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Information in the Digital Age: Trust, Diversity and the Future of Search

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if you think if you
and the good afternoon it's good it's
good day everyone was very happy to sit here which you can't OK I'm talking through to switch to the sh and everyone here and we have a complicated issue to talk about right there is a this issue been a complicated matter for many many hundreds of years even before we hot will various for instance these mark twain quoting British premier but right saying this Reddy when said there are 3 kinds of flies their lives there back lies and damned lies and there are statistics on that quote itself is a lie and mark twain out putting his out to a prior over the but it never happened is very never said that and and steal this quote it's very much spread of a wall many people use it sometimes they are attributed to different people so you need to do your research to understand on the who did it could set down d did happen at all and this shows a bit of the dilemma that we're in right now having we have more access to information in in in in in a way that we never high before and platforms aggregating information off the world will have become sort of the infrastructure for individuals to exercise human rights such as freedom of information and freedom of opinion and when it comes to political information then suddenly things become
difficult because they self are entangled between facts and truthful it's on the 1 side and the truth everything politics there are some fights in politics as well and that there's the other dimensions opinions and opinion is not necessarily connected to facts many politicians lie at you and a compaign and that's fine with and call that disinformation misinformation so actors waiting and moderating between those 2 fundamental rights become crucial actors in democracies and until now we only have governments and press with within that position being able to Mother rate and to the context so let's suddenly Google and has become 1 of these actors and of course there are a lot of mates around how Google works on the 1 side aren't there also many open questions not also with 3 regards that technological part but also with the best of the ethical part but critieria ID using so I am very happy that we have to do here because you or the
person as a vise president of search that is able probably to respond many of the ones that I hope just a sort introduction because I think ponderously impressive distinct working at school for almost 13 years under air
that you also professor in Stanford as teaching information retrieval under the tree into that you were by 2 different companies so well when companies call the stratified for that you wear at analysis and did not inside you why the deputy leader of living would agent project which is a very impressive project with 1 of the 1st pulse they 1 it was the 1st artificial intelligence system to be given primary command of spacecraft so you know how bots for a communal house at semantics and information retrieval in the Internet were from many different perspectives on so when it comes to go well you have being that 22 and a 20 years as Google is right now celebrating is this year becoming 20 years old giving 15 working for
Google so I guess you have pretty good oversight of what has happened a crystal this years so part of the initial search criteria and other incomes that how the they're being is used in pool will over all I was still
being used they're probably not there and more our in 2016 announced publicly that you have performed over top thousand 600 changes in Google search if you would look at who will last sit where Hollis and starting being a cabin in the woods in a garage would you say that the plan has fundamentally changed our physical pretty different no that's a good that's a great question but before I do thank you for that
introduction and thank you all for also attending so so here is a really great question Google's been around for 20 years and have things really changed all of really the same as before and that all such questions the answer is yes and no right there are some things some fundamental principles of fuel foundational principles that have not changed to been around for us for pretty much since this is the the the founding of the company and the 2 of them that that are particularly what highlighting the 1st is of focus on the user but this is a very strongly held belief within the company and particularly with search is if you search if you bring their products but more specifically search for your users with that being the primary goal been all else follows so what that means is that things like commercial our had focus does not entered into the search graph search criteria is a wall between the search side and the ads side we never set search results for but none of these things because all of these things detract from the focus on the use of this was 1 the though the principle was at the beginning and it continues to be the principal that's 1 principle that you have the 2nd foundational principle that we've had is that great search results the happen when you show results that are relevant to your search query but from authoritative sources whenever possible so this combination of relevance and authority is what really separated who from other search engines at the time when it 1st came out and this principle as they are stayed true to the test of has helped to the test of time and has continued to be important even today as we deal with misinformation so that's sort of a foundational level It's very much the same but having said that of course in India's lots has changed that it's changed on the scale it's changed now infrastructure is changed and access it's changed on the technology so for example of Google forest or not even Google and the Web 1st came out the 1st search engines the which Yahoo but it was just a directory the directory of all the sites so it was really tiny compare that there there trillions of pages on the web right so completely different infrastructure is needed to to handle our handle the scale of with the increase that has happened in the uterus so there is even in terms of that infrastructure so in the early days of these to build an index of the web at the time but which stated that way for about a month you build an index for a month and during the months you so that 1 index and you with another 1 and so you can imagine that pages that were created during that month we just