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Pixel by Pixel: Visual Regression Testing in Ember

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me this is my 3rd accountants finally so the value speaking and I'm still die right and this is pixel-by-pixel visual regression testing in yes I am I and the commander incorrect complaining per se and press is excellent open-source amber app it's 1 of the few sorta like production without you can go just like you all of our source and find all of our bugs and fix them for us if you want to answer yet it out you can sort of see how we do things in our Member up it's not number 3 comma decimal 0 yet but we're very yes so this toxic comes
in 3 different sections will go through when explore the problem space of visual testing in general red talk about visual as a solution to that problem and we talk about how we architected perceived to sort of attack this from of all jump into the problems this so the promise business underlying this
there's quite a few of the tools and techniques for for unit testing like we all have a really good understanding unit testing now and like embers testing story is is pretty fantastic especially compress and everything else and you know we build all the systems we have we can smoke test all the way you know you can smoke student deployments in right and then testing right integration test you can do really specific unit tasks and we have we build these grand machines as Concourse C I would have like visualize deployment pipelines and you know we we can release hundred times a day right and but then how do you test something like this
so I don't actually know what happened to this is a real blood ahead of like 4 years ago the maybe the text is gone now are like the text is the same color as the background or some something and this was fixed by filing an issue from 1 of our customers or here's another example is 4 4 of
age of an app I used to work on this is how it's supposed to look and we made a change and then I think is like 4 weeks later we found out from our customers that looks like that and you also exactly happened in this 1 to read and so we affects lot of things the look like this because we're we
here on mobile and and then I'll Interpal sizes like 6 months after this this happened on the page look like this so I reported that melting and so in the business this is what we call a regression right
and specifically this is a form of visual regression so usually what I want to do in a situation like
take take this 1 for example is right a
regression test for like write something so that this never happens to me again and
so here is like an acceptance test for something similar to this so just a simple all you know they describe something it created a project to revisit a page on some information we click a button and we have a set of expectations about what happens and as part of that test there's a problem here in terms of like a regression for for that particular change right this this thing still passes the button still technically works it's just visually wrong right and so what am I supposed to do here to make this a regression test for this particular about and I source select assert that there's some class on this thing or a like it has a CSS computed style or that maybe the color of the thing is equal to something and did and I've seen companies do this what I'm about to show you is totally real this is an example of of what
test suites end up looking like if you sort of go down this trail without like some boundaries around it and so this is like a sort of scrubbed this you can't figure out who it is but like this is this is called the use have to work with and you know if you look really futurists going to look at this there's some stuff in here like expect that the post dismiss button does not exist on the page so you're writing expectations for things that like don't exist which could be everything right and and that's how you this is not even the whole test the whole test action like this and and maybe if this is like a critical part of your infrastructure that you really need this level of coverage but you know goal rename this component you know what will you have to do to maintain this test it's it's all of an insane and then there was you know examples of us all over the code is because we created like a culture of testing this way right and so there's just got to be a better way so how we had
a list today in sort of like launching product changes every day anyway I knew who insisted Q right QA is very necessary it something we all do work when I can stop doing any time soon and but it's very manual it's very expensive and very errorproc right it's a big it's a big leaky process which is right why things get through to production all the time and it's it's impossible to catch everything especially tutoring like very manual QA it's you know even as an example on showing you there's like thousands of possible possible page states and permutations of the spade states and the product is is constantly changing updating and getting a futuristic to keep up with that as well he also relying on you know people's memory to remember what the page look like before so you're always going to miss stuff anyway because we're not good at these things so the problem fundamentally like boiling it down to this is that pixels the changing but we only test with underneath those pixels right were only testing the abstractions underneath the pixels not the pixels himself if you take that 1 step further than that you even all of our current testing strategies and methodologies we still lack visual confidence in our deploy so how can we know what pixels are changing and how can we get this visual confidence in the changes that are making so an answer to that is this thing called visual deaths and who hears heard visual this or perceptual there's a good handful people and so the culminated even things appalled by perceptual this repeated this visual this this CSS this from public you ideas and then they go something like this they're they're pretty straightforward overall so given given to
