Accessibility Through Git, Python Functions and Their Documentation

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Accessibility Through Git, Python Functions and Their Documentation
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so and public off today as the accessibility and I would take the
freedom to introduce this there any aspect of the fair principle so for the agenda for the day will start again with some the condition and walls and then there will be a the topic under version control and project-management with it and of summer and focus on the top and the and then we will do our coffee play here and it continued it and have lunch and in the afternoon there will be an accessible and lesson and with come with what the meaning of comprehensible coders and with some function in Python enough so starting out data to be accessible they cancel the accessible what does that mean in fair principles we have again of fall to 4 core sentences here was starting with a 1 meter data and data how retrievable by their identify we had this topic covered yesterday using a standardized communications protocol
at Gagnon the focus on this machine and readability and of all the accessible
point of fair principles so what does that mean a standardized protocol the protocol itself is small as clearly specified so it there and they were requirement here is to be open and free and universally implementable and the sky me now a couple things that will come to
that and it's important primarily I would say for repository administrators and administrators of digital services and and so on and the particles should allow for an authentication and authorization procedure and where necessary and so for example when we are talking about a sensitive data about embargoed data with restricted
access or something like that this comes particularly into play
and plate you add a fair principles in an area to emphasize that's me data should remain accessible even when the data are no longer a wearable what does that mean and it can happen and it happens a lot actually before scientific
journals and dead articles have to be taken down because of I don't know because of form data use because of the meaning has been misinterpreted by the office Are there s so just some and major mistakes in their publication so DOS takedown notices attraction nodes are quite often and use and they happen across all journals I would say across all disciplines so there are no exceptions we as humans and we still pants to make mistakes and some of those mistakes also tend to be steadily intentional as so that our attractions of what the year and then but still when we talk about good scientific practice we should also add care about a point that even if there was some I have 1 information published dead and we still can't put this 1 information into context so if there's and takedown node usually added journals tends to as say OK paper was which lifted and who they would sional authors where and and what was the context of this paper because it can be that it has been cited and we used in other papers of course already so also the order office lf 2 follow-up papers they
need to need to be informed and what has and what has happened and death in a certain part of the research done was not as it should be so does this them point actually is
crucial and here they say it should not only be the case for classical academic publications but also for data publications and on a kind of publications of their digital objects as well and so those the the main points of the accessibility issue and what does that mean for an institution and the fall of administrative repository and 4 out there in the terms of the protocols it means that there should be as little excess various as necessary and but of course you need to have fair use counts and for for the publication of process as soul and you need to add beef we to also if you have if you have to to publish for example and by would data 1st that is by will probably maybe 1 year because of your institutional policy or something like that it should be able to to support us whose and immediate data contains an contact information and responsibility information again this is cool crucial in terms that is and before also put for provenance and and in order to to be sure and to trust the authors that published this does digital information but also in their case of maybe take down messages or something like that open communication protocols should be supported by the repositories and there are some listed here and the standard ones and they can even be in use but it should be emphasized that that they're they're open protocols and standardized protocols some warning signs so when you use a repository maybe if they have a special about no tool and that users that different kinds of communication protocols and it's there it can be useful like you ever of SFTP for example if you have had a large volumes of data and to be up or or download and this is the point and that is not that well implemented in many digital of positive is even the big ones and it is that the term of the tombstone page and sometimes there's just a shot to take down and message after dataset but no of of not without a Weizmann stated and if no data information whatsoever displayed as so this development is changing slowly and the DUI agencies 2 words and is to again to change that but here added the journals and the big publishers they're way ahead off their we such data community I would say so they are they're really half years said as though in the case of experienced of bills who attractions and the such data is just starting at to develop such a system and it's not harmonized yet so that's something to add to keep in mind and if he if it ever that is the case that you have to attract digital content please bear in mind it could have been we use that order and academics and and to to offer them the information why it has been retracted and and is that you are and the point of of context and fallen and also the repositories and usually have should have an exit strategy in place in terms of accessibility still of 1 repository has to shut down and its its services there should be an exit strategy and fall on us and to take and this should be should be clearly stated in the terms and conditions who will find with any repository service so and I know terms and conditions it's have usually 1 that doesn't have the time to look at the I want to look at it in any detail but it's worth a look at the air when you trust Tschira his scentific workers including your data to evoke positive would have a quick look here if they have something like an exit strategy or what happens to your data if they were positive or service has to be shut down and so does this this is worth considering as a scientist and you should say the thing about that the data access should be broker medical leave whenever possible that means using that services for its and our packages pattern models models and the long and sometimes also to in order to get a data set especially when it is embargoed it's necessary to still widening now and state your intent and what you plan to do with the data so it's trust issue among academia essentially about I think most most office and are open and to ghosts requests also in a case of course of sensitive data so some of the institutions who are we chose the sensitive data they have explicit application procedures and where you clearly have to state what you we search intent is where you come from You institution what your background is and so on and so forth but this is also due to the the national law for example and of course if granted then you should check if they're secure access of course there's some is possible using for example present manager and meter data that essential so again also for the accessibility of the data dataset when he submitted a you should always check that the the that their dentists are complete and it can really in this case when you we use the data it can really help you to plan your own we search and see how the others have done it do and what they what they did what it did to what is stated in the mid data and to for example to insure web usability energy of the data and you should really feel confident enough to also if you have repository for example in local repository at your institution to request this kind of features for add repository administrators at your local Institute in Germany we have case that and many universities tents and who last couple of years started to set up their own local repository infrastructures and of course as a scientist there you the encouraged to use them by then and we would again encourage you to really check and what kind of features this repository systems offer and if the in in in new terms they are not a good enough so ask them directly for improvement which is an essential for your field of study yes now we'll continue after Russian-controlled stand you have been will take over OK as I already said yesterday
that the Fed data principles cannot 100 per cent be applied to software and this is the 1st case we're where we would be interpreting that a little bit and to the accessibility principle here we will interpreted as follows so we saw this just now just to put it besides the version control systems that are currently quality does obviously the most popular but there's also MECU real which has a similar concept and
