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Enthalpy H, entropy S, GIBBS energy G the main state variables in thermodynamics, CARNOT cycle and equilibrium - How to express energy, chaos and instability in numbers

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this gentleman I'd like to welcome you to our call off physical chemistry 101 Lions Dr. Nobel and it's going to be that in a nutshell lecture about 11 in Poland reading with a range of energy and energy life state variables without 1st getting used to today I would like to give an overview of the most important of these variables on each and the P. S entropy and GE it's free energy FIL 11th look at the role in its own perspective perspective it considers systems but at this stage we describe as they with whole state variables properties or besides
using the well-known the variables pressure-temperature watermen songs don't expect expect digitally in around other variables of the system and mostly described energy that pr the of some of these changes changes said the change from initial to final state is called a thermodynamic process all particularly columns of the following questions how the energy change you remember however this is also chaos change during roses and most important however is the ability to change during the year blends questions
quantitatively and there's real numbers we need a new state variables F and G each majors vigorously to universal all open with a review of the
theory of age the yeah so B is the measure of the
amount of energy contained businesses the greater the energy content of the system but radio it be yeah I hope you will introduce among other reasons to concisely is the 1st floor of the is a fundamental theorem of conservation of energy the total energy of the universe is constant to blinded lawful process the energies and and popular systems and what happened in motorists custom soundly each variable in science must be matter although the absolute value of the entropy is not available and that these changes are easy to make each of my the heat which is measured in spontaneous isobaric roses He's a P corresponds to lot change that the grows variability this change to a date variable for this specific and the people depend on several properties of the system in particular on temperature on fees and on chemical composition yeah the has no natural know in chemistry is so-called standard formation and of the very common yeah copies of all elements assessment of our we said his they are very sad to you FIL let's 1st look at the physical process through an evil the that when I 1st local physical psychic processes to colleges the Congo engine is
already moving to temperature T
1 and teacher he was the high temperature key to the low temperature he Q 1 videos
from the top level into the condo engines the engineers of
useful worked out and you will to the surroundings and also further
he she to and those in know about the direction of of the cycle of the engine operates as a condo he energy however the 1st law of common with brooms the 1st law holds for the consideration of total energy
we see the amount of energy in the
Cardinals of all energy and that energy must be connected it is a sign convention may fall again in Cuba and as follows humongous
huge you know that the red is equal to 0 common of the 1st floor according to the equation it would also be possible future is equal to 0 as you know she was correspond to the negative of the of the year with you in this case is
forbidden by the 2nd call the 1st clause is a kind of a constant in the universe that make sure that no energy is lost the
variable which is just part that energy is somewhat higher the grant them near it is the at the rate by the the entropy is a measure of the chaos in his a measure of disorder a measure of energy distribution of negative information follow processes of in the universe and you will never be clean and we can only stay the same and the reversible case all injuries this statement of the 2nd law the end of the Mikhail something new because whenever measurement of that the can be done by measuring heat the notion of the reversibility which occurred in the process of workers are immigrant grocers divided by temperature results in a kind of he was Cheech he will which corresponds to the end change and sample the entropy depends on temperature phase and chemical structure and in addition to and a piece of the offense very much on the the modern humans the grade scales the greater its and and we have gotten constantly and the and natural this is the main message of this law the entropy of a perfect crystal euro and the euro cup when I returned to O'Connell engine and consider the things I knew and repeat that where the entropy change changes the the 1st
lost about it and it is not affected by the following consideration we
consider the roses and tropical the hot temperature is a 1 it is also the which means that the entropy of his little decreases by the amount if you wanna know what he in character of what he
to entropy increases at the change that has to equal kr mutual over T according to the 2nd law the sum of the end of the chain you must never been there it is written here what your multiple processes only in the limiting case of reversible processes such as here and the idealized call process is equal to 0 in the reversible kind of roles the sum of exactly 0 0 promise the 2nd law for the condo engine and it is not a good thing it's efficiency each we combine these 2
equations for the 1st and the 2nd long and speculative commotion negative w you look you along if I is the efficiency EU we see that the efficiency must always be there than 1 the common and any other reversible engines hello klinkenberg he into the best efficiency in the era of the case would be bad teams over T 1 for instance that capture all the funded patterns what you want and we are the parents he but that half of the adults he you won't can be converted into work this limitation applies to any engine for example for the pope planned or these events he is there's some kind of not noble form over energy and can be converted to the new world order to some extent the upper limits there's a condo efficiency the reason for this limitation is the 2nd law if we combine had appeared at inappropriate manner we get the
cream a useful state variable g gives free energy of free and G is a
measure poverty in the ability of allied with Apple the and of the she is applicable to a process without considering the entire became confined to this free and PGE a mental instability would spontaneously increases
Jean may be calculated by the degrees from H and as the wages of call it gives had was agreed G is measurable as useful world that would show up in a reversible process it's free energy depends like age and as on Devonshire phase chemical structure and the
