How to Build a Processor in 10 minutes or less


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How to Build a Processor in 10 minutes or less
Hacker Fundamentals and Cutting Through Abstraction
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Continuing the series of hacker foundational skills,  YbfG jvyy nqqerff shaqnzragny fxvyyf gung rirel unpxre fubhyq xabj.  Whfg sbe sha jr jvyy nyfb tb sebz gur guerr onfvp ybtvp tngrf gb n shapgvbany cebprffbe juvyr enpvat n pybpx.  Qb lbh xabj ubj n cebprffbe ernyyl jbexf?  Jul qb lbh pner?  Pbzr svaq bhg.  Bu, naq pelcgb. Bio: Ryan "1o57" Clarke self-identifies as a hacker. Formerly a member of the Advanced Programs Group (APG) at Intel, he continues to do 'security stuff' for other companies and groups.  Professionally LosT's history includes working for various groups and companies, as well as for the University of Advancing Technology where he set up the robotics and embedded systems degree program.  He has consulted for the Department of Energy, Fortune 50 companies, and multiple domestic and international organizations.  For DEFCON he has created the Hardware Hacking Village, the LosT@Defcon Mystery Challenge, and conference badges, cryptography, and puzzles. As DEFCON’s official cryptographer and puzzle master, his activities have included aspects of network intrusion and security, social engineering, RED and BLUE team testing, mathematics, linguistics, physical security, and various other security and hacker related skillsets.  1o57's academic background and and interests include computational mathematics, linguistics, cryptography, electrical engineering, computer systems engineering and computer science-y stuff.
Point (geometry) Computer programming Trail Mobile app Wage labour Observational study Multiplication sign Mereology Goodness of fit Mathematics Term (mathematics) Hacker (term) Square number Cuboid Representation (politics) Data structure Data conversion Area Programming language Dot product Constraint (mathematics) Knowledge base Moment (mathematics) Total S.A. Line (geometry) Set (mathematics) Cryptography Local Group Frame problem Summation Search engine (computing) Order (biology) Heuristic
Code Euler angles Multiplication sign Time travel Digital electronics Bell and Howell Mathematical analysis Student's t-test Mereology Coprocessor Computer Event horizon Number Programmer (hardware) Mathematics Video game Hooking Hacker (term) Forest Mathematician Data conversion Subtraction Logic gate Social class Area Spacetime Process (computing) Product (category theory) Information Moment (mathematics) Expert system Shared memory Physicalism Set (mathematics) Cryptography Functional (mathematics) Boole, George Social engineering (security) Logic Telecommunication Video Genie Statement (computer science) Right angle Pressure Data type Fundamental theorem of algebra Row (database)
Dataflow Greatest element Multiplication sign Parallel port Film editing Logic gate Fundamental theorem of algebra
Point (geometry) Building Information Block (periodic table) Multiplication sign Boom (sailing) Counting Configuration space Bit Set (mathematics) Counting Fundamental theorem of algebra
Force Complex (psychology) Computer programming Digital electronics Information Cuboid Bit
Point (geometry) Standard deviation Digital electronics Copyright infringement Complementarity 1 (number) Bit Line (geometry) Computer Number 2 (number) Sign (mathematics) Hooking Logic Hex map Negative number Representation (politics) Right angle Hex map Negative number Subtraction Physical system Social class
Microprocessor Well-formed formula Multiplication sign Representation (politics) Cuboid Bit Number
Multiplexbetrieb Representation (politics) Coprocessor Number
Point (geometry) Dataflow Calculation Information Logic Code Order (biology) Logic Right angle Coprocessor Functional (mathematics)
Arithmetic logic unit Game controller Digital electronics Oval 1 (number) Line (geometry) Functional (mathematics)
Game controller Message passing Mathematics Information Multiplexbetrieb Logic Cuboid Codec Line (geometry) Cuboid Coprocessor Abstraction
Demo (music) Multiplication sign Bit Flip-flop (electronics) Computer Propagator Arithmetic logic unit Data storage device Personal digital assistant Function (mathematics) Code output Arithmetic logic unit output Address space
Read-only memory Information Computer State of matter Multiplication sign Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy Flip-flop (electronics) Sequence Microprocessor Keilförmige Anordnung Read-only memory Sequentielle Logik Logic Finite-state machine Moving average Data structure
Computer programming Greatest element Game controller Electric generator Multiplexbetrieb Buffer solution Line (geometry) Address space Address space
Axiom of choice Complex (psychology) Multiplication sign Digital electronics Water vapor Parameter (computer programming) Disk read-and-write head Mereology Generating function Formal language Mathematics Video game Positional notation Core dump Mathematician Information security Descriptive statistics Thumbnail Algorithm Process (computing) Product (category theory) Gardner, Martin Feedback Bit Message passing Arithmetic mean Equation Right angle Data type Fundamental theorem of algebra Reverse engineering Laptop Point (geometry) Web page Computer programming Trail Game controller Beat (acoustics) Computer Coprocessor Open set 2 (number) Power (physics) Number Hacker (term) Authorization Unterhaltungsmathematik Metropolitan area network Focus (optics) Multiplication Information Interactive television Line (geometry) Mixed reality Abstraction