subversion it's a bit outdated by now maybe but still in use so and check check check these protocols are open free and university implementable the platforms that for example you and GitLab and get half of course they have access control look in and features like that on the top we also can reiterate a little bit about the find ability principle here because there's topics with which are basically keywords for a repository and it is possible then to have a global lists for example of all repositories about text with the microbiology we had an example yesterday right so this makes things discoverable you about the tools on pages here we have to be honest again the a scientific specialized repositories are a bit better here but yeah have for example an organization decides to close the get-up account how or even a whole repository infrastructure like Microsoft's court Plex all Google is all in Google called the court of with a con el was close they're kind of an archive mold so you can still find stuff that you are with these platforms at the mercy of the the companies behind them and they may not be super interesting preservationists the scientists and the librarians are so we also see what happens with the topic which has been bought by Microsoft we'll be bought in the course of you this year I would not be war it's too much to be honest but yet we we don't know recapped from yesterday so that we talked about how all inversion control systems the identifier said generated intrinsically from the content of a repository and that is something a little bit different than this equipment at that PIDE 2nd only in which we also did that in this damn over with these in normal so just to keep in mind and again a reminder this a Workshop tomorrow for suffer preservation if your interest in this topic please keep an eye on the soft race as sustainability Prince suffer sustainability institutes block so now since you are all here voluntarily I don't thing I have to convince you why you should be were using version control plants as I think 1 very nice example is is simply that you can the substitute the tree of life as you maybe know all this summer cure regions in there so you carry loads and there's a program pro curry yields and so you can equate this a little bit with the with the project so it's a messy beginning usually in then you generate all kinds of digital artifacts like protocols and you collected data and you built graphics from this data and you put the graphics on the posters and in 2 papers and your maybe notes and observations again feedback India protocol and you prove this particle so all of this is happening on a on a on a timescale and so on that of course would be important and interesting to document a project and version control is 1 way to do it we choose gets here because it is the most popular 1 in particular through the platforms of it happened GitLab there's also bucket and several more detail on a good t hoppers starting as well so this just network effects everywhere it's a social network of like-minded people of developers where a lot of information can be shared and especially learning can happen all the time from even strangers then maybe if you to talk with your your colleagues if you try maybe to convince them to use version-control you may encounter the argument the counter argument yeah but I don't want to publish my colds I don't know I want to keep it on my own that's not the point she has a version control system makes it easier to publish things but doesn't and force it so as we will see you can work locally you don't have to upload your stuff even if you have a lot of stuff you can have private repositories that's that's not the point but if you do publish your code and you all of the documentation for your project simply an opportunity to to gain collaborators and to the are just collect useful feedback so use 1 example from the better scientific software a block where some project at does matter stated that we had the requests for with no support for so long that none of our team really knew how to do it but then finally we have noted to get up and some person would ignore how to port a softer from an omega Linux into to Windows adjusted in in a week and so there are people out there were interested in your project and if they are they can be convinced or motivated to just help with stuff that you do not know also remember the little Venn diagrams with the knowledge of the each 1 there's just a lot there will can help and if you don't offer them the opportunity they may not all they will not if you offer them the good unity they made to it and therefore the back diver example which we will also use of its today I even have to the status for myself I developed the privately for several months and within that time I got group so if somebody else delivered to also as a client for this web service in Python so if this person may be would have seen my project they could have saved from themselves a lot of work and we could have maybe collaborated I don't know if this person not the his interest in but this stuff like this happens all the time it can be that prevent it then also 1 really really important argument for version control is the way it's structures your workflow you have these things on the tab lab but called pull requests and much requests it's it's just a fearless way to work you canebrake anything you you have them you can a break anything you can implement the changes that you want to do on a separate branch was see what this is later it's essentially a safe environment for your own work you can upload that you can review it and only if it works as you can merge it back into the main branch and continue working with this as if it were a natural part of the project all the time and if it doesn't work he just that the branch rot and deleted and no harm done and of course on the platforms especially this huge automation potential so their bots who can do review can take over called formatting and all the little annoying things really has been automated already in some kind of bought or external service or probably will be soon because this is really a symbiotic relationship here between the platforms the users even some companies of course to the just drive suffer development to more effective and more efficient to rejoice and in the end because the platforms also offer posting issue tracking project management tools a Git repository especially if it is uploaded somewhere and public can be your single source of truth for project and this is maybe not super obvious but I mean you all know probably this the the many communication channels that you have used e-mail so here that would I call and then there's some kind of chat system probably in the in the project the I and all of this proliferation of different communication channels also has a huge costs in terms of the cognition of stuff gets lost you minutes don't get ready it's it's just in many cases too much and therefore saying we have the court here we have the issues you ever documentation year everything in 1 place can be really really useful for everybody about the project solutions them there's there's 3 aspects I think to be considered is the 1st of all you can so you can have like a time machine like view into your project you can hop back into any point of time in the past also I I want to remind them and it's maybe best word but 3 dt note virtual reality and stuff it's always a buzz word but here you can really have a 3 D view into your projects on the 1 hand you have your normal view like a Windows Explorer files and folders as I mentioned at this old time points as well but also the current version of course then there's a so-called history view where just the that commits in the version control project are chronologically listed so you can read up on what has been happening and maybe why it has been happening and that's also is a so-called blame view where you can see a find and that is annotated line by line with the commit message of the last them of the last commit where's the visualization coming is also the microscope like you because you can always look into a single commit and see exactly what has been changed character by character exact and yet as I mention the time machine like view as well so here's the 3 D box so as mentioned for you have on top the regular violent for 1 of you you have the history view he on the right and so you have the blame view where you can see an
annotated version of your file so depending on what you need to find out about your project or about somebody else's project which you may be joining a need to get up to speed and understand how they arrived at the point where they are now this can be quite useful and have a microscope you into this whole thing is also quite useful so these are
the images I would like to stick it in your and here I accessibility here of course also means understandability and in your own project this in many cases will mean just your future self we all forgets what's happened even a few weeks ago in some cases you may need to explain to collaborate as what you have been doing to get them up to speed up some of you many supervising students and of course reviewers also when you want to publish something they would also be an audience for their understanding your project better and to do that so we have the suffer featuring gift and in all version control systems usually of so could commit message and this should always explain mostly the why why are you changing stuff because it is always recorded what exactly you're changing you don't need to explain to people that you are adding this file or the removing this file that is this as as that will go into this slot fuel-blending and I we can have a look at home again I don't wanna make too much advertising but there I'm pretty
confident for this project that I can I explain what has been happening there so it looking at the Lok feel and all the the
history of you in in top and CLU member from yesterday we got DOI I think some vomiting mistakes here I reverted the comet which we can have a look at that
