Reusability: Software Licensing

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Reusability: Software Licensing
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this presentation is has 2 parts the 1st 1 is talking about suffer licenses and the other part is talking about suffer publications normally I
I'm in discussions with those who write software that they have specific issues and
questions related to software licenses and usually it's something that to that the try to figure out and solve in discussions from the knowledge that I gained in this discussion so I made the slides my time was a
little bit limited so it's not very colorful is a lot of text inside there they are no funny images in so please bear with me but in the end you will have hopefully a set of slides which you can use after what's even a few weeks later you can browse through the and can check and double-check if you're having a real questions this could be a 1st starting point and to look at licenses and how to solve licensing issues so the
1st Christians which suffer licenses to you know to cite come on you know some MIT what else Apache what
else the new OK interesting what else the steam has anyone heard about BSD OK the GPL licenses for OK so what a license as a water softeners this is good
for any idea theory know when do licenses matter have you ever thought about that why should I put a license on myself the exactly if you want to use the software the license matter if you're a user exactly then of course who benefits from soft licenses and how the people right so the red the users we
at the developers who also we have been talking
yet exactly so the next developer and we just in the data part we just have been talking
about You institutions so the as well have a specific role when you write a piece of software OK who has been licenses licensing sulfur before which license did you use OK anyone else that that she too OK so metabolic a copyright license 1st is copyright protects the expression of an idea so it's not the idea itself that would be patterns so it's the expression of an idea so it's the source code of object code and the copyright gives the onus certain exclusive right so you can copy the software you can create the IT derivate with direct derivate of lurk and you can distribute copies of the software and the copyright gives the user almost no right so he's not allowed to copy it to modify at all to distributed on lists the copyright owner says it's OK and this is our with a license is is a way for a copyright holder to grant rights to other people should copyrights so every piece of software you use is covered by the by license so we have to role as a user and your end users of a cover by whatever license you place on your software is to use a developer play a critical role as well so what a license what what critical licensing issues exist and fist development of complex open-source solutions is generally done by adapting and integrating multiple existing components so you can start with a small scripts and possibly you do a bit more later on and you start to use libraries or use copy and paste code from the web somewhere on sites are and and discussion forums or something like that so you start using code that others have developed and from a user point of view the resulting application or solution may as a single program from the end user point of view but in fact it's a combined with all other states a larger
and the different components may be covered by different licenses and the question is they come but you will end legally into operable that's the main questions so when putting different parts together coming from somewhere else and they have different licenses and the question is are they compatible the licenses are compatible so the next thing is
determining whether it's the various licenses involved are confortable is important when the aim is to redistribute the application to 3rd parties so when you have created the the application with the different components you distributed to somewhere else and then it's important to speak about licenses and of course you should have this in mind that you're doing this of course you're writing often not not not only for yourself but also for others so you should think as early as as as possible about licenses so that 2 words dead divided into family so the first one is the so-called copyleft licenses family and the other 1 is the permissive licenses family the copyleft licenses have the idea that the world is evil and if you write a piece of software you expect that others are not it open minded person like you and they would like to use it in the proper a terrace software and there we want to make lots of money out of that and they think that with this evil so I have to
apply some sort of license that forces the others as well were using or developing and what and what other way that they're using the the the code are forced to make their changes and modification open as well and the
other world is too good will where you saved with a permissive license everything is allowed and everyone else will follow my example when I open my code I'm pretty sure others will open the code this the more this modified version of the code as well so I I'm I'm I'm not forcing them to use a copyleft license
so copyleft also named viral licenses because they impose the use of the same license as soon the distributed work is a derivate at that derivate of off the covered work cells are fairly complicated but they're mainly means that it allows open distribution modification and reuse of the coat of course with attribution and insist that any derivate of FERC be distributed under the same terms that means if you have a piece of software and it's a copy left or viral license and anyone else is taking that piece of software and makes modification and this given that further to other persons then he or he or she has also to take the same license and so both origin old and the new Europe are open-source as well this is what what what's the wire viral component in it and it disables a proper iterative derivates by 3rd parties that means
majority of open-source Brodeur's projects have adopted copyleft licenses at to avoid software appropriation that means companies that use open-source software and integrated in their proper Oteri sulfur and to make more out of that and make a lot of money out of of so in that the commercial
use and derivation by anyone is permitted as long as the terms of the licenses honored and license families of the GPL and also the EU P. L the European Union Public License both are copyleft left and then we after permissive or anything goes licenses this is simply a non copy left open source license it's generally compatible and interoperable in top or a below this most other licenses tolerating to merge combined to improve the covered code and to redistribute it and give it away and they place a few restrictions only and permit using the code and non-free or proper a Oteri software and require only attribution in a specific manner manner and some of these are BSD style licenses MIT and the apogee version 2 license these are permissive so the question is what is the purpose of a license have you ever thought
about the purpose firstly when we on research we want to share all poorly the soft the because we understand that software is a research program like any other research product and for reproducibility for
transparent transparency verifiability of results we want to share the software along with our data and along with the papers we produce so this is the mind that we have as research as I would say but there's also the legal part where you where you want to protect and restrict the use we have been talking about about data that others possibly I'm not allowed to use it all that you don't want to be locked out from your own research results so you want to protect