images what is the difference between these 2 images like computationally What is the delta between these 2 images and and that could be something like this
so all the red pixels you see here are the the pixels that change between these 2 images right and Qatar stuff like you know the draft chat shadow got extended down like things you may not think to to act a call out of her saying what are the differences between these 2 images and initially a couple of examples of visual
that's depends if you take these 2 side by side you probably if I give you a few a few seconds you could figure out all the diffs that their provide show you the visual that you immediately see what's happening in these 2 things you can see the big bars changed flip back-and-forth that the danger buttons on the link is gone and so they may not catches as easily like that the and and thumbnails in the bottom has has become catalyzed and then you can also see with confidence that nothing in this like nasty table has changed right so it sort of gives you this quick reference find what what I need to carry on this page what's like visually change here's another example of a from of
production have a look on me to this is an example of it back in change manifesting as a front end failure so this is like a rails Apple where the rails form object got into some weird state that light cause wouldn't you see here from the visual therefore the like do you agree to the Terms of Use checkboxes just gone so you probably can't see this form anymore probably will this error anyway that's actually gone as part of this this change and you can you can see how like because you know all the systems the sort of very intertwined and the interleaved a lot of ways do you might have back in changes that's if you're back in and front end our are coupled in some way that might manifest as a front-end as a front and failure or the front like change and
another sort of example visual so calling out is the fact that a 0 pixel change key this is a really important signal for you because it tells you with confidence that Tate hasn't changed so my my favorite set of like changes look at as you know 999 visual this didn't have any changes and 1 day right because then you know you don't have to go look at those 909 changes there just what they were before the sort of previously approved and so this is a really strong signal
to sort of get a sense of you know about where that what what you actually to care about in
terms of your what's changing in yet so how we make this all
this and it's very easy so if you have the ImageMagick a library installed you can use the ImageMagick command-line tool called compare given all the image given a new image and it did output image sucking G and will generate a little does for you and you have all the different options so this you can bypass and factors like color color blending and thresholds and you can get like different you know transparency and stuff and it's a it's a really flexible way to sort of have to sort of make these us so just a handful of like use
cases for visual this this you can use these to catch the direction so that's a big 1 right and those test that we were writing before you have to write them anymore just look at the little that the things that have changed and who here is afraid to delete yeah basically everyone it's terrifying right you have no idea where that's assesses used work were smarter about this in the Emerald world right where we can like component as the CSS and have like next to the thing this'll scary and so we just don't do it and then you end up with like a huge amount of CSS interact so at visual this year top 50 pages and then go deletes and CSS and see what happens nothing changes you probably pretty fine to like what such a triad and making dependency upgrade the safe and I love the sort of like a combination of like something like IO and and person doing visual this because then you get this like automatic pr that both agreed your dependencies and then also you know that no visual changes were impacted and just goes through a no human every inside and says electrical poles of coupling there and testing visualizations I think is a really important uses for this Fastat stuff I don't I'm not like a D 3 expert by any means but you can write tested the 3 but usually just testing like inputs and outputs and your visualizations but you don't care about that you discover what it looks like threat and so if you can just has to be like a final output of the visualization and no 1 it changes that's a pretty effective test for what you're going for an so that little lists were done down
so why are we all doing this today and the problem of course is like with anything in technology that it just comes with a whole host of more problems and so on talk through that's so the problems there I like to talk about them in 3 different categories sort of tooling and workflows and performance and nondeterministic rendering will go through some examples for this so the tolling were flows like sort of just the 1st questions that your brain like where we stories images what's like the golden master baseline of them you know how we proving changes to them or restoring in our repositories really generating them from you know developer machines acceptor there's a whole bunch like tooling cut questions around this particular thing and then performs I actually think it is the biggest cause the biggest blogger to sort of doing this an industry right now and in all of this is like a huge part of this because I am an example sort talks through the the timing of this