had the effect of finally after a long while adding all the manual pages to this the project so we're
going to look at them in detail but as you can see here I'm removing von ignore all rule and then all of the nice help files are included we will learn on Thursday how to generate these help fires for packages so now we're basically the microscope fuel were looking into 1 specific commit and we're back here at the history view and of course the being new to a project and none of them not all of this will make immediate sense but going through it step by step that will help to
understand what has been going Gretchen ants in
the blame you were going to have a look in detail
as well I should probably increases in the limit so he on the right you have some cold this is called and on the left whenever you're rich like why did they do it like this this court looks beautiful art looks shaky what is the reason for doing that and so here it
would be refactoring to enable retrieve such results and we can look exactly at this commits what I did there so for
example introducing a new arguments which we learn about later today introducing this if else suggestion which is depending on this argument so no matter whether you can read are called very well or not this is the way to start understanding things if your interest well and this is even worse for huge
projects like gift for Excel and for and keeps itself for example the source code is also version in get-up and of course there's solvents of people working on it 10 thousands of commits its 13 years old after all and even there you could just go in and see why somebody has changed something and see exactly what they changed and then the year Paul and much request from the workflow I showed earlier that's then just mostly needs to state what is being changed in a summary because the the person was reviewing the chair of the the pull requests will see list and OK I I have time to review for example a proofreading the pull request the diffs is itself as a just now they should always be logically encapsulated in there shouldn't be stuff in it that doesn't belong to the main point of the change that's cold atomic so that each of the committees can also be reverted without breaking anything else without introducing of fixed title for example again so whatever task you have an a project it should always be completed it should be put into a committee or several and committing also works across several files which we will see later as well so this is also helpful for everybody so for example if you're doing basically proofreading task like fixing typos and Ling's so maybe documentation then the commit message should also be just it for example or if you're implementing both the cold for a feature and the testing these can be put together as well we will learn how adding tests were from both Python are on no Wednesday probably interest so so and all of this boils down to the accessibility features of it in terms of fair principles not in terms of technical accessibility they boiled down to or that it's a communication channel is the documentation system it is a communication channel and you should always consider how would you explain to a collaborator for example in the elevator you know this elevator pitch you have 2 minutes to explain something of 3 that's similar here so just a few words why you did something the summary of what you did the are the important things you in order to for them to understand and if they can read it from the commit messages for example then they will not have to e-mail you and so would not have to a call you may be so it's also a communication avoidance system when when necessary when you it's not necessary tool to discuss things there should tracking and project management as well I already mentioned this briefly it can be your living plants a community work space as well the issue tracker can be used for all of these kinds of discussions and also in this work like view which you have both on the top and GitLab you can also to time management and stuff like this and the issue is here the the the state that structure or the thing that you're using it can be really anything from just basic ideas snorting them down quickly and just leaving them to form of mature maybe tool problem reports for users just questions for help or anything a really don't be shy at don'ts try to spread these different things across different systems that can be a lot of old thanks to mark down you have all these nice formatting options like task lists on a platform you can usually mentioned somebody so they could not a fight though we saw this linking from from commits to issues as well it works into their within issues of already is so you can just say this is related to this and so on and all of this project management things are there as well so if you have some kind of different topics within your project you can use labels so you can assign to different people well usually yourself if you are working in a project and you can have milestones which are basically deadlines there's a date associated to it you can say OK these tasks I have to do by this milestone and so on and so yeah the peer reviewing in the pool much request workflows also extremely useful for teaching each other if you're in a team maybe not now but probably at some point later when you did you have have to if to write your own grounds have to right that you complete your own projects together with collaborators your team and you need to learn from each other and you need to teach each other about important things I have at the closing keywords that we mentioned yesterday just fix hashtag issue number that we ought to make them think some things have for you so the issue of tracking is really light weight on the platforms probably much better than a week using Wiki usually have pages the pages I do now make yes but the bullet list of ideas this kind of death because you cannot insert other people's comments easily it's a it gets crowded really really quickly and e-mailing ideas and discussion points back-and-forth always has the disadvantage of the courts usually being below so effectively you need to read it from bottom to top and honors unnatural initial track always original post on the top and then downwards and I also want to mention the point here that version control is not restricted to those of cells called so it is of course optimized for that but you can put large nontext files in that there's a system called LFS large fires storage so if you have some kind of fires like this it is possible to version control as well this even video editing the solutions that rely on it and so what could be larger than we do the text documents obviously lattice and marked down and are very popular there and if your problem for example is below the problem unit you need to solve is that you often have to work without internet connection may be in the field for example entered if you need to work asynchronously with other people then this can be an eternity of to these it was like and good drive friend and a pad and stuff like that because they solve the problem a sink is simply sinking all the time now I'm not saying you should leave these 2 was at the wayside parts if you can't work when you're offline then get is a good at on it and there you basically only have to is overcome this 1 limitation of that it's optimized for line text files which is software source called but when you're writing maybe a paper aura of something then you usually have paragraphs which several sentences in 1 line technically and as you can see here a solution would be to simply break it off after 80 characters of 200 characters then the diffs can stay small and atomic as I mentioned before so that's a little annoyance but I'm pretty sure that's a sooner or later some solutions to that will be found currently if you want a version control at Texas still thing and you know 1 of these many of these tools at under that work on top of get our for example the leaves the is the editor on an editor there's also did book which some of all colleagues and open science that have already used this also all 3 4 paper writing generally and append flip which also this as far as I know under a optimized for proles for writers technical writers this this work flow of version control and the ideas them of that are spreading more and more and I'm looking forward to for example seeing her laws and regulations wouldn't written like that there an inefficient project in Germany that scrapes the changes in the law and put them into a Git repository for why aren't people doing this in the 1st place I have law says all in this sentence this word is being changed great so as to now take the other book of law and look at what the word is the it's a bit weird is but with so any kind of document that is collaboratively where and that is updated all the time and not just type fixes so these updates have to be meaningful and all of these cases a version control system is really useful it's the 1st
them would be to go through a
contribution workflow and why we're doing that so we're going to
drawdown where
conception we are so we're working and happen elsewhere in the cloud but the same would be true
for Gates Labs and what we're going to tries to look just for some time a misspelled word and would just to send a pull request to that repository with the correct spelling that stupid but I think it is something that no project all know what's the would reject rejects so maybe within a few hours maybe faster maybe in a few days all of you should have a marched pull request and accepted their contribution so as you can see