yourself and and restrict to use and since we and the research molds we also want to get credit an acknowledgment that means the attribution part of licenses is critical thing that's important for us because with a license you can force others that they named the piece of software that possibly you have developed and they have used to get new findings which are published in a paper so you get attribution that itself has been used and of course refuse variant he's oral refuse liabilities so that no 1 else 3 years later can approach you and say hey you have written this piece of code and this but cost me several thousand of euros because there was this but you have developed and I issue now for
a for for damage and so you refuse warranties on liability and It's
also some sort of contract you delivered with your software and it's important that you clarify which license is best for you in your stakeholders that means you as a developer and have a critical role in the in the development process and it's really up to you what what interests what what interests are you also would you is attribution a big thing for you is non
but proper attire use a big issue for you you an employee in Institute possibly having maybe some transfer or commercial interests you have to to have a mind and other stakeholders like you
users or other developers that you work together in a community in research community and so it's it's it's pretty a lot of stuff that you have in mind when you would want to select a license for your quote but you're not the first one was thinking about which license requirements do we have for example we have to free suffer Foundation and they defined 4 freedoms and as they defined to say what is free software the first one is the freedom to run the program as you wish for any purpose the call of freedom 0 the freedom to study how to program works and change it so does your computing as you wish to access to the source code is a precondition for this that means they're referring to open source and as you can see free software something different for the free software Fondation than open source software at the 3rd 1 is the freedom to redistribute copies so you can have others OK and the freedom to distribute copies of your modified version to others so by doing that of course you give Texas to the source of to the code then we have the Open Source definition which was defined by the Open Source Initiative they have not only for they
have 10 different license requirements they say that they want to allow free redistributions source code provision derivate of further
modifications are allowed the integrity of the author's source could should be kept and there is no discrimination against persons or against fields of endeavor at the distribution of the license of course is part of it the license must not be specific to a probe product or restricted to other Fenech should be technology nuchal so these are the requirements that they had in mind when they certify for example open-source licenses and
then we have the license requirements of the European Commission and the first one is quite interesting because it says grant all free open-source software freedoms that means the 4 freedoms and the 10 items that we have seen in before of Willard as well and then they'd go further and say that they want to ensure protection from exclusive sulfur appropriation
and that means the they support shell like a copyleft licenses they have working value in all official European Union languages so we are a very is in deep down in in these legal part again I conformed with European copyright law and terminology that's quite
interesting a requirement include the communication to the public right which means including that distribution suffers service so we're living in the world and to use very we used to but that a lot of cloud services and these cloud
services most likely are built with free and open-source software but distributing a piece of software by giving a COPY to someone else or distributing or communicating it to the cops public by providing access to the functionality of a software that is running on your server is something completely different now we will go into that a bit later
so clarify the applicable law and competent court approach warranties liability year and the last 1 is a very nice 1 not to be long too complex but be comprehensive and pragmatic and this is quite important for us is to those who want to apply a license so when we look at it and
other licensed there several chapters or sections and they can be can can can vary depending on the license and they can have sort of section which this is talking about definitions so they clarify what is the software what is a source code what is the binary what is the
license so what is a licensee and so on what is redistribution what is communication Office office so they define their will to make it legal the developed than they have the scope of the talk about distribution provision copyright obligations authorship
and they talk about disclaimers additional agreements IC acceptance information termination and legal issues so this sounds like a contract and in fact it so it's a it's a bit more complicated than we would like to have it so which open source
licenses to exist so we have heard the
new which is nice because canoe is not a license so for you the specific canoes not Linux you can read for that a bit further into the Kapadia but can lose an operating system and an extensive collection of computer software that means the collection of computers off the plus lineker plus a kernel that is canoe and since the kernel was never finished they have used the Linux kernel and what you use with the Linux system is the new Linux system because you have a Linux kernel and extensive collection of computers office so this is this is going to the thing that you use on their computers and to the news composed to free software
most which is licensed under the GNU project's own GPL so we have the GPA the LG GPL and at HEPL which are part of a
license family and they are there different versions and for different purposes so canoe not a license but the licenses like GPL as a license and you have to be specific for example if you want to use GPO version 2 you version 3 so you have to name the license and its version integrate the license text and referred to the license thoughts great go back to the open-source initiative because there are so many licenses and the Open Source Initiative and others in the web help you have to find a proper license and the the Open Source definition that we have seen in this have been the 10 requirements from the walls and that they're all Zeos's some sort of standards body not I would say it an official standards body but it it maintains those D and it's it's they have established a license review process in review in a proof licenses if they always T conformance so that's quite interesting because they have more than 80 approved licenses and you can look at them by category or by name I we can click some of that weight and for example
it's the Open Source Initiative and the 1st thing that that they give years licenses are popular and widely used
over strong communities and this should be a 1st approach to select 1 of these licenses because when they're used
quite often point for example GPL license as the cover the sulfur in the in the open source and free software voter and they covered to 70 or 80 persons is still at present is this GPL and the other license like pitch these year ITER covering a small part of the rest of the cake but there's still have strong communities and Stewart's and so the unknown and in case of legal problems and there are also quite often foundations who may help you and soulful licensing issues when others are are using your software so that's the all the
but they also others for example added a few have you shall until Dr legal it's another 1
and you for example can He's for pitch and you just get a quick and it can
get a quick summary of what you see here for apogee you see you can use it commercially you can modify it you can distributed you can sublicense private use patent claims are integrated and place warranty you can't hold liability or use trademarks and you must include a copyright include a license itself stated changes and included notice
is fairly quick summary which tells you what you can do that the aperture license and what you have to do when you're using a piece of software or modifying and redistributing it what you must do to to to be compliant of a license the next thing