we assume they listen perceive that our you know the pages themselves are 30 thousand 40 thousand 50 thousand pixels high and and even normal pages can take 10 to 20 seconds to get a full page lossless PNG generated from Chrome headless or whatever using to generate screenshots so surrender time for these can add really quickly so if you had a hundred you I stated this and you're taking a hundred screenshots in your in your testing for example anywhere we're like uploading nose and storing somewhere that could be 2 thousand seconds you know it could be the you're adding 30 minutes here test suites which just no 1 wants to do right like we don't watch speech too slow and so I think that this is the 1 of the biggest blockers of being able to do this on right now and something that would startle a lot of time a
pretty trying go through it'll go through go through them and how we handle that and then the nondeterministic rendering of a bunch of examples for this so the simple 1st you can think of is like animations it
will have let animations on the picture of Figure visual depth of a page has an animation on it which visual diff are you going to get and you might that get this or you might get the steps or you might get the stuff that depends on the frame of the animation that you're actually visually distinct and and that is not useful at all right like you this is a pure CSS animation here on the left I can instantly see as a human at what's great on British shipped out of that that that's fine and that that is a list of sorta liked loses signal in this in this particular case so what we do in Proceeding ensues on our blog to his
we inject sincere suddenly into the page like aggressively that turn off CSS animations and turn off like animated GIFs and any other things we can sort of control for to make sure that they just as like you know no visual this detected between these 2 things
and dynamic data is a big issue so we've like we've only tested the abstraction the nutrient exodus of the pixels yet so once you start testing the pixels you have to care about the fact that you've used fake data all of your testing its randomly generated and so ever actually has a lot of could mechanisms help fix this really
fast so sort of Anbar approach that really fast here you can use the readout seed give a random number like a stable number not random number and and it will generate the same seeded data every time Q testing so all of a sudden you're your fake data is now stable even that's still fake and or also our friends are a take a 5 minute thing called remarked each which you use the sort of free state AB unfreeze that the that helpers and then all of a sudden all the dates that are generated and test suites are all the same to you moment J ust moment just all of a sudden have the same stable date and all of a sudden your your visual disco from pretty noisy to very stable very quickly with these 2 trucks and then sort of a bunch of things
that are just much harder to control for so
like if using old test browser is a a Rails examples like fusing captive are WebKit and cover where k is a fork of WebKit from sorry that fans investors also of was a fork of WebKit from like 7 80 years ago was looked from the Chrome 14 and to just as they don't render the modern where we're moving nicely into using Chrome headless using Chrome helpless unlike a modern browsers for these things now is becoming less and less of an issue but you know you can see here this flight doesn't support web fonts doesn't know what a border images there's a bunch of other things happening here for
like Phantom just 1 point 9 before the recent 2 comma decimal 1 and then before it's going to bash it has like dozens of support background images wasn't floating things correctly and then have to think about like what happens when you're going through browser upgrade cycles because you want keep this of modern anyway so there's a whole sort of like maintenance part of this discussion all
and in some stuff we couldn't per se that dislike what's like what happened in this 1 so what for example once we got customers said hey sometimes this buttons hover is triggered and sometimes it's not what could that possibly be so I made this this thing and so that to proceed a 50 times and this rendered much of times and each day of just is a response to hover active and becomes green and every once in a while there be a green square and I learned that even in the X via the like the Linux virtual frame buffing window environment that's like the lowest level in X windowing environment you can have still has a cursor and the cursor is in the middle the screen and sometimes depending on what Windows in front of it would trigger harvested and so that's how we fix that you know the closer to the nets it's subpixel
anti-aliasing and you know this is that if you render a GPU a rendered gradients these don't actually guarantee that division happens the same across different UPU chips or difference and like compilation fracture flags for the software that you're using so like you render pro-GPU GPU a degree of of 1 machine in year rendered on another machine they probably will not look pixel-by-pixel the same and or if like fonts I'll get upgraded on a machine that might be antialiased differently or if they're just bend there happens to be a performance load on the machine at the time in the browser may make trade-offs to actually like render things faster and less accurate right and so there's a bunch of things that it's really hard to
control for these things and so go back to our questions like how do we know what pixels are changing and how can we get confidence in our changes overall and I started thinking about this in terms of like will have use of our barn code right now like how are we getting confidence in in our code processes and and it's it's seems kind of obvious in retrospect but you know this is kind like reviews you get a lot of benefit out of code reviews that