good afternoon hello Wow everybody's got their own conversation going on cool I guess you're not really wanting to pay attention to what the badge means or any of the good wonderful puzzles and other fun hijinks that Foster's put into it but if you do here's lost how's everybody doing doing thanks I love you too I would ask a little patience for those of you who may have heard rumors in the wind we've we have hiccups with regarding the badges every year and this particular hiccup has made me go the past three days with roughly two to three hours of sleep total so bear with me I also am going to do a kind of new thing during this 101 talk it's going to be kind of an experiment and it's either going to go totally off the rails or it's going to be fine but that'll be based on you guys and me so we're going to try and go through this together I do this one-on-one talk every year for those of you who don't know because it's 101 this is not I'm going to drop oh dang I'm not going to talk about elite stuff and I'm not going to come and act like on this snooty jackass he knows more than you do because like most of you are way smarter than I am I'm just a weirdo with a soldering iron in and like math a lot but how many of you this is your first Def Con but show hands holy crap yeah welcome so I really heat even talks like this because I really prefer having discussions and on that note there is a room on the conference floor it's the 10:57 room and a request that couches are put in there every year because I encourage people to come in and just sit down and hang out and talk with people because if people at this con whether they are the person who invented a programming language or wrote some major app if they're so pretentious that they're not approachable I don't want them here so if you try and approach someone and you try and talk to them and they're there to high-and-mighty to talk to you you can tell them to fuck off because I just don't want of you guys that are here for the first time how many of you are from out of the United States Wow thank you thank you for traveling so far to come here okay a couple things we're going to do here so for those of you don't know my name is lost they call me 10:57 lost boy a couple other things all the crazy crypto puzzly stuff that you see stuff on the lanyards stuff in the program that saw me so that's basically a representation of all of my free time from the last year and I'm often asked where you know how do i structure these things how does that come up with so I believe I do have a DD OCD where I'm constantly changing when I'm completely obsessed about and I have these little quirky things I do every year like one thing that I would recommend you guys do is I pick two publications of any kind that are completely out of my wheelhouse every year and I read them during that year and over time the knowledge base that I have tends to grow and the reason I do that is I have a couple of pet peeves and in full disclosure I use the one-on-one talk to try and dispel or stop some of the pet peeve stuff that I have in the community and I try and do that by raising us all together so here's a couple of pet peeves that I have for those you've heard this before I apologize but there's a lot of new people here I mean who here has been to a talk in mind before so not very many okay sorry about how helter-skelter is like I said I'm running on very little sleep right now in fact I promise the opening ceremonies tomorrow will be much more structured we're supposed to be having fun in here this is 101 and originally it wasn't even official track part of Def Con it was just us hanging out in the highways and some other people put with this track together but anyway one of my pet peeves is this idea that as hackers you have to be creative and in order to be creative you have to think outside the box and how many have heard the term think outside the box raise your hand how many of you know what the origin of that term is where does that come from besides the obvious you have a set of mental heuristics that you're imposing upon this problem and you carry those with you and if some high-end mighty guy came down from off them to off the mountaintop and said thou shalt not impose this particular heuristic then all of a sudden magically you're going to be creative and go aha Eureka and you're going to solve the next you know major problem so there have been studies they've shown that that's total bullshit the the original origin of that term is from the nine dot problem which is a puzzle where you draw nine dots in a box three three and three and they say connect all the dots without lifting the pen how many lines can you do it in and of course or and sometimes you'll have the constraint you can't cross the line sums you can this