is the always as watch if what is
also nice because you can hear you can
choose a license OK for so we can say
we want to use the Apache license and choose to OK
and then you can compare and have a diff and there what's the difference the next thing
is maybe choose license for we have been
talking about that as well and you for example concerned about patterns and you can see that they're Apache license is covering patent issues and they also others and you
can start diving into at using these platforms maybe we have some more information here yes so we have a quick summary as well like we like we have seen it until d on
so the slings may help you later
on to choose a license the next thing is popular and noteworthy unknown copy left licenses so we're looking at the copyleft licenses 1st so as said before we have to canoe General Public License like the vision to and the version 3 and the copy left off the G P L applies to all software based on GPL cold so for all software based on the GPL code which is a strong copy left and we have to lesser General Public License the L GPL also version 3 for example and the copy left applies to any library based on the GPL code so we're talking about libraries only then there's the Eclipse Public License which the copy left applies to any module containing EPO to code so we're talking about modules now and how these modules interact quite interfaces than we have Mozilla Public License where the copy left applies to any files containing the MPL code so we're looking at the file level right now and we have 2 Common
Development and Distribution License which applies to Sauls' coat 5 some of all fires only the source code files containing the city the old code so what you see
here is a strong copy left from the GPL all and then it's a week a copy left and it becomes weaker and weaker and weaker but it's still a copy left so and this is the level at that red the copy left looks at and then we have to do in the f the canoe at Fairhope General Public License which is a different 1 than de Farrow General Public License but this is a bit of history but the HEPL is Farrow General Public License and we have the European Union Public License and they are even a bit stronger than the G P L because they not only cover the case that you have a piece of
software and a piece of software is distributed as a copy we also cover the case that the sulfur is providing the functionality by the VAPs so if there are users out there and using for example a cloud service which is based on a GPL or Europe or the U. P. L the users can ask for the source code even if the software is not been distributed the main point here is as if if the functionality of the software is provided by over that and the is running on a server you can still ask for the source code and get the source and then we have the popular
permissive licenses like the apogee when there's at B is D 3 cross what's called also the new or revised license and then we have to be is to to cross simplified of freebies to license and we have to MIT license of course there are a few other permissive licenses but these are the those which which are fairly know when we look at the MIT license you can see there's some information about copyright permission attribution and notice on permission and very very anti a liability disclaimer there's everything
in that you need and you can see it's really a short license that's it it's just if it but is at 3
paragraphs and that's the coverage of the license you can read it you understand it and you're happy with it and it's clear what others can do that and your implications also clear when we look at the BEST to cross-license it's the same it's very short it has 2 claws as you can see them here want into is dividing
up the software into source code on into binary form in is telling you all to handle that it's also permissive license when we look at the 3 crossing it's a bit longer but it's still very short I would say it has a 3rd clause and its servers to say that there's older BSD license the original
BSD license it also as a 4th clause a 4th 1 and which is for example not compatible with the GPL but this applies to very old so far I would say and then
we have the Apache license which is also permissive license and you can see it covers a lot small off sections and what's nice about here is is the last thing which is not part of the
license because this the end of terms of conditions but they have an appendix how to apply the Apache license to your work we can have a look at that because that that's quite handy for everyone who
wants to use a license so we have to license tech text and at the very end we have can you read that can make it we have this
appendix help to apply the Apache license to your work and they recommend that you put this piece of information on top as a license
headed in each fire as you put a license said in in source code based on the language and they say that you put copyright
information with you name of your of your name and a possibly also names of your institution and then there's a bit of text which you can only copy and paste and aperture licenses applied and they also recommend that you put further
information on the name and description of the purpose on the specific file and the sulfur so it's very handy that you get if we get some advise how to apply the license to your to your software then the
next 1 is the GPL version 3 and as you can see it's it's a long
1 and this is basically 1 of 2 reasons why we as developers don't like to think about licenses it's a very very long license and when you start reading the 1st section and you go over to the 2nd
section and you may have understood the 1st section after reading it but when you're reading the 2nd section you almost a forgotten was the what was in the 1st section so it's really hard to
read It's long license and it's hard to understand and it's covering lots of different things interesting is that's also
it's also covering patterns for example then we
have the L GPL vision so it's the lesser GPL license we can now think it's a bit shorter than GPL that's great but no it incorporates the terms and conditions of the GPL so it's even
more and these are the the the
exceptions to the GPO so also do not funny to read in the end
then we have the GPL license which is also a long thing and nice thing is as a again they have these in the end they have these how to apply these terms of a new programs and they also make a recommendation how to integrated in source code had us and
he it's integrated because it's a GPL remote network interactions so this is exactly the case what happens if someone is using a GPL and in software on a servant is providing the functionality like then we have 2 European Public
License which is I would say and short in it has also some further information like urease
dication applicable law and it also is an appendix with compatible licenses where so that this is quite interesting license from my point viewed and fuel point and because it's it's a
unique license and it's the 1st
open-source license to be released by an international governing body so it's released by the European Commission the other licenses are released by foundations or developers or something like that it's legally consistent with the copyright law of all European Union countries and considers
considers the specificity and diversity of Member States law and the Community law that means copyright terminology information Borin G. liability applicable law in the years to cation it's a legal
instrument as it has been elaborated in respect of the European law requirement and this has been this has a legal value in 23 European languages which is great because you don't have to read the English original you can read the German division for example in you understand what's in there and
that's great and it not only can have his too soft that also covers data documents technical specifications and standards that might be put together in 1 package in 1 software package so there's a very broad coverage so
