Is the Production and Use of Grey Marine Literature a Model for Open Science?

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Is the Production and Use of Grey Marine Literature a Model for Open Science?
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2019
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ok we have. the box when twenty five minutes i think and i'm going to try and do this in twenty five minutes we live in a paradoxical information world this morning for example we learn that to say that we are awash with information in it is a substantial understatement today everyone from pride.
its citizens to public decision makers regularly and however is an overabundance of information and they all including everyone in this room implement strategies and filters to selectively deflect incoming information barriers are frequently established to medicate that deluge of information. but in contrast and because of open science have recently been promoting greater access to information as the name implies open science initiatives emphasize unrestricted availability to the data and information emanating from research activity.
impediments preventing axis are being removed or there are simply not put in place in the first place with new research is being undertaken so in short we are seeing coping mechanisms that are established to obstruct information flow on the one hand while on the other hand mechanisms are being implemented to overcome obstacles tuned to access. well as matters of concern information overload and open science are not new phenomena both have existed in some form at least since the fifteenth century however as his audience will fully appreciate the attention both are receiving currently is a reflection of the very very rapid growth in the volume. of data and information over the last half century and major advances in widely available technologies that facilitate production of scientific data and distribution and access to information as we heard in the a first paper this afternoon the history of science demonstrates that scientists and other professionals. associations have long been champions have access to research data and information but the reason literature on the subject of open science illustrates numerous aspects to this subject and we saw the slide this morning so on to repeat the calm of the components that are part of this a structure.
well the organizers of but i should say they'll that there is no call lessons around a common understanding of open signs around any one of these terms in fact the organizers of this conference adopted the definition of open sciences the movement to make scientific research data and information accessible. to all levels of an inquiring society and a more recent systematic review of literature considered seventy five studies on the subject and propose the following definition that is open science is transparent and accessible knowledge that is shared and developed through collaborative networks.
well this is a quite succinct definition in emphasizes two facets namely collaborative knowledge development and why develop the wide availability of the results. all in our research are collaborative work on questions about information production and its use in the science policy interface in marine contexts we have observed and documented extensive use of information great literature in decision making process ease the use of greenwich or illustrates collaboration in old. station and it also illustrates numerous efforts to present information in meaningful ways to diverse audiences we know that there are large depositories a marine data and information published his great literature that have been generated to support the operations of governments at all jurisdictions levels and there are certainly large volumes of this literature. and it's available openly today advances in information technologies are actually contributing to a blurring of distinctions between some forms of great literature and the primary research literature. the publication and distribution of both now often fall similar practices and as a consequence we have concluded from our research but the production and use of great literature in marine environmental science decision making can actually inform open science initiatives and that's what i would try to nine years afternoon with the results from our. numerous case studies at local to global levels address to know things from this conference namely the application of open science principles in promoting great literature and also the obstacles and the challenges to open access so the objective of this presentation or two one to illustrate how research about great literature can. provide insights with the open science movement and also to suggest that a sharp distinction between gray and primer literature is becoming less relevant to a little bit about our group a which i'd like to add going briefly for almost two centuries governments in many nations have established research body. is to conduct scientific research whether it's internally focused within the country or externally in collaboration with other countries and these are created for a wide variety of reasons for economic cultural environmental etc and the large number of bodies that are found around the world have produced a wide spectrum of types of our research and. a row put story that is largely due to the diversity of audiences that governments wish to reach substantial financial resources have also been committed to these resources and one of the issues for governments is around accountability that is his information that's generated ever being used well. the initial research that has conducted by the interdisciplinary environmental information use an influence research program that's based a dollhouse university in health x. was prompted by a question of accountability namely were major international reports and marine pollution in the state of the oceans ever used.
actually reported on that study at this conference a number of years ago and we were able to show that indeed those reports were widely cited and that study letters into the sphere of the science policy interface and numerous case studies have come out of our work dealing with governmental bodies national or local. all international inter-governmental organizations and environmental non-governmental organizations and our research findings have been presented in a wide variety of settings including some papers in the great german our research has shown that information pathways in ocean coastal resource management are very complex the end. well many actors including researchers managers policy analysts members of various industries professional associations community groups non-governmental organizations politicians and the general public obviously and no full of the actors and open korea literature offers numerous advantages in his lightly deployed by all. doctors in the signs policy interfaces in marine management and decision making because the flexibility of gray literature publication options responds well to the extensive variety of information needs and that's witnessed in the various types informants that are commonly prevalent open great literature is usually distributed with the. restriction by individuals and organizations and can now be shared globally with relative ease which is particularly beneficial to developing countries unable to afford commercial information sources and in our recent book about the different dimensions of information use in integrated coastal an ocean management we highlight the.