depends on the bearing and of course invariably people have imposed this mental box because it's in a square and so it's really really difficult and then some jackass comes up and is all clever and he's like oh I go outside what that frame was yada yada well it's been studied and it's been shown that even if you take a group of people and you tell them from the start you have to draw outside of this imposed square that the same percentages of people solve the problem or can't solve the problem and that the way you get people to have those epiphan --all aha creative moments is through deep study in a particular subject area now as we go further and further with technology Google search engine instant gratification phone in your pocket I don't have to go through any of the mental labor to get any the answers of questions that I have anymore we we do certain things faster but we've lost a sense of wisdom in our knowledge and by doing so we're starting to shortchange ourselves and we're going to start to lose the in the epistemology Gnaeus moments that come from that deep study of a subject area so when I do my cryptographic puzzle challenges I structure them to do three things I want you guys to talk to each other I intentionally put things on the lanyards every year so that you have to find other people and you have to interact with them not only that but there's stuff even on the back here you have to take it off you have to linger and from the other person it forces a time for you to interact with one of those other people and for a crowd that is predominantly introverts you know I'm trying to force you to talk to each other yeah you know the whole joke about you can tell who the the the extrovert at like the DEF CON conference is he's a guy looking at someone else's shoes but anyway so that's my soapbox for that during the one-on-one talks I have a tradition also of saying I'm not going to explain and obviously in a 40-minute talk or 15 minutes I even know how I'm supposed to be up here but in a talk I'm not going to be able to teach you or thank you or give you deep knowledge in a subject what I'm hoping to give you our hooks I'm hoping to give you hooks that give you the right points to start to go down and by the way I mean DoCoMo I do not mean to show disrespect to anybody I know a lot of you have deep knowledge and a lot of these subject areas but I kind of shotgun it to try and give people a foundational knowledge of these are the things that I think if you kind of generally know about you can have a well-informed conversation with
someone at a place like DEFCON cool we understand where I'm coming from yes no oh wait yeah I'm tired too well what do you think of the badges sure so because this is 101 and don't tell don't tell DT I'm going to tell you this because I'm not gonna I don't know if he'll say how many ceremonies I don't know if it's a secret I'm gonna tell you guys because you're at 101 which means you're hardcore there there were let's just say I can't tell you a quantity but there were thousands of badges that were ordered how many of you have ever done my production of electronics of any kind okay how many of you understand how long it takes to do not only do pick-and-place but how long it takes to program firmware onto something every single one of the badges that you have around your neck right now we're programmed within the space of the last three days and that's and that's why I say none of this would happen without the community because that wasn't me that wasn't lost jackass with a with a programmer that was hundreds and hundreds of volunteers who weren't paid who are people that come to the con that are here early that we run up and down the halls going we have an emergency guess what badges showed up and they weren't programmed before they got to us and so we set up a chop shop and went to town and and there are people there are people in this room right now who have been awake literally for four days some of them are in the front row right here okay pet peeves number two I get really frustrated with people first of all if you don't understand or know something admit it I don't know lots of stuff when I talk to people at Def Con there's really really smart people around here you guys and when I have conversations with you after I give conference talks like this the people come up and they want to talk about stuff and they'll say something like oh I don't know what that is tell me explain that to me my grandfather used to talk about Columbo if the younger people in the audience are like who the hell is that Google him so so Columbo is a fictional character who was like excuse me the ultimate social engineering he used to get everyone he met to teach him something even if he knew it already because it disarmed them so social engineering tip 101 right there but I try and and not have you know when I first came to Def Con I'm scared crap I was like these guys are way smarter they're going to say stuff I don't understand and they're gonna think I'm an idiot I'm going to kick me out I didn't know what was going to go on and if you can just be confident enough to talk with people be like I don't know what that is and then flipside don't