sort of missing from the next compare that today when that up pages on on sort of important sites sites that get into the index within seconds of being put on the website so the freshness offered has and the corresponding infrastructure has changed dramatically think about access in the early days access to Google and the Web was through desktop computers to their smartphones are everywhere right and that's a dramatic change because it has made people have access to information in the moment that they have the question you don't have to go whole walk to a desktop to do it to that changes the kind of question form factor is different so that the interfaces have to be different the kinds of questions people ask a different and so the fundamental changes that have happened because of these form factor changes and then finally on technology other being huge changes only on the primary technology was that of information retrieval things that had been pioneered in academia and so forth and then continued on the orbit over the last several years we've introduce this notion of a knowledge graph which is a semantic model of entities and relations in the warrant and that has allowed us to build a much more compelling power user experiences and today you see the the the the dramatic increase of deep learning algorithms and these promised to completely transform what we can do with things like language understanding something that is absolutely key to Google so in summary I think the fundamental principles haven't changed but pretty much everything else has changed OK so we use saying is that for instance you change you separated Google advertisement from
Google search so that and you can concentrate on usability and understanding what you should be haviour makes the other them work better under what would type of understanding from user behavior can be used then to optimize your algorithm of those 2
different structures somehow interrelated I mean by using the same algorithms for both structures of 4 such it adds yet know the algorithms are actually very different because the problems are very different tried in search of literally looking through or to rank Web pages about to satisfy user intends there is on the outside looking to target the ads produced by advertisers against the query and the problems are different in various ways the in in ads for example that the beads that then there's a complicated auction that they're to decide what ads to show we have none of that in such itself so they are all very different in terms of the problems that they're solving some of the very underlying technologies of course of the same because you still need the same kinds of technologies for scale and so forth but but the problems of a different and and and they're just run by completely different teams so
our when it comes to Serge what are the most important factors rank number 1 I guess it's more than 1 2 3 4 and many many more out what I don't I don't guess I all however and I would like perhaps to give us a few examples because of course you talk about relevance what does that mean valence is a very political turmoil and it implies that and he composition right so this is the great
question which I think lots of people are interested in the not the least of which are webmasters who want to to rank effectively in search and this is what idea of answers that I can give you it at the at the start of the highest level of our goal is to take great
websites and rank them could effectively right and sort of our our recommendation to site on ours is but integrate great website for
your users don't worry about the figuring out how to target dollar to manipulate Google search in in any way if you want to be a of your users because if you serve your users we will find a way to to make you make
you successful that is if you tried to manipulate such that we don't like that and so the the message to everyone is make sure you focus on your users and build a great service a great website for your users that's sort of the at the highest level now they're probably not satisfied with that answer so let me tell you a little bit more of the user what idea of different . factors all features of signals we call them various different things but to actually produce these these the the the ranking that you find and these range from a document specific signals to use a specific signal so for example on the document specific side we actually look at all the words on the page we look at the structure of the page things like the title of the page because that gives us information as to what's on the page and another very important signal is the linkage between pages of the links and that the link text that's then that proves to be incredibly valuable so there are things like the when the page was created freshness turns out to be a very important criterion of for the of for for many searches if you're searching for a score of of yesterday's game don't want the page that was created 20 years ago right about the same teams that's just not not what you're looking for so freshness tends to be a very important criterion that that needs to happen and so there's a variety of sort of bait specific signals that we use here but there are also sort of user-specific signals 1 of the most important user-specific signals is the location of the user whereas the user located right so the you where the user is located tells you what is the language that the unit of use that is likely to be a comfortable in so we can get them results in the language that they're that they're comfortable with but it does us which country that and so we can make sure that we give you results from your country so it looks to you like so a local search engine that that so this is your needs on it . furor if you if you know which city order and then you search for a was but then we show you those in your city rather than the the the zoo in the famous or infamous in San Diego right to there's all kinds of things where are the location of the user of becomes important so the 1st a sort of a smattering of factor if several hundred factors that that go into it but what they're really a bot is understanding language right and and and so we do a lot of processing due to due to develop language understanding techniques and and those sort of feed into into this then 1 final point to be made on this is whenever the launch changes we always have a very effective evaluation process just to make sure that changes are actually good for users and as part of the evaluation process of we do the so-called side-by-side experiments right so the idea is somebody comes to you with this change in this it is a wonderful chain you say OK let's modify that it is indeed as wonderful as you say it is thin so we go off and be sample of a whole bunch of queries where change actually makes a meaningful difference may be several hundred maybe 7 thousand queries and then be what side by side the results for each of those queries on on 1 side will be whatever Google has to be today call at the base of the control of the production side of the side by side and on the other side you put the the experiments side that is video change what would it look like great now you have these 2 side-by-side the the the side by side experiments and you ask the waiter these are people that we paid to do this task we asked them which side is better right and when we ask them it's added the sometimes