highlighted story the significant roles of that information published in great literature fulfils in current ocean management practices ok well how does rain literature then served as a model and try to outline a few minutes of some ways that it does so first of all let me referred to the use.
ability of information in two thousand and two a group of researchers in the united states published a report that identified three key features of information that insurers its usability namely salience or relevance credibility and legitimacy well great literature that is used in many marine. management decision making process as is used because it does display the three characteristics we have found that governmental organizations at all levels rely heavily on using their own publications in decision making and this phenomenon has been deserve observed in a number of contacts well referred to just three organizations. at the moment very briefly the calendar department of fisheries and oceans which is our national on department on that subject the north west atlantic fisheries organization which is a regional fisheries quality management body that deals with the north west atlantic and numerous countries around the world are member states are member bodies and the food and agriculture organization. one of the united nations which we heard of or earlier today based in room while both our national department and fisheries body have well defined process these for producing communicating and using information scientific information is produced by the scientists within this decision making process. and it is the primary source of advice the publications which are typically great literature are produced by these organizations and their preferred in this policy making context because they're presented in a timely fashion and they are relevant because the information is in direct response to countries management questions the questions are. those the researchers conducted the studies and they produced reports to help in the decision making process they go through rigorous of peer review which is internal which increases the and emphasizes the credibility and the decision making process as often in will involve many stakeholders including the fishing industry angles academics etc. which reinforces the legitimacy of the great information so the usability of information in greater can inform open access or can science or second is peer review we heard about this earlier it's widely used it's an essential quality control mechanism peer review methods have been involving over the past have sent. three and although none is proven to be entirely of tool proven summer contested peer review practices are now accepted as indispensable in publishing credible research results well the credibility of many research reports released ask rulers are depends in large measure on the outlook. question of peer review for example for over fifty years the joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine environmental protection which is a u.n. based on body that is the leading international scientific advisory body has been publishing significant reports about the conditions of the oceans this organization has published over one hundred. major technical reports on each of these are drafted in the working groups for example number of the number sixty four was the result of six years of work by thirteen member working group. it was drafted and subjected to extensive review and by both external reviewers and detail page by page consideration by the working group members in an annual session for example another record number seventy lists over ninety individuals who have various roles in his preparation so i would say. they or we would say the extensive and rigorous or view that is undertaken of gray literature to produce quality reports can also informed open science of third point is designed for various audiences in part because great literature is not constrained in particular styles formats are communication channels. the literature has considerable flexibility for a development and aimed at particular audiences and organizations typically will work very hard at ensuring that the information is generated to deliver to have various audiences i could give you several examples only give you one here today. in the instance in the interest of time. richard to the state of nova scotia his post report this was a government and generally report that was released in two languages print and digital formats and was also released in the two hundred forty five page technical report a twenty one page summary and six four page back seats this was a deliver. the decision to provide accessible and credible information to professional and lee audiences so by designing information products for different stakeholders whose capability in understanding scientific information varies creators so great literature can be successful in achieving transparency and accessibility to both professional and.