you if you have a package may put softer and data into it and you put the European Union Public License honored it's enough because it covers data and the software otherwise you have to think about the data or the sulfur and put 2 different licenses on then it's compatible with a wide range of other open-source licenses because it integrates an interoperable solution to possible license conflicts as we have returned to J. the conflicts conflicts is exist if you put to copyleft licenses together so if you have a piece of software that is copy and now has a copyleft license like the GPL version 3 and if you have another
component with group that has the European Union Public License version 1 or 2 is the latest 1 than they normally wouldn't be competent what's quite interesting here is that the year of the DUP says when there is other copyleft license and a piece of software that is to merge together in the larger work which you then start modifying and have these 2 components and then the European in Public License as OK there's other license which I've and I'm legally not into operable this a license conflict and this license
has the same spirit like we have in the European L and to resolve this license conflict the larger work then you can integrate the the sulfur that has the European license and the license then is taken away and it goes further that the GPL license for example the work at Cerf which is under European all still remains Europe l but if it's merchant to a larger work and then the bear also GPL code is in there and it's OK to use the GPL serve the license itself resolves the license incompatible the incompatibility which is great from my point of view and it allows provisions to the license as long as these do not contradict the licenses itself so the users can add a reference to a specific law that is to be applied chose a court for arbitration and can do a lot more stuff and we will come to the right so what
matters license compatibility matters so license incompatibility exists when a program as a derivate of work of component licensed under 2 different popular science so that means if you have an piece of software new using a library which is MIT which is bees which is GPL we just know OK permissive licenses and 1 copyleft license there's absolutely no problem 1 there is another library for some of which is under GPL vision to for example so if you have 2 components vision to and Version 3 and
they already in it in not interoperable at least legally not interoperable and a new day you get some practical help
so there exist for example competent ability mattresses or information we can look at
let's say at the GPL stuff
so the that really tries to support you in resolving these conflicts and this for examples coming from the 4 suffer foundation and they're telling you which licenses are competent over version 3 GPO for example and there's a green by and you cannot see and understand what's what's going on here I want you can see here is that the GPL version 3 is compatible with the GPL version 3 then we go further to the GPL vision to there's a green bar but the GPL version 2 and this is what makes being as well please
note that GPL version 2 4 by itself is not compatible with GPL version 3 but there's still the green box so however most software released under GPL vision to allows you to use the terms of in later versions of the GPL so there come something which is called dual licensing will come to that a bit later and you can see that the GPL version 3 is compatible with the LG PO and so on and you get some further information it's a long
list among compatible lists of licenses and later on you will see why other licenses are in copper compatible with the free software licenses and some are yellow ones then there are also some red and there are few differences states along this and you can dive into it to
understand what was going on there there's also some which is called a compatibility metrics which looks like that for example
for the Europe European Union Public
License where you can check for example the incorporation directly or static linking or dynamic linking we can go back to that so
here you pee all so there's a nice list as well and it lists
the competent open source licenses as even giving you some further information like what upstream and downstream is we can come to that a bit later and it's giving you also information about linking incorporation static linking and dynamic linking so static static linking combines components through computation copying them into the target application and producing and merged object fire that as a stand-alone executable so now we know what is
static linking and then we have dynamic linking which is it combines components at the time the application is lowered its so slow time or during execution the runtime so there's a difference and it's giving you this metric CN it's telling you if the incorporation itself so for example if we have a piece of course with the European Union Public License and we'll have on it's a someone that we know for example the apogee licensee here and then we see the aperture license has an OK in an OK prayer K and also has some comment here and the case fall in cooperation the static linking and the dynamic linking which is gray that means if I have a UP although component and I get another Apache license component I can put it together and we can also see that when we use the HEPL there's no and no and no and an explanation why it's not competent also because its of its another couple license so you will find these
information here and there and the wet and you get some help but it takes a bit of time to get into this when you have a real incompatible so then there's also some
colored upstream compatibility and downstream convertability so you you see it becomes complicated now and apps that DAB stream is allows you to merger were covered by another free and open source license so this is what what to you your your modifying a piece of code and it into a larger work that's your larger and you use other components and you can use the company stability Matrox's to resolve to compatibility or check if there's an legal of on interoperability and the downstream convertability is that you as a distributed decide what happens in specific cases and we will come to that a bit later as well so we have
this we have this and you find also for that string compatibility you find if you
information that's that's pretty nice also the qpd I was surprised to find a good script license information phobias DG in the QPDM normally it's just the 1st starting point but there's a quite comprehensive summary and it's it's it's you you get a good impression when you start there it
also tells you how these different license since licenses their fit together so do not fit together so there's a a lot in the about which you can browse the and and see which licenses are
composed of and then this for the downstream part this a called it's called the variable compatibility because for example the European Union Public License is what I said has as the obligations of the license
this 1 thing which is called a company to compatibility clause and it's basically saying if it's what I already said if there is 1 component with other comma copyleft license than the European you put it together in the larger work then you don't have to follow the European Allen you take the license which is in an appendix in of competent licenses and for example assess
it if you haven't you're PL component and a GPL relation to alterations 3 or HEPL vision components you can put them together and it continues to run on that you have the vision to version 3 or the HEPL or any other of these copyleft licenses and the larger work that is not under U. P. anymore
so this is a sort so this is called an exception list and this exception is then generally is an alternative way to resolve incompatibility by license and the the the difference with the more permissive L GPL system is that exception to specify which licenses are accepted so it's not any license they define clearly which licenses are except as except that that means they have been law lawyers especially in the in the U. PLK stepping lawyers and have checked which are compatible and where does it make sense to work through tool give room to you to continue the of a license that