you're not getting from like a static analysis tool in the winter or something else right you can your friends and your team will say like you know we don't need that system anymore we have this other system here are like here's a different architecture over spot bugs the you you can you did mean introduce but we get a lot of benefits from these this could reduce cycle that we have on our teams and so is there a way that we
can do that with these kind of visual reviews to have like a real visual review cycle as part of our coders used and and how can we make these visual reviews as easy as could use so asking that question sort of sort of making me reframe this in about 2 different ways because you have to care about like the tooling workflows you have to fix the performance problems it has to be as fast as like you're the rest of your environment has to be as fast as you see ice we can't really be slower than that otherwise you're introducing more pain not not actually fixing the problems and so there's this whole sorta like review angle well and so moving moving from now to like the architecture firm reverse mystery how we've sort of try to tackle these problems and then dig into how and the per se actually works underneath and and how that it sends up such a person and what we're actually doing on the said the architecture long so very quick down and offers
2 minutes so you just in solid se then you take given any of your like acceptance or component tests you have and you just import the helper up at the top and then you can just drop a line into any of the places in the test we were you want this kind of visual coverage so you can make visit page filling click and then after your expectations say OK now staff of this page and knew this across any component acceptance test suites the bike and then you just sort configure your CI environment to build talk to diversity running test like normal and that's kind of it and so then what we do with that on our side as you go through a new crater poor plus like you normally would and then we noted the PR and we say hey who even knows you know you had 2000 testers passed like functionally everything's ready to go on your application there 21 visual changes know look as part of this part of this change so then you you click on details and insert a jump to the perceive you for this 1 thing and what we do is show you a side-by-side comparison of what has changed in Iraq so it's some left is a master what's on right is what's about to go out as part of the and there's the visual that and and you can see just by like clicking the visual that here on the right like this is what's underneath and and then that I you know I meant to change only this blue button up here in the top right but actually a whole bunch of things in this space that I didn't anticipate and we support being able to do this across like different mobile and responsive with as well so you can sort of configure amber procedures in your normal conveying environment JS which break point with you actually care about by default then we render all the pages of those difference in those 2 widths and we just show you all the dust side by side you can sort of go through its see like that I'm gonna dinner break the homepage call-to-action button and I know exodus didn't look at the home page as part of this change and this is actually the travesty IoT page which per app which is also an open source and a look at and and and we can sort a support all of the different types of of states that you can get your amber tests we into so like you know this is a pretty complex you area like logged-in like the drop dancing clicked in like a bunch of other things that happen on this page and you know we can tell you with confidence yes something is changing like that drop down states for that particular thing that you have before you actually have shipped and then if you if you're not happy with the changes push up a new change and the changes that the percival runs again and we generate all this and you can sort of iterate through the process and what a happy let's say you're happy with these changes or if the it is also the quickly approve button in the right and that marks all the changes as approved and and what we do after that is marked the PR status is great so that's only symbolic of visual review cycle that's what I'm talking about like go back and forth all the way through this every time you and if you are not like on some staging server not in a QA environment later just do this as part of our normal development day-to-day development workflows
so what are we actually doing underneath this thing like a scanner magical like water what you actually did and while thankfully we've been
able to get rid of this kind of stuff right we're not ready a bunch of expectations about that what those things have changed
and so we do underneath this is you you may think that worsening up images to proceed as part of those the snapshots but I say that was like a lot of question marks here because that would come along with all of the same performance problems and of the rendering difficulties we talked about before so what we actually do here is we stand up don snapshots so we just take a capture the additional along with your like development assets ship that up to per and then we reconstruct the state of your page on our side in a customer in an environment that specifically but built for visual testing and then rendering duties visual this and if you think about that it's a great way to sort like represent the page because the the lossless version of a page is actually like most efficient encoding format for pages just the dominant it's not like an image of the page with a video of the page it's just the garments the state of the page judge created a new test and so we should not up to us and that's just a simple like you know here's some HTML kind of call and then we actually go go further than that and just sort of very deep in the weeds for a 2nd we shot 256 fingerprint all the assets and I dont snapshots that we upload so effectively whenever upload anything twice so you know first-run not because slogan after that you sort of are only shooting up the differences in your assets to us and then we can sort over the performance of the rendering on our side and indeed Avila Center like what we're doing news we as you test run you should see I environment we extract a bunch of metadata about like you know what the was this foreign you you have like a paralyzed build environments that kind of thing and then we talk to get haven't commit stenoses and then sort of in that box that
