Orbital Rocket Guidance with Ruby

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Orbital Rocket Guidance with Ruby
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Using the popular space simulator Kerbal Space Program and some remote procedure calls, we're going to use Ruby to launch (simulated) rockets into space! We'll discuss the history of computing in the space program, real-life algorithms for getting rockets into orbit like the Space Shuttle's Powered Explicit Guidance Ascent System, and the software architecture of historic space computers like the Apollo Guidance Computer. Finally, we'll build our own orbital rocket, controlled by a Ruby program that emulates space computers of the past.
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the the the
the the the the keeping an eye on on our
transfer and the minus the 2nd and the there were the propellant now all pressure on for being recalled that the 3rd stage of the Saturn VI restaurant 1 minute 15 seconds and counting the spacecraft equipment now it's on its own internal cooling it knowledge sharing and pooling from getting it's going from an external power source up to this time we're now approaching the T minus 1 minute mark minus 1 minute caliber of putting the political work of art that does the court for a very secondary and still there area that is that they will let it that way so that you can be in the 2nd part of our transfer takes place 1st the 2nd stage 3rd phase and the community going to internal power the money 37 seconds an our count continues to go well will be looking for an ignition of
those by the 1st stage in unit at the minus 8 comma decimal 9 seconds mark we asked the minus 30 humanity 25 seconds
and counting and all the king is go the minus 20 seconds the minus 20 seconds and counting 17 guidance
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13 12 11 10 times the ignition sequence has started 6 5 4 3
4 1 my name is Ney
Prokopec high in the Mission Control Director for the Ruby space program that has you know that a lot of budget cuts over the last couple years but so you are here today to learn how to program a spacecraft computer in the Ruby programming language obviously ruby is not known for its aerospace applications were model and that won't stop
us but like a man in his nature I know nothing about space I have no background space at all but in fact
all I do is write about how to make a movie Web applications faster so I have no qualification for this but that doesn't started teaching a
session of ordinary using a a program called herbal space program of herbal space program is a video game that simulates spacecraft and space launches
but it's more known for it's sort of like wacky weird stuff that people doing it like this its is a physics sandbox so like people do this crazy stuff and FX-Pro your experience with herbal space program but it's also an extremely accurate physics simulator they will still easily hold the gender of gender covers a Soviet of modern art in and out of the
fact that this is just shows that on a project that rotates on this table into access is not in the 3rd
so that will space for there I will result in an experiment on the ISS so that's an extremely accurate physics and that means we use it to us simulate of real-world space on our used
a lot compilation called realism overhaul which takes from space programs universe and turned it into a model of the actual souls of a word I use that say you want to satisfy rocket into orbit using a program written in Ruby other reports
that it's by a library called the options which stands for purple wrote this you call at this any running verbal space program you need to buy a yacht you can make also expand who brought of us obviously require library a really slick obviously control anything in the space program you could inform when you were a joystick or whatever obviously the program of work there reviews wiring of that actually running out for the space program with about their use for all I knew was that the Bessel object which is going to contain all works a like how fast growing we pointed out there we got a control object what is things like change before all at the next stage stuff like I'd use right your open up the consul let me way around with about different objects that about the obvious it's available OK so how we can decide program use orbits of I will look at some of these years past of this thing here is that the reader reward states at work in real time other disease that all right what is pretty sort of like fast furious they is the use of the calculations quickly but they have here astronauts replied as well after that they interact you're of actin 19 sixties that when you would put upon started machine the result its later so real and you're back sort of this new novel state of computers also extremely reliable of the people died year of actually had all of its components in the case and so there was a sensory that receptors and how at once into reading directly to result other on the status of the stomach is space an extremely harsh environment attack vacuum to temperatures could vary wildly of and forces the computer starts working people believe in God of so oxidation you'd have to be extremely reliable of the of the simple metal working so always on because of course also because the liability requirements you're not it's difficult to send a very complicated use they have said simple use states that don't work I'll be awarded this these you
go back to society Charles 3 of really Rivera might be a way out of it he was actually guide practically all kinds of contracts unlike the fifties the basic what it wanted gyroscopes accelerometers in the back of a plane and what the plane fly itself with
no extra landmarks from the use those to the west and was only off by couple while God always
says no navigation when not just the gyroscopes and accelerometers of
that's 3 right there right so that was really
important space science because space through the reference point but of we have to a navigation having the references the
track of but also in the 19 fifties you're doing