means all suit this exception list can be done at license level this is what we have seen right now the license itself integrates these exception list but it can be also done by the licenses and what we a
prominent example is for example the version 3 of the GPL and the European
Public License version 1 don't 1 the version 3 came out I think in 2007 or 2 thousand 8 and their European public lies in his came out in 2007 and they already had this exception list and what they listing in this exception this was it's OK to
continue with GPL vision to when you have the European Union EU pl a component and its merged together but in this exception list there was not the latest version of 2 GPL the version 3 so there was a license incompatibility and this is what it means an exception list by licenser that's basically you who write a piece of software you can at these exception is and write something like the GPL version 3 in that case would have been totally fine for me if you continue into a certain in in in this case in 2000 8 or yeah around that bread GPL version 3 just just came up and it was
not included in the 1 MPa door not 1 of the European Public License and it would have been up to you to say it's also be totally foreign to continue the mission free and there is no license incompatibilities so you will have
what I would like to say that as you have you have a lot of flexibility you can use the licenses which are there and you should use them as they are but there's
some more flexibility for you and you can decide to make a few slight changes if you do not create a new license with the and
there's some sort of dual licensing we have been talking about that and to a licensing is basically more to licensing and practice for distribution of software and the 2 or more different set of terms of conditions that means if you have a piece of software and you put a license on it like a GPL and then there might be a case that others who write proper Terry's often want to make money with the with the with the a piece of code and they don't like to open the modifications they it's because that's there said that's what they make money with they can approach you and ask for a 2nd license so you as the creator of the soften are free to apply as much licenses is you would like to apply for your piece of software so you can combine proper Oteri licenses or copyleft licenses for specific purposes so what does it mean so there the incompatibility in that case can be resolved by you the creator of the software then there is a dual licensing in which we all know from my point of view if we have been looking at the GPL for example you can there from time to time did the wording that this piece of software is under GPL
and there's no version there It's that's basically do a licensing so if someone uses cheap it's under GPL it means it can be either under GPL version 2 or under GPL version 3 so it's totally up to the use of those using a softer to decide how and to continue a would with license and the other thing is and that was
integrated in the version tool for example of the of the of the can rise sense of the GPL version 2
lessons we can check that directly
was show all life sciences
category and really it the canoe general public
licenses we have there License
version 2 of the GPL parent it was released in 1991 and even then they had that to present how to apply these terms to your program and then they say you can copy and paste this part here and then they have
something like this program is free software you can distributed or modified under the terms of the GNU GPL and forth he then version 1 you the vision to offer license and or at your option any later than version and this is basically when people start using all have been solved using the GPL version 2 or in the
nineties you can still combine it with color with code that this GPL version 3 licensed normally revision 2 and Version 3 would be incompatible when this sentence is in there it means there might be a future version and you can use that 1 and then you resolved incompatibility the main
issues arise when we put 2 or 3 what war copyleft licenses together and this is then an interoperability problem and legal interoperability problem and that this is legally and operability problem between different copyleft
licenses can be solved either
by the licenses itself all by you as the license of the soft but we have learned that especially when it comes to copy left licenses and It's about redistributing the soft there it's when you're giving it away so you can do whatever you want with the copyleft license soft if it's just on your screen but if you're giving it away than it's a it's an issue and that redistribution is covered by the licenses and there's also not only the redistribution there's also another channel the communication right you provide access to functionality to the south without redistributing the software and they're also licenses which cover this case now we come to another thing because licenses also address attribution which is also covered by licenses which is interesting when you are working in research but when you're working in research it's also quite interesting what happens with a piece of software that you have written and distributed under for example copyleft license like GPL version 3 anyone else is
taking this piece of code or other software that you have written it's making some modifications doing some analyzes with it and is publishing the results in the paper the the figure or the net or is providing and model or something like that and then you read the paper and you understand height this guy or this girl has been using my piece of coach has been using myself there and is
generating results with myself OK she or he did some modifications but I would like to reproduce what they have or what they presented in the paper and then you ask for the Suffern they are not giving this offered to you that's totally OK because the copyleft licenses for example if you have selected a copyleft license it's really about redistribution so if anyone else is taking that is writing it on a screen is not redistributing it but is taking the results using the softened publishing it they not forced to give the modified coterie and this is will license provisions can come in so the basic question is is it possible to release software under license so that the source code has to be provided when modified versions I used by others to produce results and findings which are then presented and scientific papers I would you can see here is a license provision example and
it's again the case of the European Union Public License I you can see you as a copyright information in the name of the software it's a short description what the soft the does this copyright the names of the office creators we have the name of the Institute than we have also some and that the attribution to the project under which project this 1 was developed and then we have this license text the the light gray part which is saying licensed under U. P. L. vision 1 1 or as soon
they will be approved by the European Commission's subsequent versions of the U. L and then comes to license provision complemented with the following provision for the scientific transparent to transparency and verification of results obtained and communicated to the public after using a modified version of the road you as the receipt pinned off the source code and author of this modified version used to produce
the published results and scientific communications commit to make this modified source code available in a repository that is easily and freely accessible for a duration of 5 years after the communication of obtained results basically that means it's
an additional provision which doesn't change the license itself so it it's still the European Union Public License and that and and it's a copy left license which is important and you force others if they use a modified