be an arrogant ass but if you know something share it with other people because that's the only way this community's going to get better for example how many of you are aware with the discussions that are going on with cryptography and backdooring yes know the politics involved with what's going on that's going to fundamentally change communication and with people like us the folks at the DEFCON conference we need to talk about stuff like that because otherwise stuffs going to go and the genie won't be able to be put back in the bottle after certain events so I'm not going to push my politics on you but let's just say we need to share the knowledge and information so that we can all elevate and it's not select so okay I get really tired when I talk to people and they make the statement I know that a computer uses binary I know that a computer speaks binary oh that just is like it's like a cheese grater on my thigh I don't know how to subscribe sorry so and I often it will ask people do you know what that really means and do you understand that now I know there's a lot of people in this audience so like all I do is code I don't give a shit how the processor works I heat the attitude how can you think like that remember the discussion we just had about creative epiphany moments a lot of times those epiphany moments become from tangential information that may be related to the subject but not directly involved because if it was directly involved some jackass would already thought of it how many of you know about the original bell labs or heard of it and if you haven't especially young folks go look it up because it's like my dream Mecca like if I could go anywhere in a time machine I would go back in time to the original Bell Labs the reason the original bell labs by the way you have see because of the original Bell Labs you have a lot of things that you use in your daily life because the original Bell Labs what it was is a collection of experts in different areas but they weren't stove-piped it wasn't like here's the math department here's the physics department here are the electrons guys they were like the chemist was next door to the computer guy who was next door to the mathematician next door to the linguist and they all had access to each other and that's what caused this this genesis of all of this great creativity and we've started losing that because everybody wants to keep everything secret they don't want to share and and so we lose those epiphany interconnections so back to the I know how a processor works if you come to me and say Ryan you wasted my time at DEFCON because I don't care how a processor works I just want a code I would say to you you do not have the mindset of a hacker and I don't want to talk to you so I mean like go back to that comment I said about subscribing to magazines I subscribe to like a sewing magazine for a year you know just and I actually learned really cool stuff so here's one of the experiments we're gonna do today and you guys are all coming along with me on this right because this one it's gonna be fun so can I have a couple of you or however you want I know you all got cell phones in your pockets that have timers on like - stopwatch because I'm not gonna lie I did not practice this part because I was like let's balls the wall let's go let's see if we can do this applaud your phone so in a second we're going to synchronize and we're going to start and I'm going to try in 10 minutes to talk through going from the three basic fundamental logic gates to a functioning processor in ten minutes how many of you have had digital logic in classes and things like that how many of you could sit down and actually describe that process to somebody how many of you kinda remember okay how many of you are students right now everybody should raise their hand by always trick question okay so are you ready because I need drink some water and we're going to go and the reason I'm only doing it 10 minutes in that way is if you guys if this is a total failure we only wasted 10 minutes and you can kind of you can kind of forgive me for that so what this is not this is not me teaching you all this information this is me running through the forest wildly like my hair's on fire screaming out the things that you should Google or look up that you would then be able to have the knowledge of what these things are and if one or two things sounds interesting to you hook on to that and go down that path so again 101 talks nobody's going to be able to give you a deep dive in a 40-minute talk are you ready okay so at like three minutes or somebody somebody be like hold your fingers up three though they're like I guess you do every minute like one two because I kind of got a feel for how we do this I have to talk really fast here we go how did the processor in ten minutes know Brian lost no pressure is total failure all right Ready Set start you things okay so we got this guy his name
is George Boole he's cool he comes up with this type of logic where he talks about these three fundamental logic gates and or and not how many be heard of that raise your hand yes we all heard of it okay so if I
