Contamination of the Arctic reflected in microbial metagenomes from the Greenland ice sheet

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Title
Contamination of the Arctic reflected in microbial metagenomes from the Greenland ice sheet
Title of Series
Author
Hauptmann, Aviaja L.
Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas
Cameron, Karen A.
Bælum, Jacob
Plichta, Damian R.
Dalgaard, Marlene
Stibal, Marek
License
CC Attribution 3.0 Unported:
You are free to use, adapt and copy, distribute and transmit the work or content in adapted or unchanged form for any legal purpose as long as the work is attributed to the author in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
Identifiers
Publisher
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Release Date
2017
Language
English

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Subject Area
Abstract
Globally emitted contaminants accumulate in the Arctic and are stored in the frozen environments of the cryosphere. Climate change influences the release of these contaminants through elevated melt rates, resulting in increased contamination locally. Our understanding of how biological processes interact with contamination in the Arctic is limited. Through shotgun metagenomic data and binned genomes from metagenomes we show that microbial communities, sampled from multiple surface ice locations on the Greenland ice sheet, have the potential for resistance to and degradation of contaminants. The microbial potential to degrade anthropogenic contaminants, such as toxic and persistent polychlorinated biphenyls, was found to be spatially variable and not limited to regions close to human activities. Binned genomes showed close resemblance to microorganisms isolated from contaminated habitats. These results indicate that, from a microbiological perspective, the Greenland ice sheet cannot be seen as a pristine environment.

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you know the contaminants from outside the Arctic transported to the active as an example industrial emissions in the 19th century Industrial Revolution has resulted in increased concentrations of contaminants in this course of agreement and she 1 of the reasons that this is important is because of the ongoing climate change its resulting in increased melting the frozen plants
in which some of these contents are stored in this paper we were interested in assessing whether the microbe communities from around agreement I she had the genetic potential to assist and a great contend we sample micro mineral aggregates cold cryoconite from regions around agreement as she as shown here in Fig. 1 crying out
known into the ice due to better and forms crime and I will we extracted DNA from these cryoconite samples and obtained gene announced the total pool of genetic information from the sample from this metagenomic data we assess the presence of genes known to compa assistance to a degradation of a selected list of contaminants known to the octave these include PCB PATH and they're having that also left and mercury the main result is shown here in Fig. 4 panel a
shows the number of times genes the degradation of PCB were found in the samples from the fire regions please note that the Council normalized to the counts a set of material housekeeping genes what you can see in panel AD is that good not samples from East green and have the highest cancer genes for PCB degradation this is an interesting result since the human population to see a lot has previously been shown to have a highest concentration of PCP in their fat tissue compared to other regions of green panel b shows the results of PAH degradation G. P. polyaromatic hydrocarbons formed by incomplete combustion the highest numbers of genes for PAH degradation we found in samples from the Kay office so into regions these 2 regions are also the locations of the 2 largest airports agreement penalty shows the non normalized cancer genes for resistance to various heavy metals found in the 34 samples we include this panel to show where the actual counts the highest countersigning women the of samples in this sample genes for degradation of heavy metals were found 1 at 18 thousand times with metagenomic data it can be difficult to say whether these counts are high a significant the whole as a negative control research for the same genes in publicly available metagenomic dataset from healthy human gets which we assumed not to be contaminated for all the genes that we found in agreement I sheet account in human got samples were Europe will not accept we also clustered genomic fragments based on coal abandoned across samples resulting in punitive Microbia gene 7
out of 24 putative dunums the closest neighbor found in the microbial last database was an organism isolated from heavily contaminated habitat based on these results we argue that we
should no longer consider the agreement she's pristine and this indicates the presence of contaminants is suggested by the resistance and degradation potential investor microbial community finally
we argue that we should pay more attention to the potential of these contaminants from the green that actually
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