version to produce something in the paper and to 2 or to put this modified version honorable a repository at least for 5 years and since it's a copy left version a license that piece of code you can now use the modifications as well and continue with this development they have done this is normally not usual so you should be aware when you're in research and in research it's a lot about attribution and reproducibility and and verifiability off of results you can add these additional ice license provisions so you have some flexibility of license and say you have some flexibility by it because you are also the license so when giving softer way you can apply some dual licenses you can apply an exception list if it's not integrated in the license for example you can say that you put it on a specific license but if there's another copyleft license which has not been addressed so far and that's totally fine for you if it's to to continue in the larger work under the other license you can say this in at this edition and you can put on additions and extensions but you have to be very very careful because the changes and can create a new license so you have to be careful when you make changes and you should put them most likely in source code headers or additional fires to make these additions then we have
also to patterns again copyright protection is all that so we changed the topic right now because we're talking about patterns because they also protected by some of the licenses or the the grant the rights to make use of the patterns by some of the licenses and again a copyright protections only provided to the ex pression and exempt 2 ideas procedures operational computing methods the patterns may cover the ideas procedure and operation what methods itself so there is a difference what does that mean in practice they have been patterns have been granted for that cover functionality in many common software applications and they pose a specific risk to the development of suffer because they protect that I each year all the method and not simply the form and it's possible to infringe some pattern that outcropping anything or without even knowing it states if you're developer and someone else has a patent on something and you implement something and it's a specific
expression of it and someone else later on identifies that you have been addressing the pattern that is registered then you may have a problem what is the impact
of that users are rarely subject to legal actions for patent infringement and developers and sulfur licenses must almost always be notified 1st which is great because prior to legal action and in which is seeking damages they give you the chance to remove where you infringed the the patent and you have an opportunity to remove to code or to rewrite it in any way but it works differently so the risk is more related to higher costs for replacing functionality rather than the liar direct costs of being subject to patent laws weeds because they contact you an OS please change it we have a patent and it appears to be higher for proper Oteri soft of a commercial interests are higher so we're talking about millions and billions of years dollar euros than for open source distributions however this is the 1 case that you may address a patent that someone else has registered just by of writing curve but there's also to as soft patent which is a patent on a piece of software such as a computer program there's no really legal conclusive definition of waters off a patent is it's handled so differently in different countries and to the known sulfur patterns have halted Soffer development in specific areas so suffer patterns Baird the blood discussing around and that as we have been in the data part we have been talking about what legal consequences success and in this case which is concise offer patterns it's quite unknown what legal consequences for example relevant for you however what does it mean for suffer patterns and sulfur licenses because everyone is talking about them and they might be addressed that means the licenses grant literate copper and and patent licenses allowing for free use modification distribution and expectational work and that's basically for example the pitch the eclipse and the solar Public License and the city of they have a specific section in and in their license text so they have a specific section we haven't have have had at the very beginning that you as the creator of the work are the copyright holder and you grant the rights that
others can do the same but the software is you can do for the copyright holder and it might be that if you when you have registered at patent a soft patent or something like that which then you also have implemented in code and you put a license on that you also grant a right to use to code without infringing the patent so it
might be that others are using your coach and they know it's not only the copyrights it's also the right to make use of the software which covers the specific patent and they don't have to care about which you which is quite important so the include something more as they include in this license more rights to the users and they don't have to they have to fear any any seeking of amateurs and then we talk a codebook of course about termination of licenses and law enforcement earn again we're year at the point when it comes to what happens in a specific case when we think that the license not being followed by others who are using our software and the point is that when we are in research and it's not about a lot of money and then you probably will have a few problems you you can do it on your own war is discussed before your part of an institution the most likely have a legal department and if they ever heard about Sophus licenses or something like that then they may help you and they get in touch firstly that those who have who were not following the license you have put on your code or software but there might be some cases where foundations like the free foundation or other foundations like the Eclipse Foundation right that you suffer foundation and may help you in specific cases and approach others who have been using your coat or software and follow not the licenses and this is of course in specific cases when it's either bought a lot of money or if there's some I do logical interests behind if if it's a case of public interest and they can make an example out of it that a commercial company for example using your code in with a copyleft license and proper terror softer and they may help you so that they release their modifications plan again so that there is some sort of help available but it's really like getting in contact fears that those who are not following the licensed this you'll help of the Legal Department's is that is not really working there there are some foundations you can also they provide help and later on there might be the case that you have to go to a court or something like that but this is something that will be at the very very uncommon communication almost a stock OK now let's come to licenses
encoding to say how disk coding happened
with to talk about that What's more hell you
coding so you can anyone tell me how do you start writing software copy and paste forget you have an anti file and you copy and paste worlds kay normally it's just use you start it's really like you just start and you write 10 lines of code maybe just converting data or something like that and then the code base
grow slightly either you do it while others do it and you share it today it's it's quite often that code contributions also shared light e-mail or something like that and if you're happy and others no hard to narrow it did to use control systems it's easier to follow and contributions come by a country version control system so that it means you start and from a very small stripped it starts a becomes greater and greater bigger and bigger and then you have a larger a and the question is then how to handle licenses there the same thing there is that he also just contributes and 1 with pull requests just send a piece of code to someone else by e-mail for example fix it like that copy paste and it's very seldom that you start a complex piece of software in a project on purpose so when you're in a bigger project and you know you're not the only 1 developing they also 5 others distributed in Europe or other parts of the world and you knew that the piece of software that you create will be complex then you