this is the experiment site is better sometime this the best side is better and that gives us a
sense for in aggregate whether a particular changes good not a good change will have significantly more of experiments sides goods than the the base side goods and then the launch those changes to help rate make this judgment we put out a set of greater guidelines and these vector guideline that's a 160 page document that essentially says what is great such but it's not the best description of what it means to have great such this is and the rate that tested on this so before they can good ratings violating meetings in a blind test to make sure that consistently applying the guidelines and if you want to know what Google is trying to do with search the rate the guidelines of of of what you look for right and these reader guidelines this these up of this is a public document that you can search on Google for them it should be the top results for an appropriate query have of but it's a public document that there is a sort of a key part of the transparency of how such works of and I would encourage you to go and take a look at that and in addition to this we have everything I've said anymore is available on how such works side and provide various services to have masters and things which this is the key key a key set of ideas that later guidelines of the the focus on the use of and in a smattering of the difference in the U. how often do you need this it's an great at
search guidelines on who is behind that golf formula we have yet how much the you review then that this search guidelines 160 document yes so this is
the the the guidelines don't change very often but because you know it's a lot of work and and there's a lot of part that goes in there's a big cross-functional team of that works on these guidelines and and make sure was a lot of debate and discussion because I mean at the end of the day this is like a product requirements document place that's that's sort of what it is it's it's like this is what people are trying to build this is the great such the trend such today isn't exactly that because our algorithms are not good enough to fully capture everything that that we wanted to capture this is our goal and so there's a cross-functional team from various different disciplines within the company but that puts this together and every time there's any sort of significant changes that need to be maybe make them but it's not something that changes on a regular basis he
halfening fist 1018 ourselves
OK you have so we have of people on the team with a variety of different backgrounds parts not just engineers
and the team avidly the workload closely that policy and legal we will produce that experience forks and we work with privacy folks these are all sort of important there are areas that the work in and in this steam we have all kinds of backgrounds including people with ethics ground and so forth so these are sort of very important discussions that we have of amongst ourselves and amongst the team but because this is what sort of guides how such is developed and and we want to search to to be great for all our users so if I think you're
right 1 of the things that when the conclusions 1 might draw is that actually the Rich year year using my very usable are very well mean cool this is this is a front for and has for its
usability in many of the product so this is of course great
but on the other side itself indicates that there is a sort of centralization of contents because you the more you try to be usable for the majority the more you tend to mainstream content and there is content that is not problematic if there's a mainstream to was that I mean it makes sense to and understand where the person is located when someone searches for football because of course if you are in England
it Kontsevich for at different concept that if but that ass if you are in the US right but it's slightly different when constraints into political content then way it might become problem take what about the minorities so whatever divergent
opinions my half on a very small percentage whole idea dealing with that so we have well I have to responses to this this question
1 that is diversity in our search is actually centrally important to us it turns out that a divorce set of search results actually for users users actually like it when the show a diverse set of 4 of results and the have evidence to show for that track of if their queries without diversity you can see that people are not happy the right because they're looking for other things out so it is very much in our interest to do so it's a diverse set of results whenever possible threat but it's also in our to have a very diverse and rich web of Google there's very much tied to the success of the open Web right of Google so the and and and and and and so we are very very motivated to make the open web as successful as possible and and diversity of opinion on the web is is is sort of a key part of the another point to be made is that the search interface as it stands today is fundamentally suited to showing the diversity of results we don't just show you 1 result we show you would of attend results it can go to the next page and and and so forth and so there's lots of opportunity and we definitely see users use that capability define the kind of information and they're looking for and finally of It's worth noting that the scale of squared is mind-boggling right you get billions of queries a they fate and a remarkable fact is 15 per cent of queries we get every day hot new queries that you've never seen before that's abysm devoted ring array of of interests and curiosity is that people have which means that if someone comes and issues of of say very general query and they see that the results they're gone quite sort they need they immediately reformulate the query to a more specific queries red and and the results that they won't come up so I think the way search has has about works fundamentally supports that kind of diversity that you're looking for red and and gives people the kinds of things that they're looking for and I think that's 1 of its great strengths so let's turn into a more ethical data did this this this this conversation when he took about