we could not for form this cold search for and I'll use use so I'm I'm hoping that no Spanish or other language has this in the correct spelling so the 1st thing we need to do was to lock
into a get-up account all I know is coming I have to two-factor authentication on
the reason for this is ID type is forgive have account is a reasonably important think spent a two-factor authentication is a signal from the bank probably the more by time that's protects your account little bit in case your password should become compromised
so after you have logged into get tap you can perform the called search and the link I use already listed the lists it's the the search results by a recent CIA so all of these misspellings pretty research so
there's a good chance that when we fix it the people are still active in this project I would suggest the following now because there are so many you please starting here page 1 page to page 3 everybody just go to a different page of search results use so that everybody is surely a picking a unique target basically so just come through here see how all you're sitting and just go tool that a different page than the first one should be too far in the past but please put up the greens Digges year when everybody has found a search result that looks like an actual
type all where they will want to make a contribution and fix this type all of so here at the very bottom there the different
search result pages just going to it's a little bit and and then there's the year the
linker shaded in them in the document
or you can just search for the misspellings indicate have such bar so if you do not see this results page put up the rats sticky and if you have found 1 repository was as
misspelling that you want to do a put up the greenish yellow sticky then
if if you see something like this like the main page of your profile you can just type the spelling error on you in the search bar and so now the also instructors will hop around and go to the people with the red stickies to help them
if if you see a repository results then you can switch you to the cold after you have locked in and instead of best match you should switch to recently indexed so that we see the active projects up top you we can also restrict the search you
to text fires all marked down fires sold we would know we will try to ruin our only send pull requests against documentation text not against actual cold because of we if you this is an example we cannot really be sure is essentially misspelling
or is this variable intentionally named like this so He's designed repository with some TEXT phi or with the markdown file where it actually seems like a genuine misspelling so I will also go some where interacts so that there
is I will go to page 35 is
anybody on page 35 wild not OK so I would I would go to this 1 we
perform a cell and are losers and I'm going to check in Lyng we whether that's actually a misspelling AST's analyzes so so remember we are
all the time now here for us in the repository of some persons
some organization somebody we don't know then said has anybody pick the files
that they want to edit and there is something different so that's why I asked you to go on to different pages not just on to directly to the file where the misspelling years did you have
such a results list OK well what you see it do you have that's that's exactly and and you can even restricted here to a to a text marked down HTML baby to filter out cold but it again please put a sticky
if you don't see something like this so that you're
in some projects some folder and some file open OK so if you do
not see something like this in a file please put a red sticky because I'm going to continue No so we did have web interface already has this edit symbol you on the right is little pen but it's great I out it tells us you cannot do anything now you must be on a branch so and the get branches are what I mentioned earlier they others safe environments for for people to work on to not gets into conflict with other people's work and the branches are arranged in the so-called to read and this this this button here and we are now specifically some of this this is prime point level that I mentioned before so this hatch is
part of the Git hash and that's the identifier for a certain time point and at such a time point we can only look we can't do anything therefore we must switch to an actual branch which in most cases will be called the master branch or if you have for example pick the some kind of weapon project it can also be G. H pages of GH page so click on this but please and just select the master branch or the GH page branch and if either of those branch names is not present at all please put up a red sticky I'm going to switch to master and this behavior is specifically to the top so if your goal from the search results list into a fire you will be on such a time point the view we will not be on a branch automatically I don't know what the purpose of this is it's not just 1 step we have to do in order to unlock this edit options
for this so I'm going to do this and now we start going into the Git workflow it tells us this the edit button is this label Faulkner's project and edit this 5 because we cannot edit the file in someone's repository there's arrested was going wrong of the of them is many deaf development or something that looks very general if key GH pages of it we are going to move forward this project now this takes only a half a 2nd so now we are working in our
fault which not really see it in the web interface but there's some who note here which explains a little bit so now we are here we are in a copy of this
person's repository in a fork and the editor has already open so I'm just going to a search for the same spelling mistake here in the editor and I'm going to edit it found now use is like this but going
to search again if it's maybe there twice know then the control so you just go into this editor violent press Ctrl-F why you do the same thing I'm looking for some other type of scientist strolling through its because if we're here we might as well fixed to typos if you found the type 1 fix that please put up the yellow sticky that therein sticky and if there's some kind of problem the red 1 please OK
and then after you've done at the stick on the preview button here and so now and then search with control F for the now corrected version of your word and you will see that there's a little preview showing exactly this is 1 of the atomic small logical diffs that I mentioned before it should be just 1 word crossed out in red deleted and the green 1 is the addition our correction of course so again wrecked sticky if you don't see something like this please so then we scroll to the very bottom of this because now we need to finish our proposition and so s you'll maybe nor from graphical get clients you have these 2 lines this in gray already is the suggestion of a get commit message of updating this higher but as I mentioned it's obvious that we updating this fires so these kinds of commit messages are not super helpful so we would just tell the person that this fixes the title and also even if not this fix is a title but fixed table so the the gram I use the 1 of the the base cases in grammar that's the like shit sorry infinitive the infinitive exact inference that you have I think we don't need to have an optional extended descriptions of this is just fixed title OK so and then we're going to click propose fire change yes that is interesting then in that case interesting yeah and then and then you must for some reason being a repository that you have write access to I'll so if you but that's a good point so we let get do this for working for us now in the background automatically
you click actually the fluc button in the repository then the button here would be commit changes so but at the same thing that's good good propose fire
change and now get trapped would do the
reverse thing it was a
comparison which is the precursor to a point or merge requests which we was sent back now the
comparison if the precursor to this workflow for instance off from others what for object of poorer much request you see here that the
basis for it that's the repository of the other person has the person's username and we are on the branch master of but images by in this situation and our fault this with my username your was your username and we are on this for we are they're
not on the master branch but did happen automatically so master branch it automatically created a patch 1 branch probably so again it is a good the master branch would already be a copy of the repository here it would already be a safe environment but so for every kind of work setting up a different branch is
generally a good idea so the top automatically created patch 1 for us so if you don't see such a thing with a comparison and again with your a correction here please
correct sticking we have our summary here we have
added 1 commits USA commit message 1 fire was changed and so here on the very right you see again such a hatch and the hashes as I mentioned the intrinsic identifiers they computed from I think the time stamp of the contents of the diff here the the e-mail address of the person was committing as of several information are