take a piece of wire okay and I cut it here and here I have just created a logic gate it's called an Y because if I connect the wire here but not here the electricity doesn't flow if I connect it here not here lectricity doesn't flow if I have two cuts and I put them both down this and this electricity flows through it so I can make a NAND gate with the wire so we have the first fundamental logic gate or I can take the same wire and I can run it in parallel and I can cut one or cut the other and if I connect one of them electricity is still going to flow so if the top one or the bottom one go will have electricity or not not okay can't
laugh you're going to take my time naught is going to basically invert the signal we won't talk about how we do that let's just say that you can do in electronics if you're interested in that think about that how does that happen google it
the first fundamental piece i'm going to build so we have three fundamental building blocks we have an or and we have not i claim that if you connect them in this particular configuration i will have this thing that i am going to call an adder but this is a half adder because there is not a thing which people call a carry in this takes two bits of information one and two and if they are both one out the Ascend comes a 0 and a 1 which is a carry if that doesn't make sense you google it look up half adder it's on Wikipedia the important point to take away is two bits of information in one set of information out and it carried it out so two in two out boom so we got a count how do I make
a counter trick question huh I'm burning the time just to make you nervous
so we're going to take we're going to take that half adder and I'm going to shove it inside a box and this is called attraction we do this a lot we do it everything we do every one of those OB programming and all these other things I need to take circuits shove it into a box because we're going to grow complexity so everybody's comfortable the fact that box represents the two things coming in one thing coming out with the carry yes go incremental e
better I'm going to stack these things I'm going to take one I put on top of the other now I claim I can have two bits of information coming in and two bits of information coming out with a carry ever get cool if you don't understand that look up half adder and stacking so that brings us to an
important point I said two bits in two bits out so we have to use this thing we call hex to represent the numbers if you're not familiar with why we use hex I would challenge you to take a bunch of switches from Home Depot home with you tonight and take the first switch and sit and look at it and say how many things can I represent with a single switch on and off to binary that's why a computer uses binary but I just said we use hex not binary why is that because on standard systems when we first started didn't make sense you can't do a whole lot with a single bit so we added a bunch of bits together big basic standard a bit so if I take one switch I get two things if I take two switches I get how many things for if I take three switches look at how many and if I take four switches sixteen so we need at least four to represent decimal which is our natural tendency to count because we've got ten of these things right so we have to go up to four bits but if we only go to ten but we use four bits we wasted some because you just told me we could go up to sixteen we don't want to waste those we want to be efficient so we use a different representation or number base also called a radix look it up and that number base is basic Steen also called hex by the way on a side note there is a number of number base or radix called hex amol which is base six which is what I believe a pirate would count in because he has five fingers in a hook
so a bit negative okay you just told me the computer only has one zeros inside how do I deal with negative numbers shit I don't know how to have a minus sign oh shit we're at four minutes let's go so I need to have a clever tricky way of reassigning what numbers mean in binary so that I can have negative there's this cool thing called ones complement well that kind of sucks because things didn't line up right look up ones complement then look up two's complement because we said I can take ones complement and I can fix it so that we can do these cool thing by having negative numbers that cancel each other out we have it together and that's where two's complement comes from and I claim that this circuit here will give you two's complement representation of a number look it up there's these things called Sobhan pasa everybody hates in classes we're going to skip it get off you're half better I claimed it's a half adder because we didn't have a carryin so we want to fix that I would claim that the logic macaron is a and B ANDed together if a and B are both one then I'm going to get a carry full adder is what I get
from that we're going to shove that into a box because we're going to extract and go further because how many times time we have left five minutes fully stacked
now I'm going to take my full adders I'm going to stack them together this is a representation of a two bit I would leave it as an exercise to the reader to extend it to four bits so we can get our formula microprocessor guess what it looks exactly the same just keep stacking so full