information query is trying to understand what information is the right 1 a useful for that person searching on do you for a definition of what misinformation means city you half Kateri of that and add you have concrete criteria so that it's clear how you panellize would you my cat as as Miss informative or problematic result the you might be surprised to know that the answer is not could
have but that that's another thing that is actually a very important point to be made this is something we thought about like I think everyone knows that body or a year and a half of all of that was a lot of our problems around misinformation and hate speech and so forth that was so signals isolates stays in it's not as if the search right and then there was a question that we needed to do something because this was clearly not a good thing we needed to do something on that daily
what we did but before I do that I'll tell you what we didn't know what we didn't do is we then go and build some deep learning classifiers something something something that could identify that something was the use or something was hate speech things like that right because I don't believe this is possible deciding that something is fake news is actually pretty hard it requires sort of fall people with expertise to go and
investigate and think about the new lands and this and that I mean you you mention this even in your opening a box is a propaganda is a burden of politicians can live but they're not really misinformation and you know this all this new ones there an I don't believe that we can do those that kind of new ones with algorithms at least not the ones that we have today and it would just lead to strange biases in our results that we were just not comfortable with so what did we do because we have actually made a lot of progress on this problem correct what we did do is we double down on the underlying principle that's been with Google set since the beginning I mentioned that right at the beginning which is this idea that what we want is so office for users of relevant results from a torrid data sources right and if we can do that users will be happy this is this is the experience on the time now corrugated results aren't always important right if you take your iPhone and there's a problem with the iPhone on you come to go Google linear you search for a solution to that problem and you get a result from some forum with some guy who was giving you some advice on what to do all this isn't particularly a qualitative but you're not gonna wait around for Apple to produce the Apodidae once real problem are quite happy to try that whatever been suggested because frankly you want to get iPhone working as soon as possible and the downside of an editor isn't that high right so so there are many situations where this happens and there's no problem there but in other cases like medical case you go to the doctor and they say you view diagnosed with diabetes and heart disease or cancer and I hope none nothing like that happens to any of you but suppose it does happen you you come to Google and you start doing these medical queries chances are you don't want to hear advice from some guy and some forum and what not you wanted from a poor data sources and that's what we decided was the problem though that we had before that there were these queries that truly deserved much more a poverty to treatment there was this balance between relevance and authority and we needed to up the course as it were on on these queries us about for these queries we would start of surfacing results from authoritative sources the idea being that we knew so visitors of some authoritative sources the chances of misinformation on much less because authoritative sources variety of endogenous information the chances of hate speech much less because that's not what they do and and that's when the strategy that we've adopted over the last year and I have to say that well it's by no means a complete solution I'm sure you can find stuff so problematic still hard has made a huge difference to the kind of experience you find on search of for these these things Spain diplomatic or at let's say
let's put it isn't contradict carefully the idea of diversity of conflicting because when it comes to politics because when it comes to politics the authority it's a relative story and mean it examples you bringing apply for medicine apply for many things where you have signs behind-the-door where there are concrete facts that we can point to but weights about something as subjective as either logical positions and it's about having a diversity of 5th of ideal logical political positions then of Heidi it's a complicated criterium it is it's it's it's not a straightforward easy criteria but it's I think an important
criterion at all so I mentioned the vapor guidelines earlier that which which say what is great such 1 of that could be sections of the document talk about how repair should think about a talk and what are the attributes of authoritative sites and and so forth could we tried to distance to use this example try to
understand what it means in that context authoritative so if we say we have the right wing party and making some claims and then we have at the the same issue a different party from from from this the social movement toward where leftist party how would you define an authoritative in in that context what would be result without knowing the