being hashed together and importantly also the hash from the previous commit so there's a mathematically even verifiable chain of commits 1 on top of each other and stuff in the middle cannot be changed without this check some of the hash being changed as well that's the reason why the identify as a young called intrinsic because they can be computed from the actual content of the repository and as long as a condom doesn't change they don't change either and therefore in turn can be used as identifiers to address a specific commit for example it's like admitted chain of pearls there they are tied together and if 1 of the elements is broken not by natural law but by somebody changing it forcibly for example then the whole chain falls apart as well something of they then please click pre-credit pore questions and it will suggest the title for the pull request here of we would just leave fixed type ball and maybe we can leave a nice comments of see for example in my opinion this usually on my experiences usually works because I mean we're not pointing out somebody's was take were helping them fix the soul and also he is a nice feature which you will as far as I know only see on 1 of the key platforms in the troubled GitLab but did happen now allows you will have to grant access rights to the person here to you all for specifically this branch so because they now have to decide will be include this suggestion or not you could argue that they should be allowed to improve your suggestion if it would be a bit more complicated of course than here the type of fix in this case we leave it at that and complete our
contributions suggestion here by clicking create pour request and now we are back here and we
have 1 poor could probably 1 poor request maybe this a different number here for the project that you contributing to and so again we
have a different view here we have the commit history which is
pretty short in this case we have the diff view this would be the summary of all changes that you're proposing in this poor request and what the Konrad and me both mentioned that there's lots of
external services tool at some kind of automation bots this is in a good habits caught here checks sold few half and have automatic code review for any kind of stuff so it's it will be a bit more relevant maybe on Thursday and Wednesday when we talk about testing automatic testing bots can also be included so if you may be in the conversation views see
some kind of a yellow or green or red bubble here that some kind of checks are running I have been run or have failed have succeeded in this is really good in this repository has already set up some kind of automatic checks which is again this communication avoidance system when it's not necessary it will immediately tell you on all your contribution doesn't fulfill some kind of requirements maybe some tax breaks which should not be the case here in it in case of a typo but if you contributing cold it is really nice to have the safety net of the project owners already having set up some automatic tests and then you don't even have to wait for a negative you may like all but you broke or tests no the system can tell you immediately automate or not immediately takes maybe a few minutes sometimes the automatically that's point so that all 1st round of contribution here we have automatically created for example if manually done that we have added to
the fork on a different branch and we're sending from that branch pull request the main repository branch again so then let's leave this I I hope
that's of for most of you this will be just a matter of maybe a few hours that the person considers to accept contribution let's have
a look at the next example here's
the here and now we're going to use a bit more complicated example and the 1 that is related to the voice is still
I switched the link of please open it's in the same browser that you use
for top and we're going to help carpentry
update 1 of their lessons in this case we will probably not
everybody in company to contribute the same thing that would just go through the workflow without in the end clicking the actual Pull Request bond then we can have a little on the and or some kind of competition can do it this the fastest effects but that's not the point so from 2 of you know what the current you're of the doorway was all that is because that 1 is outdated the DAX but boy is
no longer the current resolve 1 of the things that I would also this strange that the doorway foundation would change the resolver address but they so what we're going to do now is to go through this contribution workflow a bit more manually a bit more step by step and also downloading the repository because there's no several there's several financing that we would need to edit and we don't want want to make 3 separate commits Swiss fixed title year fixed table their fixed title in the 1st place we want to have it on in 1 goal and 1 commits across several 5 so what we are going to do is now don't jump into 1 of the finest please but go to the air repository itself bands if you we have 1 of the views you from the 3 D view of course the fires and the folders and we could now clone and download it because of course we want to work on our local machine as
well and then just coming of local we want to want to clone stuff no should we do
it from this repository who voted far cloning it directly from here nobody appeared that's good because that would get us all only half of the way it because remember this is somebody's repository you don't have access rights here so of course you could copy it and change whatever you want but you will not be able to contribute back directly so what we need to do is to create this for manually now the again this only takes
a few seconds and now we can use the clone address here from our own now we're here Red sticky please if you don't see something like this FIL at doing it
in the in in it did not because you still here so you need to click fork there that was cool that again rats to give don't see this on because is it the the objective so we do and now we are going to jump into the gets bash a piece of
this copy of this 1 here this is nice the button that you can of course also use yeah 44 before the 1st for 1st cloned 2nd I a half the FDP plaque parts of modified so if using the on it so the please everyone opened gets bashed for example through the windows of such and if you do a user graphic it kind of course you can follow this example with the graphical client as well as just the common denominator here yes I use all of them and they all our put in 1 aspect and horrible another that I think it tap desktop is quite a good compromise between all of the different considerations because it did have DeScipher examines the nicest if you want my opinion but it has the fewest Advanced options which has so z at what's the problem the goal of this so it does everyone have forgive Basho
opens some if the Hardware active so but it was not going to get distracted by the website the
background so please put up the red to give you don't use
something like this I'm going to have a look around with the L S commands so I want you all s I mention 1 to 4 and download with what did we want to know Oak Lawn and Donald the repository and in my case I always do this in the repository gets revolves so I'm going to change directory to that but it doesn't really matter you can just do it in whichever directory you are currently in and
you will be able to do the did after was of course as well so it's not going to clutter up your files the them then try
the search again there was the 1 with the this 1 but what if young as as some people at some people have several bashes like was this nondescript some wide it should be
this 1 with the Windows colors so please open this 1 of all time once I
have a way out of the blue and let me this how right and he came in and a you are there the world the that was so was will win those guys the 1 of you as well as it 1 OK that yeah sure of was that than the match match ends Linux users just all that trouble it's a problem of could get bashed for you but terminal from all this play almost everybody
so the cloned commands as most get commands so just use exactly that worked so please type get cold and then you again in the different operating systems and will be different so I'm just using the paste function here to insert the URL and I want to show you 1 trick time a clear this I want to show you 1 trick because you have probably seen
up here that's why was already pretty large repositories already 902 commits before and because we are only making a little contribution here we do not need to download the entire history that is the clue the
faults but with the option them minus minus depth in front of the URL is important that equals for example we can limit the history that we download and thereby save a lot of band with in particular because we're all here in the same Wi-Fi downloading this 30 times completely could be a bit longer than just using here it gets called death to progress so I wish that this would be the default forgets but for some reason it is not but in so many cases you don't need the entire history and you can always fetch it later if you do need it so what I'm doing most of the time is just cloning with depth equal to as you saw this just takes a few seconds of was just 1 three-quarters megabytes and now if we check with LS we have this SQL ecology lesson there it is so we're going to change directory again CDU S tap this Everex sticky if down on and didn't work cloning didn't work or you cannot change into the directory that you just cloned show that breed up again and after each comment OK but then you should see or something like this OK now what happened to
clean known that's so now we are in the local directory the
branch named here is also print that's so the we have downloaded to commits and that's where we are 1st thing we will do is we creates a branch with the command gets branch and then just we will college fix dashed type all for example so the branch names should also be a bit more descriptive maybe then patch 1 a page 2 this is just a few taps standard way but if the branch name can already expressed something about what this branches for then that's of course quite useful and nothing habits we are still here
