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Title Movie S1
Subtitle Video supplement to the paper "The Morphology of Ice and Liquid Brine in the Environmental SEM: A Study of the Freezing Methods"
Author Vetráková, Ľubica
Neděla, Vilém
Runštuk, Jiří
Heger, Dominik
License CC Attribution 3.0 Germany:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
DOI 10.5446/39404
Publisher Copernicus Publications
Release Date 2019
Language Silent film

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Subject Area Chemistry
Abstract The microstructure of polycrystalline ice with a threading solution of brine controls its numerous characteristics, including the ice mechanical properties, ice-atmosphere interactions, sea-ice albedo, and (photo)chemical behavior in/on the ice. Ice samples were previously prepared in laboratories to study various facets of ice-impurities interactions and (photo)reactions to model natural ice-impurities behavior. We examine the impact of the freezing conditions and solute (CsCl used as a proxy for naturally occurring salts) concentrations on the microscopic structure of ice samples via an environmental scanning electron microscope. The method allows us to observe in detail the ice surfaces, namely, the free ice, brine puddles, brine-containing grain boundary grooves, individual ice crystals, and imprints left by entrapped air bubbles at temperatures higher than -25°C. The amount of brine on the external surface is found proportional to the solute concentration and is strongly dependent on the sample preparation method. Time-lapse images in the condition of slight sublimation reveal sub-surface association of air bubbles with brine. With rising temperature (up to – 14 °C), the brine surface coverage increases to remain enhanced during the subsequent cooling and until the final crystallization below the eutectic temperature. The ice recrystallization dynamics identifies the role of surface spikes in retarding the ice boundaries propagation (Zeener pining). The findings thus quantify the amounts of brine exposed to incoming radiation, available for the gas exchange, and influencing other mechanical and optical properties of ice. The results have straightforward implications for artificially prepared and naturally occurring salty ices.
Keywords ice
brine
freezing
CsCl
microscopy
ESEM

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