specific bodies and warm I would imagine that all the parties themselves of are going to be relatively atomic data the the news sites that cover them the but the major news sites that cover them would be relatively dative and we would get a diversity of opinions about this Nothing in operator guidelines for example talks about ideological differences as for into a tolerant the there's nothing about being conservative or liberal or right wing or left wing we have authorities on all its parts of the political spectrum the problem arises when you have a lot of people who who who were essentially of putting out content of without any sort of expertise of tall repealed anything like that and that content is surfacing for very general kinds of flow of queries make no going back to the diversity question if someone asks a specific question migration fighting cells seeks out that particular piece of content we will still self-respect so let me give you a concrete example that actually happened right that 1 of the queries that set this whole thing off was the query did the Holocaust could right and at the time of much to our chagrin the top result was from Holocaust that was claiming here the 10 reasons why it didn't happen no I would agree I would submit that this is not a very authoritative result about the Holocaust grade when we made these changes today by the top result the case the last time I looked I was from the U.S. Holocaust Museum which talked about all of all of this strike the result that what used to be at the top you can still find it with a sufficiently specific query made goes back to my diversity point right if you want a particular hazardous reformulating a query to a sufficiently specific query and you will find it still but for that more general Querrey when we want to sell phosphoric uses these applauded of content and there's nothing about being a torrid data about whether you are there you want on the political spectrum policy so let me be formally requested if we would put something like a fat would enter as a search on keyword as something like migration politics but I get f 1st page I think it's 15 no 19 results that you them and the obtained results yet sorry that's that if the search news if I would get at from
put that word how many political difference parties so they get in those tenors of lake at all of the parties and all that their positions or it would that be also what would create you have with overweight over that right and there are other additional to tear apart from authority authoritative guess geography what I guess not sure if we did a study on a salary what in the German elections and we realize that geographies there is a huge it's a huge factor with romance search our but we never saw something like at diversity of getting on the 1st page the Green Party that wrecked body you there what can the our yellow party just to not give names but we call at very specific results and to which it works it's you how it doesn't happen right so to be fair we
don't enforce that all parties are represented for that particular query that so some number of parties will be presented whatever some number of points of view will be represented I think it's actually kind of risky to say that all parties by of the act need to be represented at all points of view need to be represented because that would suggest that if I said that the Holocaust occurred not only should we had the U.S. Holocaust Museum which right that we should also have the Holocaust denial right because that's an alternate point of view so to me that's that that position that says that we somehow identify all possible perspectives and and make sure that the that is represented by is is a strong man that I don't think really really works ready so if there are genuine differences of opinion my guess is that the that that that that that the sort of that of reasonable differences of opinion my guess is that there will be content that we'll talk about those differences of opinion will take the contrast them and so forth right so often and that's how you would find it but having said that the other part of diversity maybe for the query migration politics but certainly due points from the green part of from from the blackbody are not represented in in there but if you are interested in that that you can explicitly ask for it and you will get it right so it's not as if the area of removing access to these different points of view all how much time do we have left
and was wondering can anyone give assigned the set half a club with me 25
minutes wonderful I would like to open the last 10 minutes for a key and a sound air is that fight for you for the next 15 minutes 15 minutes 10 minutes that way I would like to keep this conversation from the ethical point of the 2 that policy is fashion ethical point of view you are in over
50 countries all over the world you have your own policy you're on ethics and standards and we train to get their behind there and if you also have local regulations on which might contradict your of your policy and we see that specially particularly when we talk about countries that I outer presses and have a different understanding what information means and what Take bounds art out but we also have this in democracies right if you having demands to take down content or a delay is content from different countries and and both countries are claiming global jurisdiction meaning that you should that take this type of links of from from everywhere around a wall which might collide with the regulation of other countries how do you deal with that is there at making the hard decisions saying well for it made you it we don't do this but for France we will do that some underwent does it mean in the end if you do this for friends I don't they the other come governments let's say Ireland or in Germany come to use what he did this for France so hot support what's a policy and what are the so so let me give a two-part answer to that trade 1 is a slightly general
question that you'd been dust but it's worth pointing out and then I lost answer the specific questions the the 1st that the general question is what we do operate in in a lot of countries across the world and the the make sure or at least we try to make sure to the best of our abilities to our 2 on the search engine for the needs of that country so I've already mentioned language and local results we have local operators that help us do this across across the world so that local cultural feelings of appropriately represented and so on so this is for some of the broad range of queries we try to make sure that it is a appropriately targeted for each country so that so that Google fused to a greater or lesser extent of like a local search engine wait for that country so that's sort of the the broader point here is something we've always done by us since the beginning and end and we continue to do that for the most specific question but I think the strong statement to be made is that we follow the law of the land in each country that we operate in we have a very strong of policy and legal team we policy and legal representatives in each of the countries that we operate in either our own folksonomy have representation to 2 of the partners and so forth to understand the legal of a set up in each of the countries and the absolutely follow the law of the land of followed each country so for example to give you of the concrete example in Thailand and they have a less majeste truly it says that it is illegal to criticize the monarchy and so if we are informed of a search result that that criticizes the monarchy we have to take it out of the index right and then you take each foot everywhere and it will only take it out for Thailand head because showed you wouldn't want that result taken out for Germany or for the U.S. and so forth so for this service in that country that be the the complied with the law but we don't apply these laws sort of the the the these regulations globally but does that might not be a conflict with U.S. let's say diversity there some