on did get hap pages because
now we also need to switch to that branch and that it's called the checkout yeah so of it so and you just type the branch name again and if you then press OK is it is it don't slow what's happening well of the the community unable to access the yellow fits but you if you tried the events wife after a period neither through a on on I the shift what we have here said the OK it might city FIL of OK virtually all of all your mileage may vary with custom kernels of the or did in revenge started compared also featured you don't really need this lesson and you can get and no problems with the idea that the 2 of you OK and foot and we have true downloading issues that seem to be related to the Wi-Fi of a proxy settings outside how fits on foot is something we cannot help right away the orange light years it this little that's different from the different way than the depression Windows doing this a terminal is not yeah yeah if you don't see the branch there sorry that's again Windows-specific or gets batch specific so OK and when he switched to the branch OK so now
who wants to use editor are in the terminal to fix all the spelling mistakes now nobody exactly as and the people who did raise their hands we don't believe you
could have hit the if we are going to use a regular text editor I think the installation instructions and a long list of different ones the 1 I have here is the atom and at some maybe be started in exactly with this command atom . and the doc stands for just this directory this should work both on Windows and Mac if you have ATM installed if not you would probably need to go into the the final the explorer and go to
the repository that you have afforded do not download it hence open it with I don't know maybe a notepad plus plus I don't even know because plus plus here we assume that you all know how to open a folder in your favorite editor how they by having problems with this part is that and things the the Fortinet we downloaded the SQL ecologist so
so we wanted to update a
bunch of headache Stallings right so I'm going to go back here and copy the outdated playing http DEX stored see it to copy it and in Apr
so we're just going to use the in
find in project its control shifts f for command shift F so that we don't have to look up which exact finalists at this outdated Ling's but we can just go through the whole projects and plow through
all of its search and replace these http D X with HTTP S and no dx or I can can make that can make this bigger sorry them but I can make the disk bigger in a moment so I'm going to use to find all option word
you increase the control
shift there was I can't increase assume
sort but is this kind of voluntary place all our however this is called in the other editor that you are using is that working is producing some search results and replacement results not please put up a red sticky we can close after because it
has done its job so we can also remove the website you don't
need it right now but what we need again is to get
Bash and top 1 of the most important commands as gives status just what's the status of my repository so as we see here we are in a repository also in the when the time in the mid term it may not be as shown by default that you are in a repository but if you are not it would tell you that you are not and get
status will say we are on this branch there are changes that we have not staged yet thank you the of so did is anyone aware of what the staging area is social explain OK so get sits
on top of your regular folders right and in the get
context your normal folder that you can view in the finer or in the Windows Explorer is called the working directory it would not interfere with that it will let you work there with any of the normal programs that you used to edit your files but what will set up is the next level basically the so-called staging area and into the staging area we have to Our changes the top did all of this transparently and automatically so and it gets top you're basically as soon as he edit automatically in the staging area and when you commit your automatically copying the changes into the repository itself but on your local machine there's these 3 things in all the directory the staging area and the repository we will have a look at the repository later but for now we have to tell it gets the to act exactly the 3 5 that you see you can
just use the 1st the letter and then tap because it should be the I'd say all that each of the 1st letters is unique here in the fire name so we would just add contributors the extra hours diets always using tap-tap-tap to completed and set up India and then repeat the Get Status command because now we will see that changes to be commits its are exactly all modified files here and this
little suggestion has been removed so now we have the stuff in the staging area of the next command commit with these minus option because of course we want to have a good commit message and fix typos seems to be sufficient no Sinai so it's not the examples we are where updating it's doorway you als sorry something like this for an update we were in the infinitive form right update old doit else OK this is a summary of Our commit the commit message again the branch and the short version of the attach so the identifier and a summary how many fires changed from many insertions or deletions what's if the the next thing that we need to do we need to applaud this change again parents the command to do that so we have our new
committee and now we want to push something and the command there's simply
push however at the yes I'll get an OK
say they worry I right there are a few people who did not you skate before yet look at him for a given and for everybody it who does not see such a commit summary where doesn't seem to have worked we we
we have to use a con fig option and then tap tap to see all the my god this is too many it's known as its and it is can you can you say the and the the the sentences is global you up here user thoughts name and in my e-mail OK so so yeah so if you if you use this option sorry about this I forgot because so many have already used it in the according to the survey yeah OK self so I don't think I will do it here it it doesn't have to be identical that but the e-mail address should probably be the same just to be sure OK when we use it did push option we should all get some kind of on he strived get push enter and the reason is we have created a new branch and we haven't told gets which
branch in your local copied correspondence on the 3rd of so there's just nothing here but with the option
that has given here all the commands get to push set up upstream which you can
just copy it and paste problem if not
just type a down here you are saying
that the upstream this branch is on the so-called remolds these and
these are remote's from the point of view of your local repository and by convention the remote that's called origin is the 1 that you have right excess tool you should have if we would have cloned directly from the doctor carpentry repositories Our origin would be that you cannot write to this so the origin doesn't make sense yeah you have to make sure that the region is always the 1 you have right X to therefore for 1st cloned sector
them so it's a in many cases you will see such could command suggestion in case you haven't arrow that helps you fix that are all so if this part of the red sticky if this long commands with the remote name
and the branch name that you want to set up on the remote that does not work so there should be like a little upload summary if you will you skipped Porsche my as my nose said upstream origin fixed type discover at sticky if you don't see something like this if you cloned from from the URL it will be automatically sent at the it's your origin remote so the the the workflow and GitLab would be exactly the same so you should probably
be under marriage like this in your
flock of the repository you would not
see this as a yellow thing probably a much
such a be you see if many of you wildly even better is there a at sticky of uploading and what of pushing the work through yeah syntax sick again compare this to this vision must be no space the and it also gave no idea for the origin the market within but a sort of loading work
for everybody OK then we switch back to the browser tool holiday in the corner
did work thanks so and some of you have seen like a yellow banner here with the green that something like this so that's a shortcut to create the poor request but I'm going to go the long way in case anybody is not seeing this yellow banner here so to create pull request we go back to the target repository go to the poor requests menu and click new pull request the comparison I was a little bit different here for me if you have used this yellow-green shortcut it would probably be already with the base fault and their head for except to the correct repositories and branches but I'm going to show you the long way as well so if you go the manual way you have to go to the compare across fox option and in their head for choose your role on copy with your own user name so you can use a so you can use this nice that thing just for your username and then switch to the branch that we uploaded just now so please rats sticky if you don't see this comparison with our commits here of this the a if you have just call I'll OK it's great what is served should I go back to some steps whatever yeah create for quests you can leave be tighter here and you probably see some little pop up here it looks like this is your 1st time in this project this is 1 of the nice community features of the top if the project you want to contribute to as some kind of guidelines or code of conduct you will be able to have a look at it here so for example