something but called of sounding rocket sounding rockets of operands your research from we basically go straight up and and used in experiments in the upper atmosphere and all that the most common 1 the U.S. will also called the Carrollton Rocket that 2nd 1 there was 1 of the talk about so there we had to stay in the past stage here was a sustainer stages which you really short stay here in the bottom of uses the native solid fuel at about 5 seconds its job was to give the rocket of
all right so what are what are
camera suggested that the rocket which is going to penetrate office space on the recognition of the sky's the limit here's the deal from 15 miles and all the people in in the in the
examples from the rockets and if you look back over your shoulder that this is what the world looks like a hundred
miles away I feel just like you feel the reason that it was really there because the rocket itself was most sounding rockets were spin stabilized at the scene of the bit of a rocket archaic it's like the warning in which parts spin rock solid the apps that's because of a spinning rocket more stable than 1 is just sort of straight up because there was the top-rated about the vision of work same way gyroscope works which will talk about that OK so what about like
reprogram guide so the rocket the upper atmosphere with reimported they did we need to the task from the watchtower of when rosters most rockets to not immediately had told us you would like them but it takes a while for us to sort of build up for us so we just attach slots violent immediately arrived this fall over and she thought outside so we should do that we waiting for the rest is all the way up to 1 2nd before the means the stage at this stage of right here on the right that's out need to like the 2nd stage you will stage is firing at the same time that the reason we do that this is the set phase X and the view of what a liquid jet fuel rocket slot around 10 in the 1st stage cuts out and the 2nd thing is already going so you go over to of acceleration to right and you all know in the 2nd the starts life around and up there's nothing pushing the fuel into of the engine itself and then the light and will start with but he's stopped 2nd stage before the 1st burns out people last the of there will be a status register that will age of there was like a solid theory on the sites of brought out the age of a 2nd and then we run out of on the 1st stage we got separated from sedated but while way bill would be of rats also a state what what what that looks like to say also don't quite objects from here you see the connect to how we activate the 1st stage which is the addition of the engines wait until the end comes up to 60 per cent maximum thrust that's enough gives off at and then we activate the next stage which is you by detached launch file the rocket launchers of and then we got to a of stage in that 1st stage always had a note on which you will we have proof of a state you would think we have about 10 % remaining will of activate 2nd stage to sustain a rocket and then we run out of fuel we will activate the next thing which is the tax a little bit like this that's booster state
in the bottom there's the cage and in the same thing it was to 100 miles to the 2 models
OK so that's an unmanned sounding rocket very simple thought about man's face flight so
the Soviets had about who were obviously in a space race with time had a very different idea of what the role of a computer was in mainspace program of the Soviet space program the astronauts themselves were sort of like spending end up just along for the ride everyone on in the the reasons for that sort of multiple but mostly was so it is not what the space program they they thought of the blue part of what is available to be too much so it's better to have an automated run by machine rather than you know down south of the capital so what they did was they filled his electromechanical computer's this is the lowest high you know that was flown box spacecraft and pursue that this were flown until 2000 plot of this so the started and not at a computer on the rockets with circuits in digital computer until nineteen of so this is that it is for like seeing Paul clockwork looking the reason they do this because it's very easy to formally verified like something's which is years rather than something circuits for will the less complicated something you that the trust of whole do what you tell us the agency was well different from the digital
computer back what works of especially that at that or factor this is the ADC itself it's 70 pounds most of which is the aluminum stations of on the outside there but it was probably about the size of a modern PC tower it's about the state of enacting on the right is the density of the display board it looks in making computer look smaller but that this is actually the partner had the big enough for like fat finger astronaut points subspaces people like that of so they use use of smaller
a lot has made about how the eighties was it was the 32 K of granting K of RAM it's megahertz clock cycle but there were to use so I that was what in the name of 1 of your models so I guess I have massive 64-player right of but that's politics at the 60th move of how you came to the moon with that so of limited amount of resources all the actor is this is of 1 you have to be really careful and at basically you're writing a set of so you have much more control or resources there's no operating system you way on everything is done pretty much like this the it's a computer politically Shiffrin model of it's it's very right you of the probe the programs themselves are a fully interactive and also you have cracked money on the program itself cost 45 million at at the time 3 in the helium today's solids of the program itself that the UGC code and the thing about 70 thousand lines center that's like 5 thousand dollars a life of so again NASA-funded collegiate grants of real right that I use but at the same for
the typical mission of just the transputer exact itself so that the of really did its job of basically after we left were better than all the way back back home when a number that says that we use for vision so the transmitter injection which is what kind of according to the norm of this thing about that is trying to get it will be marketed 500 thousand kilometers away of what you're trade that's going around of you to another like you know some of the many really has so it's a very difficult problem had not been no floating point operations involved at all you a 15 day word size so you only represented 1 register numbers from 0 to 32 thousand on site so it's pretty amazing account of what the great thing about the