reason with or it and what each and and our view upon the gene on the elements at 200 and 98 each shows
that the physical chemical or biochemical things can be characterized by specifying the editors changes of women in state variable the Apple change that age the Manjul the energy change the actually change that a measure of the change in his office and that energy and matter of change in that ability when there have been changes positive the process is called and the from and will be the final state is greater than the activity of the initial in the other case Fernando the misbegotten X of the pros
if we consider the change of a K as during process we may distinguish between in and build trophic process chaos only them increases and the next from across the caves decreases locally most important changing the
free energy is the this gives free energy increases during the process this final status more on the development of state with the government and the guy process if the energy is negative the final the is mosque even is the it's an exergonic approach the
specifications can be applied to any the comparison an example to have on this this is a carnal engine and the sample is iteration water at 25 degrees C middle layer the liquid water random partition says what they the only guarantee of modern labor and clinical use his and 1 it you our energy losses with the the following and put people in going from the pure interesting to the pure virus they and put the increases if the
increase in and the process is fully populated use kernel they're looking
through the entropy glasses we see an increase of chaos and the system during the process Nantucket difference between the pure initial state and the pure state is 119 Jews Pomona had and then the endoscopic rose the most important the discussion of it's the energy the prof I shows an overall increase in instability in in going from pure liquid water to pure gas what read then she not then the pretty it and he changed is 8 point 6 fewer promoter for the endergonic process find the is indeed more on paper than the initial but between the initial state and finds the there is the minimum free energy corresponding to a maximum of stability this is the equilibrium of the water with the referee and so this is a standard reactions so I then the process will come to stand the macroscopic from the
standard state free energy change that the gene all often called standard rivals standard of the memory pretty you can kind of get written constant of her that he sample for a chemical
treatment the decision of and to poison and the form of growth we have of 1 mole of reactant ends to all 4 of his 9 point to me he's a killer due the entropy of 2 motors and to this 66 comma decimal 6 4 this corresponds to the standard
processes and quality of about 57 the entropy increases
the association to but the complete reaction would increase from 300 1 3 to 479 are one-sixth he was worker and and the Tropic process not the most important
that because you can use it to directly detect and characterize good it gets energy brought by clearly shows the the broader and 7 points and you more stable than the reactants 102 you but the thing that a reaction which is then it gives energy the most stable reaction picture a
mixture of about 80 % conversion and the greatest standard this mixture corresponds to the Caribbean state with the law of mass action those fewer reactants and products will react to was written down here the it gives you energy brought chemical
elements in action Apple p accurately and give me and he all the most important variables and honor each process can be characterized by specifying data H that and that energy age is a measure of energy at the measure OK and g is a measure of all is the ability of Of particular
importance this gives free energy brought by a process since its minimum determines it base of watching spot
Physikalische Chemie
Herzfrequenzvariabilität
Chemische Eigenschaft
Elektronen-Lokalisierungs-Funktion
Genaktivität
Gibbs-Energie
Physikalische Chemie
Bildungsentropie
Chemische Forschung
Herzfrequenzvariabilität
Leukozytenultrafiltrat
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Chemische Forschung
Matrix <Biologie>
Phasengleichgewicht
Reaktionsführung
Chemisches Element
Vitalismus
Chemische Forschung
Vitalismus
Altern
Herzfrequenzvariabilität
Chemische Eigenschaft
Körpertemperatur
Chemisches Element
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Chemischer Prozess
Wasserstand
Körpertemperatur
Tieftemperaturtechnik
Allmende
Allmende
Biologisches Material
Phasengleichgewicht
Phasengleichgewicht
Oktanzahl
Bildungsentropie
Chemische Forschung
Verdünner
Kristall
Chemische Struktur
Repetitive DNS
Claus-Verfahren
Körpertemperatur
Elektronegativität
Chemische Struktur
Krankheit
Grading
Zunderbeständigkeit
Verletzung
Chemischer Prozess
Körpertemperatur
Bildungsentropie
Edelgas
Thermoformen
Elektronegativität
Kettenlänge <Makromolekül>
Ausgangsgestein
Chemischer Prozess
Boyle-Mariotte-Gesetz
Herzfrequenzvariabilität
Gibbs-Energie
Schlagsahne
Chemischer Prozess
Gen
Altern
Chemische Struktur
Phasengleichgewicht
Phasengleichgewicht
Gibbs-Energie
Chemische Struktur
Alkoholgehalt
Chemische Forschung
Chemisches Element
Chemischer Prozess
Physikalische Chemie
Aktivität <Konzentration>
Reaktionsführung
Biochemikerin
Karsthöhle
ARS-Element
Chemischer Prozess
Biologisches Material
Gibbs-Energie
Alkoholgehalt
Abschrecken
Wasser
Klinische Prüfung
Chemischer Prozess
Reaktionsführung
Gibbs-Energie
Zusatzstoff
Wasser
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Chemischer Prozess
Brillenglas
Biologisches Material
Gen
Zellwachstum
Gift
Memory-Effekt
Reaktionsführung
Thermoformen
Gibbs-Energie
Bildungsentropie
Zuchtziel
Tillit
Reaktionsführung
Elektrolytische Dissoziation
Chemischer Prozess
Reaktionsführung
Mischen
Zuchtziel
Massenwirkungsgesetz
Altern
Herzfrequenzvariabilität
Gibbs-Energie
Base
Lactitol
Chemisches Element
Chemischer Prozess

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Enthalpy H, entropy S, GIBBS energy G the main state variables in thermodynamics, CARNOT cycle and equilibrium - How to express energy, chaos and instability in numbers
Serientitel Physical Chemistry
Autor Lauth, Günter Jakob
Mitwirkende Lauth, Anika (Medientechnik)
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - keine kommerzielle Nutzung 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen und nicht-kommerziellen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/35435
Herausgeber Günter Jakob Lauth (SciFox)
Erscheinungsjahr 2013
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Chemie, Physik

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