I'm pretty sure I know that the bad lines of what happened few projects that we have this so how to contribute they explain a bit how this works you can even send them an e-mail and where to contribute so it's usually a good idea to have a look through this at the latest at this very moment so if it would be a larger contribution so maybe more economical to read through the contribution guidelines 1st because they might say we don't want any sunlight in this case
what not to contribute the carpentry lessons already pretty false so we cannot just accept more concepts more tools as the fibers source in some cases you can save yourself a bit of work because not every kind of contribution maybe they accepted but updating some old Ling's this usually no problem then using CAS a little template that we can read through we are not an instructor check out in this case learn about please the textbook for submitting out what we will do this and just them in this case food maybe not be a super convincing because we're claiming that the door euros op our dataset and the the justification of this is the door book I'm going to
put into the and patch here so this just the
backgrounds of the thing the you the reason that day I don't know the exact reason why they changed it but in particular they now resolve doorways securely is so it's over T S so that's so there's less chance of research as being spied on what articles they want to download so this is a reasonable justification so I'm going to just
saying see differ ent this Europe so I know I'm I'm not going to do this somebody can we we will not question exactly so this would also be a place to put it so if you knew that's 1 of the issues was talking about this so
for example check callings and update to recommended syntax is probably not exactly the 1 we're looking foryour so let's just search for the way here in this tissue section and there's no issue aboard
boy in particular are about it but hey
let's let's do it so somebody
has the enhancement suggestion here too that's yeah it's a good point it's probably not exactly what
we're looking for it some kind of internal links syntax thing from the cop trees soul we should not directly references issue but we could so just by using this so this number here for example or the the issue number from
up here we could tell the GATE
platform he would begin their
comparison tool usually in brackets of fix this issue if we would have started at all work with updating links based on an issue that told us to do that's the project management aspect right that the
issues of some kind of self contained tasks that people can pick up complete Sinapore request and fix the issue by this but in this case we're not going to do it because it would be a bit confusing so this an unsolicited so the contribution the and also how we decide who sends the poor request I'm not going to do it because of them too many of these filled with I have automated the process to the it's a it's a flood of all dialing so that the the nowadays jack only at the I think the most troubles with the gifts what knowledge do you want to do it so if you if you at this position just just do it again I'm I'm going to just what did a bit who wants to do it the fact that I'm going to the Alvin have you ever again of you just take it home and I will close this because you know we don't want to overload them box then look at
your 4 requests bad to be but that's OK the 2 of them at the moment I would suggest that maybe because this does not really a reference that issue or it's that's not exactly the same thing that may be Benedict's you
should maybe there's a close button here for you probably and Maybe rights for all sorry duplicates or something from this now but this issue number is not so not correct so technically your system was correct pull requests in this little competition sorry the head that we could have been but you can type duplicate
issue number 3 as as of hashtag 3 2 3 7 they would be clear in your comments a verdict when you close it so in this case
there's kind of a lock so they have set up them protected branch so that some can be autumn puts project collaborator needs to needs to review it and to prove it we can quickly have a look at and improved rest of so I see a phrase example that I want my title fix at least has not been commented on or has not been updated in the last hour but we will look at a larger pool request here that send the link as well in the past if you want to have a look at it as
well this will be the lesson we go through
in the lesson and so on in a few days ago I a proof read it so the branch was called proof rats the title of the poor request was very as minor improvements blah-blah-blah there were several committees in it hopefully the ideas of fix
typos as well as the duplicate some cold rephrasing linking fan to the description files of stuff like this and say
look was kind enough to use the review feature in the tap to a proof that's so I remember this a get-out flow graph where there was this section about reviewing and discussion and commenting so that's in as far as I sphere is extremely useful workflow to work asynchronously to request the review from somebody maybe was the owner of the repository or a collaborator and as you can see this labels this milestones here well not exactly there's no exactly the exact Myerson said but this is how it looks of somebody approves and if not chat I've not I think I can show an example where it's not approved the it
changes requested now if you at the the on off a repository them
to you it would look a little bit different so the poor request would have this this options here that you could set a reviewer said I need if you compare this with the the poor request that you send about the
type of you see these metadata you but you cannot said anything right in your own
repositories you will be able to use these options as I mentioned these other project management and time management aspects of the gift platform it will look similar in GitLab and so what's the most powerful thing is in the changes the fire changes view here there is exactly this review changes option them up here this is the summary and I can just generally say we have this looks good approve or no peace change something request changes or it can be neutral just a comment and most importantly in the if you you from on get top and underdone as well you have this options if you go with your mouse to the like have probably follow this right now but if you go into the limes you can say exactly here what needs to be changed or this is a good called refactoring this is a good solution you can through the comments exactly in place you probably know this from maybe sending what File Spec enforce it's also possible that you put comments there pdf as well facts are here is really really useful and again you can say not just a single comment for it would turn into a you can start a review here so I think in summary it I'm I'm trying to find the point where I requested changes I I only use the summary option year from the changes review it type some common agenda said generally this has to be changed should be changed of
so now we went through this workflow as well so for most of the people this was called
master or GH pp the GH pages by the way that is the branch from which the tap can generate a website for you so I mentioned that it's it is not just useful for for source called but also for documentation for papers fall building websites and so if you ever need to publish a project page you can for example look it
up on pages does it have the comp it's that just a few steps the tool I a project for a repository for your use of your personal prior homepage for example or an organization it's all built into it happened and that's the reason why this branch in some cases was called the top pages that's what the copper trees are using as well so for example it will be the 4th dimension
actually so in the for example the novice
lesson this is the repository view and if we go to the website is usually indicated with his Kitab thought I all and end user name or organization name then we are on the web site that is
automatically generated for this project we would see this on Thursday as well we go off 1 of the lessons and in the wild homework basically that I send around before you also probably saw a few of these lessons web sites so that's a nice is benefit
but we're not going to get into it that today the the so we have we have gone through the workflow twice now once only on the top and once with cloning and pushing from into your local repository so I'm going to close all
this and switch back to the
presentations will almost finished this is
just a bit nicer version bit nicer
version of this diagrams in particular what is often confusing even to me sometimes is
what remote is set up sold origin will always be the 1 from which you clone you can get slides by the way of course that but is that a tweet the right of origin will always be the 1 that you as a clause but it therefore you should always cloned from your own for unless you are invited to a project may be and have right excess then we can clone directly there's also some some some other commands here if you need to update your local copy with the changes from the main repository use fetch and then upstream that the other convention upstream is the repository from which you Claunch and this 1 you have to set up yourself I think to finish this demo we can use the command to set up the 3rd World like here basically the fetch flag so let's go
to get Bash again of the terminal format
and Windows users so everybody
still in this SQL ecology lesson so the command to