start earlier to think about what license of putting on it but on the 1st line you will you of your of your of writing code you really should think about is just for me and if there's someone else already asking for the curve of a software because it's useful in is making extensions then you should start early to think about if it will be under a permissive license or if it will be on copyleft license and which license you choose
and it's also you but you're not thinking about that alone because you have also contributed so PSL programming with you so you have to talk with them and of course you are working in institutions and there might be a general guideline which license to apply all you have to contact someone so think about that as soon as as as soon as as possible because of their different approaches to do it you can attach a license before you've written the 1st line of code so this is practicing open signs that means you have may be an open source version control system like it up and you you you just put the 1st fire there the 1st few lines and you attach a license there and you have also these weight and think approach but you shouldn't
think not a long time and you could some bore put some boilerplates on so for example all rights reserved there are some examples how to do it so there's no license in it but there's some information that this piece of software is a name as a description was does that is a copyright holder the cooperate year and maybe the Institute of the creator and
then some information that all rights are also reserved in that new license is yet selected for did distributed this piece of software or you can postpone at like we usually do it and you start clarifying then which libraries are used which licenses are part of these libraries have checked the licenses most likely under pressure and in a hurry and do it in a relatively short time you have to get in touch with your and you know that's a normal publication process with the legal department and this is then quite quite difficult and that if you start at the very late point to think about licenses when it's just to releasing it in the next minute for example so start thinking about that as soon as possible when you when you when you are on that case at a certain point where you use different components different libraries of others with different licenses I have 1st firstly you have to consider the dependence dependencies foresee the libraries used and the dependencies then there might be your contract of employment or a similar agreement with others like you institute or university I you have contracts and agreements as as part of the works of for example partnership chips and research projects so you have some sort of Connes also agreement which is
regulating intellectual property rights issues you may have memorandum of understanding and there might be different cooperation wrecking levels and this is where you have to approach a legal department most likely you
not very much involved in the legal of things when in in research projects but you have to ask for it and ask are there any dependencies i've to consider when I want to put a license for my piece of software it's hard it's no fun but
you have to do sorry and then you have to resolve these dependencies means you have to check the compatibility compatibility it's mainly to get in touch and talk to the persons involved really approach them talk to them and have a clear idea what you would like to do have clear idea which licensed to choose maybe have a clear idea that you already have resolved all common to company u compatibility issues on the on the software side and then ask if it's OK to follow this if you're in a bigger project or if you're in a softer project which is distributed or the developers which are not part of the same institute then there's some sort of a contribute to license agreement and the developers' to 8 of or region which is for example a common practice of open softwares developed and foundations like the Apogee Foundation or the Eclipse Foundation these especially agreements where developers who contribute for example that the pull request say that they are not the origin of the source they have they are providing that they do not have copied it from somewhere else and with the contributor license agreement they say this is OK that each contribution is put under the license for example the Eclipse Public License if it's from the from the and from there Eclipse Foundation so we can have a look at that contribute
license agreement and you can see there that this part is a contributor agreement and there's also some sort of develop a certificate of origin and it basically says by making a contribution to this project I certify the contribution was created in whole or in part by me and I have to write to submitted under the open source licenses the contribution is based on upon previous work and so on and so on so basically you say it's it's what I provide is clean and I've checked all the license things and it's just created on my screen and there are no other
conflicts with other licenses and a contributor license agreement says that I put a all contributions slash I give it's OK to put finally in the larger work but my contributions to use the license which we we green OK and then there
might be also the rare case that you have to reimplement problematic libraries so if you have the case that there is I don't have a clear vision to GPL vision component and GPL vision 3
component and you want to continue with the 3 and it's only vision to without identifying any later version and then you have to reimplement or replace the stuff which is vision to us to resolve to compose comfort of those compatibility problems but then we
ask about license encoding so you're using programming languages for calling so what is the license of your programming language for Python it is the Python Software Foundation license which is some sort of it's called in non reusable license which basically means if your programming in pies and you can put the peas f on your coat because it's meant for the Python programming language and if you lift Arabs and think that's the 1 then he would come to
some dick don't documentation which is giving you history license of the software and it's saying that the Python version 3 comma decimal 7 is under the piers of license there's the license text and then it's a bit longer it's telling you something about the license of version 2 of Python of version 1 6 1 and so on and so on and then it's also mentioning licenses and acknowledgments foot Inc. software and this is something that you should have in mind when you are building your software packages as well
because you can follow this example if it's a text file if it's a markdown file or if it's in the documentation an HTML file or something like that you should do something like
that and this is the point where you should have a piece of paper when you start coding and you know that you want to redistribute your software that whenever you start using the library make a note I use this library in this vision is under license that and this is to your L and when you integrate the next you can write down as well and then you can build something like that so that you apply proper attribution which lies at which libraries your views and what the copyright holders
and you give them attribution because they have helped you to make your software with their contributions their libraries and you provide licenses with it and show that you have been thinking about licenses and try to avoid license incompatibilities
and you also give these information to others who then can understand that in this long list there are all lot of different licenses which are some sort of Beastie licenses and it's not a problem to make use of it and you can do it the same way and what else we
can look at our intron for example and when we look at project