EC is extremely well thought we have also lost the all of which spend and transcribed but get out of people have built their own of AGC simulators EC from those from the start date others what I like DS related jobs through users are its and obvious but you can play with the agency and later to really cool that's running the the this you don't like that his shot other things that you want
I think I have a lot of you so they don't use Barbara yes the market and was the director of the points the for the problem over how this picture sometimes captured as of standing next to the old she wrote for the Apollo program right for example they can under cells the 1st of a list some because she was the top of the or like that was per unit of million dollars doing that right of oriented ended up being of a real sort of thought leaders luminarias you suffer like the formal systems of delight would have called for a while of and like I said the sum of all those sorts through the guys use of words of 7 thousand lines of these probably 1 of these phone books so if I stand in front of wall you know iteration of each of the it's worth
remembering that were everyone else at work and apologize for years I had no formal training of Computer Science the at this point you can take classes were on it of almost everything that they did you all right so you you were doing for the 1st time but like I said it's it's
all available on the idea of this is the whole of the of the will make little changes tuition producing were all of they
help or we could set the humor of this is the name of the routine control the engines that it so this is the 60 right this was a reference to the Alawites and the lack of that is 1 of the gas what is that all this was that if the the catalyst that you might eyewitness the lunar landing guidance equations and yes I have but this is again and so on be what you'll have a greater of the heading for the ground if it was pointed in the correct position this is your call I ask you please frame the silly thing around the great career out of slide over there and get it out and then office the wizard of that will go to the Rabin all those who showed up so I mean those programs that use all this stuff people will be used to talk about it it this is not afraid to be appalled at all OK so so
let the difficult things about shade is just you wanted to think what's during the launch for example would have track of what the rocket worrying whether not right you'll plus the results point the right way so that it's a very multi- tasking so the problem all the time that multicast pretty you know this guy how many of was the guy that designed basically that operates the agency was a real operating system sort of manifold different processes running I was hoping that it and health care and just made it
up of Philadelphia this sort of thing we were of the house of the ideas that matter where additional testing right
so before the AGC what you did to share time the program of something called the box for methods of basically it's defined like this so you slip a 2nd to you know small intervals and give given animal to a program and then when you're done with that you switch to the next program the next the next inter it's like a lot for passing by free and the problem with that is 1 of the things you're doing right now is really important it's more important than next of you know your work really guidance for you right now that but you know the life of the program what science will obviously we should do them right of so how the benches priorities multitasking so so this is
a representation of how the system works of the AT she had several courses acts of a course that was an area that job was the site of the sort of memory station only 15 bytes of it always 7 of those flights were available to the programmer to use of war extracts faces memory so you could imagine writing a method that we take of 7 point the the the book deal of would also keep track of what where was the seen as the act will see that each course set priority so I priority force that's run before the other ones I would always the executive would always run the highest priority was jobs 1st a of course that the priorities 0 was available we don't have people of the we have 7 fast running at any you time also if you wanna ask for a new course settlement new job of we give a priority of with her and the entry into war in the 4th set stable in a quite so most multitasking in the eighties you got what would there were interrupts there was the software but it wasn't done of very often because obviously interrupt a year with light 15 registers at any given time on the dangerous because they get out of order in the group of the try not to use interrupts of and mostly use quality of test so we have that room with white specks were used and and we just set a priority want OK about a job itself this is going to be a class of every delegate which will be back will set in new access like Proclus free stuff like that there is an example of a job this interest rates of priorities of all the free 4 sets of soldiers who of course at table would end up with a priority memory on you I felt that this point will you all back to the exact the Executive Yuan decided to is the 1 the heart we call a hybrid I assume we enter here you go back you need to do that so so this status over and over and over that it doesn't do anything else obviously OK so this is what the actual executive team looks like we that these were the course that table wide priority highest where you have the highest for a job called the 1 that of a less priority 0 1 less than 0 so that it's available all and if we find that you with that kills them all were as a that's when this past this job done make that was available again is is pretty much how they work be something like that that's a core set for the program we just went over all right that's not fair use whatever we want we the core set