amateur audiences which are key elements of open science. another point is systematic reports for public policy contacts well there are many of these of the the major census reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change are probably the most widely known but the i.p.c.c. reports are only one of many such publications published each year. and that are freely accessible so from our studies we have such a state of the environment records there are fisheries scientific reports that are used in decision making there are reports by advisory committees there are reports that are generated by environmental ngo xp and their environmental assessment an impact assessments that earl. used to inform decision making so the rigorous and this transport transparent methods by which these records are prepared and distributed could inform open science initiatives. next point boundary objects environmental non-g are a non-governmental organizations often operate between governments and many stakeholder groups these even geo was produced records and documents which are synthesized and translated from the signs of regret research to inform and engage stakeholders. and governments the e.u. n.g.o.s function is boundary organizations and they're great literature services boundary objects so this activity that is of the production of these objects could serve as an example for open science programs that wish to promote transparency and produce information that is understandable to use. by definition referred to earlier by all levels of an inquiry society. another is on open access to data. well we know that there are large quantities of data that are frequently produced in this is certainly true in the marine environmental sciences area by governmental an intergovernmental organizations such as long term monitoring programs that can team data over a lengthy periods so let me give you one instance. now this is the gulf water contaminants monitoring programme often inter-governmental international organization called the gulf of maine council on the marine environment which involves two canadian provinces three american states and the federal governments of both countries while the gulf watch program confused me has been a flagship initiative all. the council and the data has been released as raw data finals data reports data summaries annals of papers published in peer reviewed journals so the rigorous and transparent methods by which these reports are prepared by which this data is prepared to is another example that can inform open science. not only the data also the tools to make it accessible so to support the use of large data sets mapping tools for example such as digital coastal atlas as have become important for information dissemination and in our noses at least in one k.'s show that managers found that these tools were very helpful because i could bring varies. data sets together in a form that could be used in decision making and to inform the public so as publicly accessible files and tools the data and the digital atlases offer another instance of great literature practices that model the expectations of all can science. one more light public os of users of great literature research about information intended largely for environmental decision making activities shows that the cost associated with the production of great literature are usually borne by the governmental and non-governmental organizations themselves so this makes the information freely of. available which increases the potential for the information to be accessed by many levels of society and therefore encourages understanding of science and science liturgy and involvement in public decision process these well these observations are based on a number of our studies including one with a measure of the. perceptions of the coastal community about the importance and and valuable place for coastal management decisions and analysis of communication strategies employed by individual individual communicators and non-governmental organizations in their use of social media platforms of twitter and instead graham so free. texas which is common with great literature is a feature emphasized to open science circles and thus the financial models used in the production of gray the graders are could also be a clickable in open science scenarios those are some of the ways that we believe that the great literature can inform open science but. religion is also got challenges but also reflected in an open science and i'm very brief because i realized are telling us getting short so let me identified a number which is the case first is with regard to access.
openness does not ensure awareness and it certainly does not automatically equates to use ability by wide very like a variety of audiences because the great literature is assumed to be largely accessible often limited attention is focused on promoting awareness and that was the question i raised with a keynote speaker this morning. furthermore the mass of quantity of prey literature can contribute to seeming invisibility it can be invisible it's right there in front of you but you can hear because there's so much information that success about these potentially there another factor so that's awareness and access and. other factor is the stigma associated with some circles a book for a literature because the multiplicity of formats the very content can result in ray literature being beamed of limited value even though the information may be very rigorously peer reviewed in today's information saturated environment. open access may be equated with on certain quality and certain questions of reliability and this is. frustrated by misinformation fake information mal information this information that's on currently on occupying a lot of her attention and the un is the question of production because his business model that's been applied by great literature it's not entirely free. the there is definite costs that are involved and a business model is necessary ok let me some up because i'm going to get the cue from the are organizer here to move off the stage and i'd like to respond to questions anyway so to return to the question that we posed in the title of this page. is the production and use of great marine literature a model broken science i research suggests that it does or that it is we have observed and we recorded that the longstanding motivation to produce great literature and to make it accessible is similar for the same as the motivation driving open science. proponents or creators for both pain to promote the use of information to advance research to raise public awareness and understanding of science and to facilitate evidence based or some on circles will cite evidence informed decisions. the second point is that the distinction between primaries great literature as i suggested earlier is becoming less pronounced today driven by advances in information technology and science generally. is often an immediacy to information needs that overshadows the production processes of public policy in decision making process or in public policy in decision making process these delays making information available can be detrimental. are also many definitions of open science but a key observation from our research is that the distinction between growing and primary literature is blurry both emphasize strengthening open access and the important point is that courage he could have cleared sorry critical marine research should be published in. a timely manner and disseminating widely so finally we billy which should emphasise the importance of ensuring key marine information is published and made excess little regardless of where or the publishing method solving significant problems and finding solutions should be the primary focus and there are major problem. terms of particular with the effects of climate change which we must and must address so it's not necessary to focus on the process of creating information is delivered it's getting the information into the hands of people need to make decisions about the world to live thank you.
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