countries where they don't want to have the visibility of other minorities let's paternity Turkey and the Armenian question right in Turkey this forbidden to state that the Western massacre committed to get it was must crime on committed to the Armenians at the break at the very beginnings of the 20 century that's that collide with said the concept of of at authoritative AT T that you half and by denying that the West at must cramming casting at no let's play at the Council of Europe by the United Nations and by a binding to the of keep you are colliding with you on that how would you deal with that I am not familiar with the
specific laws of group here and and what is and is not legal but I think as a as a as a company that operates empirically we have to comply with the laws of purity and if the laws of purity say that of specific piece of content is legal for better or for worse think we have to comply with that that particular love we don't have a choice on that in the absolutely complied that that law where that a lot we we like it if you do have the chassis Seagate get out of China which last it's certainly I guess not an easy decision will have an easy decision and an and that and I think that in in all such decisions of there's a work of of pro and con right so we could decide for example to get out of Turkey because we don't want to hypothetically again I don't know what the legal situation there is really good said with all the the Thailand case you can say well we want to be were to criticize the monarchy along would win the get out of the country there's the other side of it which is that we've stopped providing services of other sorts to all these users in that country and that is I think a also a significant downside for taking actions like that so but yes we have the option to leave that's not an option without their real ramifications right and you have to make a judgment call as to what what is it that the that 2 to 1 so let's get to
an even harder question her her undertake level our current digital propaganda strategies mostly relied on botnets on the 1 side an exploding or like communities using paid content to disseminate material to office aspects art concerned Google bouts and paid content and of on an internal investigation to determine whether Russian linked entities used as its outsourced services to try to manipulate voters ahead of the US election is the investigation concluded and can you share some results the absolute years so all for the 1st the again the
broader point to the broader point and I then you made this before is that since the inception of Google there have been all sorts of elements of there trying to manipulate such such results we call them spammers and if we don't fight the spammers with every thing that we had that search would not work for anyone who would become customers are motivated not by use of benefit but by their own benefit trade and and such as as you would not be using Google for anything if we let spam or would run and so over the last I heard of modern art 20 years but certainly 15 20 years we have had a significant effort on fighting spam and fighting different forms of manipulation from link farms to date content to all kinds of things I mean it's it's again the creativity of the human mind is mind-boggling when it comes to other kinds of things people try and be before the fight this but lately there's been a lot of concern about foreign actors also trying to manipulate online platforms and its search and social media industry during all all all of these things written search itself when all this became clear we didn't a detailed investigation to look for evidence of of such as manipulation by by foreign actors and we did not find anything that maybe it is that of regular over a spam-fighting had already taken care of it so they never saw eye for whatever reason maybe didn't try maybe it wasn't the right thing for them to do I don't know what the reason is that we don't find any evidence of it on the solid side so meaning bots flying censorious and their standing as all paid content or any of these things that try to manipulate search results we found no evidence for it on on our side up on some of the other services but they also did of more detailed analysis of the the ory of gen consul give evidence that the US Congress sometime ago with the results of that investigation and they did find some low levels of manipulation and some of which which they disclose there but it was not very significant so this this diary leads
to my last question if where I'm open to the to the floor to the audience trick specific as that information doesn't necessarily mean immediate influence you half a lot of information you're sitting on a huge Darabont of information where you can really talk on key conclusions and understand the degree of how this ability needs and to which is sent to which degree a change of habit a change of the circle of friends to a change of consumer consumer behavior and many many other things this is formation of course you're using for your own internal porpoises are you trying to understand it from a more academic point of view argues sharing this with their scientific community how is the possibility of having access to this information how do you deal with that all this so so we absolutely do a lot