priorities every 5 seconds well we do that something called the way but this was sort of the way you manage section work on the sea the witness was also about setting up a extremely long what we do in our way so that any task wavelets only had 6 ms allotted to rot of it we wait assassination just like a set of this job of interviewing priority so that they were very quick little things like that said future edits at what the find but 1 thing it was use a lot horrible worries a lot for our program is to sleep with the way a job worded uses the 1st priority of jobs of jobs offered 10 million pirated negative of and given time to execute the future and there was still a wait list every once in a while and say any they get away with this type of problem and with the quality of will just give it a lot of what that we that's exactly the way it was just a straight out you use the action were the the the world a wire that it had to be able to restart the time a part of this is because power was unpredictable power no-spy prevented by ionization you shut off it have restart where it was those used to restart as a way to you know turn on or off again it's a problem I will get back that that all the cat and emulate would like this more hold on being the course that table and reloading it again of its founders the God superactive way doing it a DC jobs Texas signed up different kinds of research protection you can register we point your fields if we restart these start here and things like that we discovered the regular part of that this is a also subtly said there a lot of the of the you reset the renowned like that are just clearing out of course that the way but so the only thing that really forces much find you're certain which side the job state was something called the night watchman and it was for the last 4 there was no nothing that said that all you have to check the you you you draw control levels what's while whatever it was assumed that he was return control the executive every 40 ms that wasn't strictly force there was something called like what which of irony interval the agency it which is you have to into the executive a certain period of time it would lot start the whole you of that word year was the start of of red and everyone of the of the of the scene is not right but long OK so the research
projects at the very handy during the fall of the validity of this is that somebody's model of AGC of and it's going to the moon when you hear the last of background of Sciences watched him with it is rare that a WiFi-only reactions like in the in the early going we think on the 1 hand we that this thing
here where in the the only thing we use columns voice their how program was something that you exactly we have problems
that's enough here really kind of hear how great the according to the building of the building looking here over of the of all of you know we don't know the of the in all the world you would get we're going to go on so this is absolutely that in search suddenly Europe right he's like give us agreement follows a program a lot they are available when you're an over the important but I think you all this is that like when academic will I want to go along with what happened was that people all over the world that this meant that basically figured out of time for all the work that I raise the false alarm and you would reset your and all that that will actually get the way down the blue serve to keep restarting you're every time it's a lot of it was caused by this landing radar at like a power problem sending too many interrupts the processes overload so they never actually but they just change the procedural and little so that we write our
blogs program now so what we did yet guy states that guidance is that just where you want to go what is the exact according to state the workings
of it wasn't really important that we all here obviously 100 down service those navigation use where are
you right now so where he pointed out that for me knowing and
also of course the giants of earlier people guides a year at some people find universal measures I was disappointed spinning gyroscopes and accelerometers of a job works like this the sex trade himself demonstrators this young is there's unity orientation even as the rate of the moon that villagers from us so that it provides stable platinum make reference of it which I
also got whacked it didn't really like day of the week which is this from inaccurate of you actually use the sex of the things that they see they sex that built the tuple view of that model the bottle takes the source sightings and then
reset where you were of pretty they've
but technology in a little the the 1st
task that uses all that we have to control the rocket of nothing in the act of all programs of others many atoms fly-by-wire everything with computers on this because while the Stuttgart very complicated of model look at its ation that so the asymmetric walking with imagine directed such a very difficult to fall trying to balance the rooms in the figure the broomstick is like that right at that should not complicated think about and work so it was that you a correct but there was
talk about guidance of heresy purple space-program basically much like the navigation in full or where you sort of talk about rights where to go or it is fundamentally about taking of writing which is means your now appointed straight up and it's going to to
what kilometers above Europe and moving at 70 thousand miles our site that
by the 3 stages which to publish this on the workflow while
talk about 11 you're told executed orbit of this practice for something called rapidly grants heard
of is kind of instances implemented is open move out or just means that of it doesn't take into account the exterior state you sort of pre-programmed goal you know certain turn this way and then you wake up it's not see OK if you're aware we are a mixed fractions of doing that but I will that so we start a whole new guidance granted looks like this from the space
X of i watch so you go up a little bit you turn the Rocket over a but the force of gravity slowly to rocket over and I think you'd spaces so that the weighted more it looks like a small but I'm looking at I will be a quality actually it's the grant for your really like all so proud of of you over to go up so there will be at a certain speed it's a lot so the Saturn by of its over up by agrees was just what that what's an
