget approximation to calculate that this change in particle mass concentrations has actually increased European idea means that established by approximately 2 comma decimal 4 or 5 of kelvin Our
results have shown that implementing European equity legislation and technology improvements have benefited air quality and human health but unintended warming effects on climate how can the results from this study or the dates and details of come used to inform future mortar pollutant emission mitigation strategies to benefit where quality you know I'm trying to
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