of user studies to understand the whole users experience of products where the gaps in our products are what can we do to improve products and so forth and we use those to inform our product decisions and so forth similarly once we launch a change of the have these views that happened several months later the call landing reviews that actually go back and look to see our users actually using this as we thought they honor the getting the benefit that we thought there and so this kind of use of research is is the court how we continue to improve our improved the product so in the in the context of misinformation I think with your question is coming from and and what the effect it has on the we haven't done a lot of this kind of analysis because in part at least we don't have much visibility in through what users do once this journey ends know like what happens on the social media for example and what not and that the fact that all of this has on people really happens from many different sources it's what they see so it's certainly what it's what they see in social media it's what they see on television and radio and what they talk about their friends and and and and so forth and we haven't done so I we have no ability to do any sort of detailed analysis of the effects of any sort of control way of 2 or to to do this by having said that I think it's really important work to do to understand how it is that we do it and we've been partnering and supporting actually of various projects like the trust project Artur Santa Clara University and as a media literacy project out of the Stanford and appointed Institute and so on all of that that we support and and and and and partner live on and and I hope that the the stuff that comes out of the Kentucky to things but these between on the 1 side that you are a
very U.S.-centric with Acosta research act axis of of of researches on the 1 side which of course being European I idolize their lights and because of course as well I have to say that I only mention though that I'm personally most familiar with but it's about
impossible but it also partnering with others Germany have shut up policy folks around might be rude to vote that address the invitation and the 2nd thing is of course that you might
not be able to manage behavior but you might be able to track even in a nice way out what you such as searching as a history a so you you could it actually you could do that study you could you could you could hear at least try to understand the even in an unknown my eyes weight tried to understand what a single actor Allwood profiles of different types of factors doing in the course of a day what features have been visited more after seeing at different other pages before you can try to draw some conclusions also about the impact that seen something needs and with different cover smile 10 10 minutes perfect think you very much of so our so yes I understand that there there might be no interest with regards to use ability to perform a research like that but seeing the light of the discussion in the light of the discussions that we have for now about this information and cool being very much in the center of attention of these sad such type of conversation about filter bubbles and and manipulation of land would me makes sense to look at it and try to understand more and to be being some numbers and perhaps bring academia I liked this set of the resistance certainly something that that we should we should
consider the bringing academia in of course has questions of privacy and so on we will on the some sort of problems of but those sort to to to to come up and and frankly I will say that over the last year our primary goal has been to make sure that that we address the underlying problems of misinformation and hate because surfacing in such that has been that our focus has been because that I think is the thing that is of highest value to us at this point thank you very much for case any questions from the audience see some can almost
not see I would like to gender this means that we have that dental 1 of the very 1st question at effect on ladies in the room because they usually are not feared I let them to not come up 1st after was the 1st that tent on the 1st row and then the lady behind show things my question revolves around voice the coming in new interface and he talked about discriminating results
and displaying what viking wide variety of the results and and to maybe wrap this question with quicker if we look at Amazon and Aleksei and search by voice but there are concerns that elects a little mutation products on the Amazon platform but that Amazon likes to be listed 1st because you will be able to see a whole list of products you could choose from because you only have axons answer basically some new batteries are 599 to order them for you so how do you deal with a different perspectives of diversity in voiced when you use the Google Assistant for example so so this is the great question as we
discussed earlier there the search interface today actually does give you this diversity and you can take and the fear is that when you go to these voice interfaces like on the Google Assistant that we will somehow pick out 1 answer as the uncertain and and give it to you when in fact today's experiences are very much like that you say how how dollars on Lamma Carroll and you get to the 1 answer for there right they're all sounds wonderful but then then you have this problem right of my response to that is this is a serious problem and this is a serious issue that needs to be taken care of this idea of giving a single answer makes sense when there is a single answer to be given right and in that case it makes a lot of sense to give that answer but if that actually provide variety of perspectives and so forth but that that that should be meaningfully provided then clearly that interface doesn't work and it would be foolish for us to to presume that we know that 1 answer suffices and you have to come up with the richer interfaces that maybe some sort of a dialog I don't know what that these have to be still invented right but I have every confidence that we would if we are able to give you have an effective conversation around of situations where there is a diversity of information that we will have appropriate interfaces that was surface this diversity of information rather than pretending like we know the 1 true once thank you very much for that question that's 1 more question there behind the 2nd 1 search for a pay cut fuel since as the 3 more people went and you have was and could we try to the very concise and put them together perhaps so that we can 1st gather questions and then get the answers pay sharing on so many insights select fashion is related to coming back to that question Google autocratic systems so you mission is communities is of serving users' finally content but in the order of credit