if you have 4 full adders in a box and put them together you get what is known as a 4-bit adder you have a carry in you have a 4-bit number on the top 4-bit number on the bottom and out the other end comes the answer plus it carry let's go what I steer you wrong ok we can now
represent numbers kind of insight but I got to steer stuff around inside the processor so how am I going to do that I
have to have a way of searing stuff around we have these things we call a MUX many come in one comes out I have a way to choose it so this is kind of like a traffic cop inside I also have to have
the opposite I have to have one come in and I can drive them to other places with these two things called a MUX and a D much I can steer anything anywhere I want it to go inside the processor cool if you don't stand it Google stack the
dead if i take too much this and put it together i am building 6-minute okay we go stack the decks - MUX is put together out the other end I can control where data goes you all get the point we're controlling the flow of information inside the processor by the way why does
this matter because we're ventually going to get two registers and those matter when you start doing code and you start programming in assembly what you're going to do if you're going to write shellcode so shut up if you don't want to hear this just kidding so logic inside processor in order to not just be a calculator we have to have logic right we have to be able to do logical functions on the data we put in it or we have to be able to do arithmetic so we
have this thing we call it ALU that's from the tv-show v ALU looks like a V if you look at it those of you who get the joke if not google it
so you take all of this stuff you shove it in the ones complement the twos compliment you put it in and we are going to create this thing we call an
egg not circuit an egg not circuit says I have data coming in and coming out and with those two control lines down there I can either choose to make it it or get them out of it so I have the ability to do a function simple with scope and or
with no pass-through information comes in comes out the Ascend with the control here this is all abstraction that we just built up to I can take data in as it comes out I can choose to do an ad or or it so I have math and logic in that place so this is with the pass all I did
was stick a MUX on the end which we talked about before I want the data to either be processed on or not processed on that's what the MUX is for that's what the pass line is for let's go so I stick all that in the
box I get the and or chip ALU there it
is in all of its glory that is basically in essence what you have inside your processor at home now there's been a
delay there's a cool thing called propagation delay which we now don't have time to talk about because we're in a hurry so look it up basically it says data takes amount of time to go through all this crap and come out the asset now
what we have to ALU I need to be able to produce input and store it and then I'll have my fully functioning computer so I
have to have these things called decoders but guess what that's exactly the same thing as demos well shit why didn't you just call it down the first place so I can decode my decoders and
decode the decoders of the decoders in which case I can grow the address space and I could go from 4 bits to 8-bits 16-bits etc basically this is just that can be closed so I have flip-flops
flip-flops or really cool things that are latches inside that hold information so I can now have not just a state machine but I can hold stuff over time pick your logic combinational or sequential we're going to talk about sequential cuz ups of computers are because we have to have memory so we're not just based on the here and now or the state so then we build these thing called registers which are your flip-flop with the shit coming in so we have the thing that can hold information those registers are what you see when you open up like Ida Pro and you say register whatever that's what this is David step back general structure we're going to get to this really quickly how
much time okay brains this is a brainless microprocessor you got to ALU you got your memory which we didn't roll has nothing there shit this is a brainless microprocessor so we need a brain one so how do I do
that I take that I've got buffers on the side that's the data or the program I've got a thing called a decoder which takes my instructions but I don't know how to control it CL switches in the middle so
I needed thing called a ram huh we need
to go from the one on the top where the control lines are blank to one on the bottom and we'll have everything done PC address generation PC is called for program counter we have to be able to step through the steps in our program we saw we can do an increment from an adder so we've got that piece we got the MUX we have a thing called a ROM which
basically defines all the control signals for what I want this thing to actually do I put them all together and
that's your full process
