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The making of a chip

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the but welcome or a FIL of the actually 1 thing I sort of don't have my notes here there among backfire the think you are much the the the the great and I hope we're actually ready so to this talk about the is about the making of a chip and I sort of see the slides here 0 there we go finally have great to see also we're talking about fabrication all microchip integrated circuit model exactly cutting edge technology but this something that could build the speedy 8 now 34 years old 35 years old 8 years older than I am but it has something like
has something like 135 thousand transistors there should be the di showed over here and I hope the rest of much hesitation is not the same because on my laptop at work anyway and so on on this slide we have that is so there's a dining here there are 135 thousand transistors and the minimum feature size so the minimum size that you have there in this idea is 1 of 5 micrometres so that's already something but
so just let me quickly give an overview of how all field effect transistor works so down here you have the the silicon substrate in on itself silicon is not very conductive that you have 2 ways to make a conductive and 1 is 2 In plant charges into the silicon and this creates positive In the case of substrate or negative charges and they can move around and transfer car in that way and so you see here is that there's the source region and the drain region and they're connected by themselves the but they're separated from the substrates P. region by the depletion region where there are no free charges and so there is no connection anywhere but if you know turn on the game the player voltage the this
voltage on the gates here it attracts charges down here in the substrate and the subset these charges are the same were similar ones then In the surrounding source and drain areas and so there is a channel that can conduct current and you have turned on the transistor and so from
this we see already the things that we need to put together to form transistors and in the end to form a 2 so we need to have a way to be oxidized silicon we need to place polysilicon that's the material of which the data is made of we need to dope to comply and other charges into the silicon substrate we need to put insulators because later on we'll from place connections they consist of novel and we don't want short circuit everything and lastly and that's maybe half of it we need a way to patches and the the materials that we created there because while they're the usual but ways to pattern stuff that we know in the macroscopic world seeing things like printing or Bell milling or molding they scale down duties 130 thousand features and not down to this 1 micrometre size but we have a way to pattern light window that pretty well and we also know materials which undergo chemical reactions and we use both of them had to selectively take away or add done layers of material the the so enough
with the theory you we'll start to go to the clean room 1st of all we'll all put on clean room garment and the kingdom shoes and also and this is in order not to contaminate the room so we have all these particles on the closing of that's dead skin cells and we don't want to follow them everywhere also take the silicon wafer over here and that's where both on
so 1st of all for the lithography and that sort of the answer to the question how we can introduce a pattern on this film of silicon which this year in yellow that 2nd I 5 sorry and and not all into this silicon substrate which is been gray here so 1st of
all use and coach the substrate with all for 2 reasons and then if you put on a
mask this selectively blocks light in some areas and other where'd households which light can go through then you shine light years through this mosque and this gives
you area as follows the 4 to resist which undergo thought some reaction which makes them more soluble in some developers solution which is exactly what to do you
place in The Wealth of solution which takes away developed sir exposed to resist and leaves the silicon dioxide in some areas Baron otherwise coated but and then you
can at last make actual step of all taken away the silicon dioxide and afterwards but to solve away the resist and you have your whole here in your but in your wafer in in the silicon dioxide layer and the way for but
right so but let's look at the equipment and the steps in detail which contain for their which make up for to the top of the so and the 1st thing is you code you wafer and that's the works by placing the wafer on that to you a spin coater and place Likud font to resist on top of the phone wafer and the spend it quickly it what happens here is that the folder resist that sits just the top of the surface of the wafer this will stick to the wafer but the it and nexus wafer which sits away from the surface this is accelerated and it's bonds of the disk you can see a nicely droplets that's been just off the this and this leaves you with a very even when they are all for the reasons
the next thing you need is the mask and here you see an example mask which as the patterns that you want to transfer onto your the lies and this 1 has 5 times for devices on them and in each of them you can sort of the geometry that you want to transfer it take both the mask
and the coated wafer to this mask aligner then and important part is here at the center yeah so In this
thing here you put but the mask and this is a chart where you put the wafer and here you see a microscope so what he doing here is you know move you can move the chapter and the and you move over to and so that it's the lions the with but the mask on top of the especially if you already have patterns on your wafer you need to align them to that the patterns on the mask when you find with the alignment and you have to be really careful there because I mean you have the details which are 1 micrometre so indeed to have dead or off a curacy and placing the mask to the the wafer when you're fine with that you switch the microscope to your light source and that's light source they this all it emits ultraviolet light it's contained in this box here end it it shines ultraviolet lights through this mirrors year on Europe devised partially blocked by the master and so you end up with your resists done exposed thank you to kick
it out knowledge from pr nowadays you don't use this mask aligners anymore but usually step of scanners there waffles like this and you don't really see what's going on there so what happens