set this up as kids remote facts we can also have a look at the remote or there was shown so it remote shoul should only and have the region and if we type this name again into the command we should even show we should see that the URA else here and with get ads and no we need to get that you're als for our
upstream repository this was
part here this was a so carpentry and also there was a bit of carpentry SQL
right you know the the motion of close it so
quickly that but is where we started out right where 1st ask you all whether we can use this your else OK so now we can use it for a specific purpose please copy it
inserted into the command here that occured
at knock at remote at C I make mistakes sometimes as well quite often actually the remote at and the URL for Dr. Coventry SQL lesson adopted this world at the repository your but this 1 item missing what's your Manon'' mention what the naming conventions we need to give the remote a name always
and in this case because it's the original repository work on the upstream by convention you could call it anything else but his stick to this convention that your own fault is a region and the other remote repositories upstream we are we are setting up all all the repository to
also know about this the original report I should call it originated but the the the the foreign repository from yeah on on on on exactly how it comes as a moment of for he did this work for US of then
parade sticky piece that you use the remote sure option again another should be chapter
spoken no another 1 so
that's the 1 that should be in the get
remote that upstream and then the upstream Euro so please correct sticky if you
don't see origin and remote you know when you skipped remote show and if we reuse gets remote show upstream we can even also verify that this is now the other your al here from the doctor commentaries so we have 2 remote snow which our repository of a local repository can see there was a question all about fetch and pull and push as well so in push we had to set the upstream right and there
we told our local gets that it should push this branch tool or rigid and we put the branch name there as well so that's unfortunately 3rd meaning of upstream because from the view we here your upstream can be called origin or it can actually be called the upstream the other option is just a little bit stupid but all of the commands
fetch push and pull as well they can be used
now with the remote names so if you wanted to update our local repository so when when we added theory knowledge we now have the option of fetching from the upstream repositories of get fetch upstream will do that for the telling us not everything worked this some status reports about how much stuff would be fetched at the
fetching informed our note of stuff that was here in this case it means little because with is there was so quickly the a repository here I mean general was sold rather fast that
no changes happened here most likely but if after some time you need to get Europe local copy with up to speed again you would need to fetch from the upstream it it just
now it's annoying it's not named very well the fetching is not that physically fetching and downloading the stuff that is geared to pull so fetches just the 1st that's why I mentioned formed now you're repository knows what changes are here and if we use it to Paul we can download them so she we do that as well fetching assists world in updating the internal catalog of what changes are there which could be downloaded good fetch and output put the nerve to it the infection upstream from you the should be used lab and Alcatel and then maybe use that to use it twice the and the
can no because I know there is a source of there should be at least once there should be some kind of output like this with branch names from the remote if it didn't then you fetched from origin maybe because then there would be no difference between what you cloned and what you have here and what
is there please cite a dentist things and set up upstream at that at when we did that we only had their origin pitch that's verbose right him to remote
nice but but then please do not use it and get remote shot by best always use it remotely every as is that everybody will be learning something here even the instructors so so is everybody sees something at this origin and upstream was 2 different the upstream is the foreign 1 the last thing we will do before lunch is having a look at this shall all cloning again so remember when we cloned we use a depth option and therefore when we use skipblock now we should only see that 3 of if you comets so our own should be up top and then maybe 2 or 3 or maybe 4 on you reach the end is this true friend that they're just see if you if you will use the arrow down should be very quickly at the ends if you use gets
lock which is the lock view of the history of Europe it should be really short so if you scroll down with their role because we use this depth which of the the nickname a shallow cloning because we use the step before we can now also on shallow and really download everything and the option for that is gift fetch Desh Deshpande shallow so let's just do that and then compare the lock to see that the no actually we have everything so before it was only a few get fetch on shallow should take a little while ends now if I scroll down there's a lot all 900 it's and you can get out of this view if the SLORC view if there's a call on here still you can just press Q I'm shallow will download everything we have in the very beginning we use a shallow clone with only 2 or 3 or 4 commits and if you ever need to get the full history it will that were just basically lay the foundation of the little part of the comet history that you cloned phrase of only 2 commits then it will download all of this stuff here
so we're we're still on all branch here no matter which branch we are the history you will be I enrolled basically done I wanna college it may be a good idea to to keep
this in mind service of thing is
from the kitchen the working triangle so that the 3 things you have to keep in mind as long as you use the gets up on GitLab platform only and to the proposed fire changes there the lower at your own fires the area just up here in the cloud he has only 2 things to deal with maybe only 1 but if you'll start working locally you will have I had all 3 of these things or if you don't contribute but only work on your own stuff then you only have the local and your on repository follow actually wouldn't have the 4 basic but this woman you would be writing here but in because so many people said they had not yet collaborated on a project I wanted to demo this contribution and collaboration workflow entering the world of open science that's really recommendable shorter
computer ever delete anything that the person put into it you know so why is changing something that you have to do so of course we always want to have everything changed especially in a version control system because we can all arrays undue something and yeah averages start the leaders crap and at that's a bit now at a specific but in many other editors it will work similarly there's some kind of symbol usually you maybe a blue dot maybe a little asterisk All-Star that indicates the file has not been saved yet but usually whenever we go into a different file if we switch our to another
program atom will automatically save it and some other editors as well sometimes you can configure it in the option I would recommend doing it because forgetting to say something and then closing at the super annoying soul and even there is often some kind of highlight that this fire now was changed or even use a little a little bit Palo where we can also do this a staging and committing workflow but there there's so many different graphical options that we can't really pick a really good 1 maybe once we could try the lesson only with atom in the top desktop and not use the command line at all but yeah that's that's something to keep in mind that with the modern workflow tools like Atle or sublime is not that at aH and open up dust lessons on usually you have thought a safe many monitors have for example
package managers installed where you can install lots of stuff map for your file
of it's sometimes useful of sometimes
not the where is it how many men mean that the
eyes cannot said this is really an all-round tool in a few master 1 of a text editors you will have a lot less work in many cases but mastering its use some work if you haven't
used any text editor atom and get tap desktop are a good choice of graphical get client ends editor because they work together quite nicely can switch from 1 to the other and back It's neck-and-neck quickly short many now with an ominous before lunch with her so here
in a get tap this topic of which you can
1st of all you can get from the desktop don't get tap that come now so here it's
for Windows and for Mac and as a Linux version as well then if you install that and
sets the option I want to know more here the external editor atom so these 2 things work together quite nicely and and we can look at the repository that we have just edited in the command line the S. Q. L. ecology lesson here we can add and then have a look at our commit to
with the old door your else in this way as well so it's just a different view under the same information it had that come shift key
slash desktop and therefore through the release thing I there's there's solace
check for me and I'm not going to demo GitHub desktop bytes if you have not used a graphical client before it is a good it's a good way to start there is it
gets desktop carpentry lessened from the Caltech library so
if you just a search for get out the comb counters library desktop put it in the