on a curve C they use that to me is becoming aid and executed in distributing content for propaganda on so and how would you know when that happens so how would you do you measure that of which you know where instead of on serving your mission that you help users find the content you instead of that type of autocrats distributing on specific content to distribute the propaganda hope you measure that would new members appear let's try to collect more questions so the question is when you are in conflict with other country when when the
conflict of of the law of the country has there is income conflict which fundamental human rights how to deal with that 2 more people that when more people there's a please try to be quick sorry so there's just 1 remark I I wanna say that when you said that people can have access to what other parties
so that the gunman issue I would say that these people don't know what to search for you wouldn't find it that's how we create filter bubbles for if for example for an issue we have all the options much of the dominant ones for example the environment issue of all the parties and then we can see it all the options otherwise will just get the dominant ones and that's how we interpret filter bubbles or searches so how to kill a Jew or a team from that 2nd on my questions sorry is Dugarry's approaching and 4 thousand publishers yesterday center in their talk to your CEO the demanding that goodwill is not a data 2 controller but only beta process because no when being that the the controller means that you will get at the data that clear you will also use for of profiling personalization and things like that so if you have any thoughts on on this so that the the process of Mr. of speaker controller and the next question
together the event so my question is about the Google campus and is being planned to move into crates forget the of and a lower end the issue is that Frankfurt doesn't want neighbors that contribute to the U.S. government-run program we don't want neighbors to commodify right and identities we don't want Google to prevent
plates that and so my question is you know we have made it very clear over the past year and a half plus why does Google not care that creates does not want a contest OK thank you so much and the last question there
and they will have to brother necessary that we cannot take all Christians when customs the spectra of that satisfaction is central description I wouldn't it be the best way to was satisfied different kinds of people to adjust Lecont use whether they want regionalization or personalization of results a question would mean you but it the last question is whether y can people you choose but then as the main factor of the algorithm so free generalization rather personalization or just choose for at different type of algorithm should we start with the last question and then draw up and maybe at that at some level giving each choices
of of a very detailed nature to users are used in many there's a false choice users I'm not going to be able to select these things for many many different things they're not having said that there are a limited set of situations where you can make these choices though so for example you can don't save so much on or off but for example or you can't don't personalization on and off only if you so desire so there are some factors that sort of makes sense that you can turn on and off but you can't doing this sort of across-the-board due to change things in in in various ways I don't think users are going to find this particularly compelling it'll make for a very complicated system that's that's 1 of the expected the question about the Google moving into the new campus I have to admit I have no particular the inside of our of our own anything on on on that question I'm sure that others might be in a better position to to to answer that so you the question is about what happens where
and when call will add a bytes to law that aids in conflict with fundamental human rights so and that's a very good question and it's a very
difficult question to answer certainly taken up many different positions on that you mentioned the China example as as 1 where the tape took 1 choice but that other situations where we choose to up to follow the law and and and remove the content I will say that our legal teams of a good about being as conservative as possible about what gets filtered out so they really try to limit the amount of content that gets remove that still of follows follows the law but the relation is that with a lot of these countries so that the total atomic there is just simply not provide a service either because we don't provide the service voluntarily ordered the country of what of block and the service this we've had this happen with other the Tridell being blocked our Instagram being blocked in Facebook being blocked in different countries and so that's really the alternative Europe to look at is is it is not just that you lose those queries but all other queries the voluntarily or involuntarily so I think is a difficult question that needs to be addressed on on on on a case by case basis based on the extent to which this is all happening was lost from it's about the GDPR and our and that
school went to be that doesn't want to be adaptive controller and vital went to be at heart of processor because they would have fat and less duties and so I have to admit that I don't consider myself
an expert in understanding the subtle difference between a database of control and data processing and I suspect some folks policy that around will be able to give give a better understanding that yes exactly the cool policy team is so in the 1st line I think you can address that question there well I I think you might think you
see there's a lot more that could be discussed but I where is finished married and thank you very much for for for it the openness with with your with 3 you responded to all these questions I hope there is a follow up somewhere in the future on things everyone of also for the good questions poster and air enjoyed the next states of the republic of in the
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Information in the Digital Age: Trust, Diversity and the Future of Search
Serientitel re:publica 2018
Autor Nayak, Pandu
Jaume-Palasí, Lorena
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/36649
Herausgeber re:publica
Erscheinungsjahr 2018
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract How Google work? How does Google tackle misinformation and controversial content in Search? How is machine learning and AI shaping the future of Search? [Partnersession]

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