license at our programming lies in programming language license we can see Our or associated software such as packages and you have a long list here and this is something which you should have in mind because some packages will be licensed under the GPL a lot of stuff is licensed under these D
and there's also 0 the the first one is a GPL then G P L N L GPL and MIT licenses to you should be aware that there are some copyleft licenses which also may be incompatible with each other and this is just and then there's 1
1 case that we possibly could talk about just to show you what
others are doing for example when we're looking at
Java this is a long history about job of the sun Microsystems and what they put for licenses on it and so on and so on and there's
a legal case which is so called Oracle and America includes a schooling and oracle finally seeks
damage of about 8 comma decimal 8 billion US dollar due to commercial success or the under its system if you know the Andrea system is a specific Java or integrate some specific and I don't know what to say to call which allows you to fried applications and Java and these applications use API ice and so we are not talking
about only about software already talking about programming languages which have a specific license we also talk about API so when you start but that posted the in in the nineties I think it was when Java came up and it was 2 I did have a high level language where you start interacting with your computer virus-specific API sister
developer and you don't have to think about specific hardware underneath you just use this API that runs on every hardware where you have the travel virtual machine running and these API is seem to be somehow protected at Google has been made to the use of these API is Oracle now is owning that is now the owner of these rights and it seems to be that they will get 8 comma decimal 8 billion euros from from from from or a from Google so you can see it's it's important to think about that but it's only important if there's a lot of money in the game OK so best practices for license
handling as and sh will cooperate
identity when you use license headers like the example on the right edge iCopyright information the names of the institutes and all of us at name description of the software so that it's it's clear what what what others have in front of them and you can provide additions or exceptions all sort of these things be aware that you're not changing the license you just put a few additions honored for example a information on funding projects your else for further information and you can put as some sort of licenses information like an all rights reserved in the beginning before you have choose analyzes we can check that had to Adobe's doing that which is a nice and which is an interesting thing
you know I would say it's a normal copy roid Adobe Systems Inc. not all information contained herein and remains the property of Adobe Systems Inc. and its suppliers if any and they're talking about concepts and possibly also pattern somewhere yeah and it supplies and may covered by it you as patterns and foreign patterns and so on and so on so this is so we clear
All rights reserved header without providing any license but since this stuff is on the top openly available let's check what the licenses and we go to the root of the project we have a license file this is something that you should apply to put a license file in there and the license
which is how we can see at the canoe lesser General Public License version 3 and as we know the GPL version 3 covers also the use of patterns which have been implemented in software so we know local OK and B has all rights reserved and they may have patterns but in this case they give us a GPL version 3 so we can use it without any problems because if they are patterns
on the software implemented the GPL version 3 allows us to make use of that I that out that and of you can see Canada such so this is 1 example can't of
course provide what matters but keep it short and consistent so this is for license headers and when you look at license handling software packages put in a license fire like we have seen it here right now he put in the README files and
information that's the 1st the reading is the 1st thing that is shown for example on the top which licenses used it's important that it's not only working the get-out which would be great for README files because you get display this 1st README file but when you of for example just to get clone and don't have some rap interface in front of you then
the license file is of great help because everyone gets into it and those which license it is you can create some sort of folder like a Docker licenses folder and you can create file which is named licenses and he takes the HTML or something like
that and you are listing there the libraries your listing the licenses eventual with your else and you should include copies of license text just to make
sure of that you presented others that you have been thinking about that and that others get this and clearly no which sort of licenses are in there and that's the problem to make use of them make
sure that you ensure attribution so named the office and the institutes of the libraries you have used and include a corporate and license set and any comfier like we have seen that before then there's the case of copy and paste code snippets which is quite interesting you should clarify the useful copy and paste methods and it's quite hard mainly you're going to forums blogs or websites for example when you go to stack overflow stack overflow forces you to apply a CC BY as 84 contributions that basically means when you
do a copy and paste and put it in your current it means CC bias a It's a shell like you have to have a compatible license which is copy
left as well and you of course have to didn't have to address the by and you have
to name this this part is coming from 4 blocks and websites is even more complicated most likely do not talk about licenses so you have to search for the information sometimes it's hidden somewhere if you're lucky you have some small buttons somewhere below ancestral everything on this website is CC BY or something like that and even if you don't find anything you have asked for permissions to use it and specific license for example we all know this cases where we just do a quick and dirty copy and paste I we understand it simple but it's quicker than writing it alone but they also these cases where we don't understand what's happening there of a big piece of code and it's exactly doing what we need but we haven't even understand what what's going on in this piece of code and you're not able to replace it with your own or implementing it you should ask for permission to use of specific license and you have to create awareness that those people were providing the solutions possibly put a specific license on it that allows for years for yourself traced quick and dirty solutions in terms of legal aspects that means the comments in the source code copy paste if you're doing that you can do another copy and paste for example the your L where you have taken at maybe some license information if it's available maybe some attribution if it's available and if it's not available you should add some fixed me
to do check all whatever's you convention to find it later on be consistent for example fix me you legal
issues or something like that and when you then start looking for these copy and paste snippers half a year later or a year later he just run a search on your whole sufferer source code files or coat fires and you will find very very quickly reach cases you have copied and then you can go into detail and resolve possible conflicts or something like that this
basically helps you to identify the copy and paste the text later on of course this software available that helps you but this cost some money and only foundations for example or start user or by using that and best practices for code contributions we have been talking about that and there's these
contributor license agreement and the coder region we don't need to talk
about that and then we finished with the 1st part with the software licenses and we can continue this of the publications