is per se underneath we have like a bunch of stories in a sort of a rather spaced scheduler that does sort of job scheduling because the biggest performance when we can make with this kind of architecture is that we can paralyze that's completely out of band of your CI sweets totally asynchronously you to send us down snapshots and then we dedicate you multiple rendering fresh multiple rendering machines to be able to run these browsers and do the best you can actually sort of tune and as fast as you want to go and make it really part of your your CIC so that Saddam snapshotting architectures really helped us get to be able to solve the the points of of that I'd been going through of like what were the problems we had on this so
yes we and we integrate like the gap pr workflows performance becomes as fast as you want and then like determine surrendering becomes like a concern of our team right that we have to spend much time we making this environment the right giving the tools to build control it when it's not and this is this is working right now we rendered almost 50 million visual this se chains of open Chrome and Firefox like 50 million times and in 50 million visual thus and so it's it's embraces the the sort of architecture validated in that way and to make visual this useful so that I can leave you with the fact that there's all testing is possible it's a thing we can do now it's as much about like the philosophy of what's going into as much as it is about the tooling of it and it requires like a team adoption of this kind of work flow in the same way it's sort of like you dig through code reviews Nigerian processes and like ideas about that visual testing is very much the same the same thing and you just feel like like an iterative code review process and we should all have full confidence in our deploys going forward right like this I feel like this is 1 the last steps of the CEIC the pipeline hasn't been automated is unique in all these tools and techniques and then you get to the end and if you move the CSS file you start to go look at it which is kind of ridiculous right so we should just be automated not fully anyway so you can have full confidence in years in your CD pipeline and then this specifically with you wanna make sure to like start with breath the visual coverage over death the visual coverage so go like 1 component and had like 25 different tests for that 1 component and you also new relations as anywhere else in your app right like 1 test set every acceptance tests and also you really nice broad coverage of your your applications changes in you can sort of tune what visual coverage you get over time as you as visual Russians come up or as you determine like this is a critical part of our stack we really mean it should be testing these pages and then you sort of massage your test suites to prefer this determines data and freeze time versus what we're doing right now she generate random data about the time the not now so there's lots of really easy to do the things you can use a number to make that that's it thank you very much that a look at it again and yes so the question is can to commit for like that bucket another private posting for for source-code we in data was they get have enterprise insulation and we're working on like get lavender documents so coming coming soon so the question was and we mentioned a lot of this is open source is all the diverse and no it's all source all all the SE Khazar source our front and is open source of them might be it yeah in the back and all the render environment stuff is the thing that we we build and maintain figure out and and this
fact the new my
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Prozess <Physik>
Desintegration <Mathematik>
Mathematisierung
Gefrieren
Determiniertheit <Informatik>
Iteration
Zahlenbereich
Kartesische Koordinaten
Dicke
Code
Homepage
Homepage
Virtuelle Maschine
Multiplikation
Iteration
Softwaretest
TUNIS <Programm>
Bereichsschätzung
Rendering
Prozess <Informatik>
Code
Gruppe <Mathematik>
Volumenvisualisierung
Visualisierung
Zusammenhängender Graph
Figurierte Zahl
Softwaretest
App <Programm>
Suite <Programmpaket>
Open Source
Relativitätstheorie
Quellcode
Elektronische Publikation
Visuelles System
Datenfluss
Quick-Sort
Teilmenge
Scheduling
Verkettung <Informatik>
Suite <Programmpaket>
Offene Menge
Rechter Winkel
Mereologie
Gamecontroller
Benutzerführung
Computerarchitektur
Eindeutigkeit
Unternehmensarchitektur
Programmierumgebung
COM
Binder <Informatik>
Quadratzahl
Datentyp
p-Block

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Pixel by Pixel: Visual Regression Testing in Ember
Serientitel EmberConf 2018
Autor Fotinakis, Mike
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Unported:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen und nicht-kommerziellen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen und das Werk bzw. diesen Inhalt auch in veränderter Form nur unter den Bedingungen dieser Lizenz weitergeben.
DOI 10.5446/35695
Herausgeber Confreaks, LLC
Erscheinungsjahr 2018
Sprache Englisch
Produzent Confreaks, LLC
Produktionsjahr 2018

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