I'm in
the in in so at that time
Greek that Chiluba you just let the engine point straight down like grabbing the rest work for you you don't do any of the soul of that so you're out of the acts this is the real politic
knowledge will Odyssey but I want you to listen to watch involves that we discover here what he says the role of pitch program complete slightly and that was all it was just pitch over a little bit but
the reason we don't do more guidance during a spot of light in the atmosphere because the rocket attacks very fragile under a lot of sources of on the norm slackening me any at this year's which against the this is the actual could move more than what I to degree up 2nd it should be all of that so what this is too much terror was working you for would
what's that the atmosphere of the but also did something called a period iterative guidance both had on 2 different modes it's really complicated just it's a close pride itself of which is the that that's at that point that it's taking you count where it was where I wanted to be that it would make a correction I you'll do that outside the atmosphere because that was placed in the
you but the use something called linear tangents during which is a bunch of spirit forgot freedom market explained on this a fact that looks like that of a program to the use of if you start counting the things which but when you get in theory of dozens of light your of not being flat and of the universe forever theories and all these other things but certainly not really well so as a matter of flat holes in them of the last thing as the satellite on the had those holding all the user of so it still slightly and then goes up straight of the reason it does this because the thought of these little boy win Lloyd back into the power of the engine blows out right come up that you know what will what itself back into that right of that program would look a bit like this the which tells over about degree of and wait a seconds and they go back at 3 that follow along up
and finally videos and by doing this the use of pants sorry markets or model those away from the right side of history through the man and we have a
mission they have no respect so the people that goes right through this on the board but is this all about that OK so this our class
really like the ages weight thrust unless thought we quickly always in the tower accelerate 200 years 2nd and pitch he work by degrees there were it stable with its autopilots that this let the rocket slowly notice the gravity of animal way so we're through the atmosphere with dynamic pressure of rockets low there will be close the guidance of a bird and so I carry axis that's the lowest point in our orbit so burden to the lowest point it is basically states but
recover only with you all right thinking it's left around so think phosphate bond follow a set of 5 they did was they had the ball would move the solid rocket of solid-fuel rockets science stage that basically sort of the night before the main engines and they get a lot of movies that you'll settles then like mainly in the another radiative properties of whatever was I think in the long run the of
looking at the back of the we
will also you know the
things that I thought of the
the you know
in the US motivates the site the exit right OK so this looks like a kernel space program around Kataria lots of you start new
RGC process I we just start the executive in a move that's it for example
but we like the engines of
that's the control of the light weight of thrust of up to 60 per cent and then of we add the next few releases what tower them request and course that's for interim enters the job flow-control the actual rockets of states of the atom we got killed this process was about the of there off
without that unaware toward its 1st
stage of the slick granted in the
looking like way to you over a hundred years 2nd pitch over 6 degrees in this case of an then we disabled the autopilot down here have to wait 15 seconds that let gravity slowly renewal there's the old motor firing 2nd
stage this year's data very dropping off of the stage artist basis
that acres in entered the stage wait so that you'll want the rules states and runaway
toward its but a very simple closed loop
guidance that that was fact the so and is fully pitch over the rocket it's really really and that's that's really not the 3rd
stage and we are that's how you
get to that would be thank you very much
few clicker carriers real is a really long time but I do want to give these 1 question I had
the codon and the of text is thought that the idea of any questions I did I ever traffic but you know I think that the anybody else the I question multiple guides urea all right a couple hours and now I got a picture me next to the governor it's not that it's only a couple hundred much with multiple that we listen 70 thousand light of assembler yes by there by fiery Creola the Polish so yeah lattice on the launch of it's actually the simplest phase in the real polyp parameter that the lot was not controlled by the guidance computer all the server computer are called the L C what I was actually mounted in this the sad rock itself but the mission program the Apollo of actually way more expensive of landing on the moon on the lunar surface was pretty was extremely complicated of so we have that sprawling not heard because it's really complicated of but It's a fun way to play girls ways program the slick reduce yourself saying like I can only write ruby to control the rocket but makes everything take really long e-mails only times like rats it's awful arise said it takes it takes about 12 minutes the toward it so the only way to test your program is to go toward so you have a problem that happened 11 minutes and it's like well how now I have a goal you know restart way love it again the park that's so it's a right yeah why did Carol testing 5 rocket that's a good idea yeah my rig is not that good I mean I could run very resources that you cannot run hurdles before and all that but without thank you but
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