what time so that's ten minutes your life you won't get back how many of you guys are in college how many of you have taken digital logic once you go up to your processor or your professor I want you to manage your money back see I got this in ten minutes where's the click notes so not a joke a little bit of feedback here because I prefer to talk to you guys I hope I gave you some hooks of maybe some things to look up about basically how a computer works because a lot of people don't understand that in everything's abstraction we went from pounding rocks and starting fires to a Playstation shit how does that happen do you think your average person can tell me how the insides of a Playstation works no no no and that's the whole point of abstraction is that I'm going to build up the pieces but I would argue as hackers having these fundamental basic knowledge points are what is going to cause a pivotal stuff I will argue with anyone right now everyone say oh there's no longer a need to program in assembly ok I'll have the argument with you or I'll have an edifying discussion with you where you'll teach me stuff that I don't know and I'll change my mind because that's the other thing that people in this community need to be willing to do you need to be able to change your mind if somebody explains something to you that makes more sense and I think there's too many people that get fixated on their their ideas so excuse me I'm taking one more drink of water cuz that really took it out delicious I want everybody in this audience right now to find one person next to them it's not somebody they know and introduce yourself in the next 30 seconds okay okay okay that longer than 30 seconds I lost control all right all right let's go focus focus focus okay okay bring it back in people bring it in come on come on hello hello hello hi all right thank you okay what what just happened is in is fucking awesome because that's what Def Con is for me it's the people and the interaction okay those of you came here thinking I'm going to sit with my laptop unless you're doing CTF or you're doing my challenge but this is the best part about my challenge CTF you know you're going to sit in isolation with your team with your head down your laptop you're talking one even do my challenge you're going to talk to other people you don't have a choice so it's all about the people for me by the way I just morbid curiosity how did the teleprompter people do with it that monstrosity awesome awesome so how do they deal with foreign language we see yes I'm not a first-time speaker I don't drink thank you I will I will thank you very much thank you so that's a firm example yes we have fun here at Def Con I encourage you to challenge the speakers if somebody's saying something here that you think is bullshit go talk to him okay challenge people that's what we're here for I want people challenge me I want you to come up me like dude I thought that was crap or whatever is how I get better so yeah so I will prepare you for 101 if you go and not want to the opening ceremony is tomorrow so like I said usually Thursday was our fun day where we were just kind of joking around and it's kind of evolved into another official Dave DEFCON DEFCON didn't used to beat Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday used to be Friday Saturday Sunday so this is a this isn't technically DEFCON because we haven't officially opened the conference yet but I think that's crap so it is it is now it is now but it wasn't so after this talk by the way there will be a one-on-one panel where we're going to interact with you guys more and talk with you more and then tomorrow opening ceremonies I will talk more specifically about the badge and some of the production and some of the problems we had and some of the craziness in the program but I kind of like to give a reward to the folks that make the effort to come into the one-on-one stuff and talk just a slightly about some of the challenge stuff that may give you a little bit of a leg up if you're competing with other people how many people in this room are actually working on some aspect of the puzzle right now or have or thought about it okay it I hope it's kind of fun it's a little bit painful at times so let's talk a little bit about the the math that you see in the program if you look in the program on the second page where my ugly mug is at there's there's some equations there everybody see those everybody see that the math sits there how many of you look today and you're like hell no I didn't come to Def Con to freakin do Matt Cail no how many of you're familiar with a website called Wolfram Alpha yeah how many of you tried to put that equation into Wolfram Alpha how many of you got what the fuck am I looking at now second thing that was designed to stump you guys and see what I'm doing is I'm talking about an aspect of the challenge that hopefully will give you a hooker piece of information you might not marry known if you did you're really freaking smart come talk to me because I want to know you there is a there's a way of representing equations in basically in a in a line of text because you're like how the hell do I put an integral similar how do us up there is a thing you can look up called reverse polish notation and it sounds like you're being like racist but it's it's not it's really called RPN for short reverse polish notation it's the way those of us who are old like me used to put data into a account holy crap I just realized I just realized no but I just realized who you are like a foot taller than last year stand up for a second those of you don't know this young man right here this is one of the smartest kids I've ever met he came to Def Con what two years ago was your first one core he was like this tall his dad brings him and he bring he brings his dad I think and this is why I love Def Con this kind of stuff he was correcting speakers he was correcting like Joe grand and me and stuff like that introduce yourself this kid because he's going to go places those of you who are like have like these track programs for hiring people like when they're young this is a kid you guys moved to me he's a nice guy or anyway by the way so okay so I did I did a puzzle badge for a conference called The Gathering for gardener how many of you know who Martin Gardner is if you don't know who Martin Gardner is he is the father of what we call recreational mathematics he's also like the champ he used to write for Scientific American doing the puzzle stuff and most of you who've done puzzle II type stuff like in the newspaper or in magazines he probably influenced that somehow he's a pioneer I've got much respect to Martin who is no longer with us at that conference basically I found we had two camps of people we had mathematicians and we had professional magicians which is a really interesting mix and I met this guy comes up to me and was introducing himself and apparently how many you know what xkcd is yeah so xkcd had written a comic strip about the tool that this guy wrote and he came up to me and he he had heard that I was like this puzzle guy and I do all this puzzle stuff he goes I made this thing and it got a lot of press because xkcd featured it and I was in like his website cuddles kind because nobody is it I said you know what I'm gonna use it I want to use it DEFCON I'm going to give you credit for it I'm going to make sure people drive you so there is a tool and I have a challenge for people at this conference find the xkcd comic the tool in the name of the author before the end of Def Con and come to the 10:57 room and tell that information to me and I will have something for you so that is me giving kind of like a mini challenge to the folks that don't want to get hardcore into the competition it shouldn't take you very much time with Google to find but in his algorithm he is able to put in a number and generate functions and equations that produce that number now you're sitting yourself all this is passe this is easy I have lots of processing power now I will just do an exhaustive search bullshit or any of you understand how complexity grows that is not what this guy is doing and this algorithm is brilliant and I bring it up for a reason because I'm convinced that someone out here that's in hearing what I'm saying right now is going to look at that and is getting get inspired in a way to use that algorithm because I have an intuitive feel that that particular algorithm is applicable to some other aspects of what we do as hackers that I haven't quite put my thumb on yet and if one of you finds it just give me a nod or something I don't care but I really believe somebody out there is working on a problem we're working on an exploit or working on something in security that this particular algorithm would be useful for I don't know what it is but I'm throwing that challenge out there and you remember I said this and it's being recorded so when some guy wins a Nobel Prize or does something amazing I'd be like I helped make that happen and that's what this is really all about okay I am about dead on my feet this is what I have for you guys for 101 I want to know if you guys have any questions for me because I prefer to talk you guys are new to Def Con ask me anything you want like hey I'm new to Def Con yeah what type of IC on is on he's asking what type of chip is on badge who knows what is it it it's an Intel court D mm what does that mean means it's x86 compatible mm yeah any other questions before I fall over and we set up for the panel no no quite really no question I'm give me carte blanche like why do you wear those shoes why are you wearing rod serling on your shirt yeah yelling you mean like this oh the lanyards so so I have a question for you why would I make different lanyards and then just give it all out in picture Oh meatspace DDoS this is me to be after the after the fact so generally people that compete in my competition tend to write up descriptions of what they had to do to solve the problems and I guarantee somebody will have done that so it this is confession sorry guys I usually count on them doing that so I don't have to I really want to thank you guys for coming out I hope you yeah yeah go okay so I'll save it for the panel multiple right I'll save for the panel thank you guys for coming good oh and these are awesome Gunnar glasses that I love so thank you guys for coming


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