inside is dead and the mask was not placed on top of the wafer anymore but it is separated by a lens and you step by step the and expose all chips said you have on the wafer the and this gives you several the size they don't need several copies of your pattern on the mask it also allows it to scale down the image here which sort of 1 the it takes away some after a while necessity to have the Spirit of of really small there structures well-defined the the but on the other side and you you need to new now move the mouse end also the wafer because you have this but and this line of lied and you need to do this with absolute accuracy so the I nowadays of futures I'd just 29 meters anymore and so you need to have the accuracy of this both movements here and not just has to be perfectly aligned so
let's actually developed a resist and that's now using he just put it inside the
the the OK thing that doesn't work sorry about that so you just put it inside the developer solution and this well dissolve away the exposed parts of the resist and my leave
you with this thing here so the Dakar as CEO nets areas where you don't have resist anymore the light areas there silicon covered with the resist and you also see this crosses here they're useful alignment of especially when you have the details already on there you can use them to align the master to details you also see here and that there's quite a big of there are contamination particle here it's something they 5 micrometres in size and if you imagine this would be here but obstructing this connection here then the device would be unusable so that's why we need to have this level of cleans teens inside the they're clean room in order to have working devices so all in all you have the resist taking away here by the development instead so it's gone to the
actual come the material the and picture of an take away of material and you could use the watch etching process that you probably know know just some the contested and just put your the way for inside of this but rather we use a sparse matching machines so the place you wafer inside of this and also the Asturian inside of the chamber and then ignited plasma so the
situation is now this you have 3 and I and Sierra and then accelerated to you the way for me no an etched away the expose the side here so the them ball the oxide gets away words not protected by resist if you had used and wet etching so just placed you're wafer inside Likud and then you'd have the problem that the only could etchings tropic and it would be further go and edge still cited below the resist the and with this the plasma etching you have the ions that just go down here and have this redefined motion in there the resistance capable of we well covering in protecting the oxide so this gives you an effect but better resolution and that's why using
but so we need to find by DOE partially can now this happens inside the implanter and again you can really see anything so we're
trying to schematic so you start with the science source year and this MIT some irons which are accelerated fly away into these magnetic field over here and this magnetic field them on a curve path and different types of ions day follow differently curved paths so you have this here which selects only Dion you want they fly onto substrate and created then the the In this case they created negatively charged well inside your positively charged but substitute but the you
now continue to grow a thin oxide that separated sea-of-gates from the substrate and that's quite easy you just place them into a furnace just way 1st flow oxygen during through it the and then there are the silicon oxidizes informs the gate oxide so you can all vary in the thickness by a of varying the time and oxygen pressure Nelson temperature the the so next part of the
gave the actual gate material done this is step persisted in 1 of his chemical vapor deposition machines well known so the you see here that it's not chamber and you flow silicon-containing gas then you have the ability to heat the chamber with the use of all the heating elements end non whenever but a molecule of this gas hits some surface it gets converted into atomic silicon and in case of the wafer does snow cover you have not covering all the silicon over everywhere on your way through
so you need not to form the gates just etched everything away you already know this plasma etching new eyes so you take away
the the gate pocket of oxide Nd but in the it polysilicon everywhere that you don't want it and this for this you also have a 4 2 lead to graph step Chen not going show here the next
thing is you know you construct the source and the drain regions and for this already seen the ion implantation machine and form hero positively charges inside the substrate you might wonder why you need how and this you know why we have deposited this uh well of negative charges 1st and then continue to of positive charges and that's because actually there are 2 types of transistors in the inside the chips
there but these are complementary so they use either negative charges or positive charges to and conduct current the that actually gives you the time the possibility to actually switched things otherwise you'd have just turn on and do need something to turn off the end that's the complementary transistor you also have to here and the situation that you don't need photolithography to decide the the regions which are doped but you just use the oxygen which is law in there and also the gates so everywhere where you have a of naked subset showing you change the done the doping by implanting ions and that's called a CELP aligned process so you don't need to align and you no photolithography instead to your existing pattern so this this gives you a much higher accuracy because you don't have any alignment errors and all this basically allows you to scaled on your devices which is obviously what you going to do now we're nearing the end of the
fabrication the done read have up until now we have working transistors but they're not connected really anywhere and while they are not very useful if they're not connected so we want to place metal but I should now be them conductive part exposed everywhere so 1st of all we're but depositing some insulators that's again done in this chemical weapons 8 chemical vapor deposition chamber but now not with silicon but with silicon dioxide forming guess the and you see
what happens here formed form a layer of insulator and then afterwards now use step before lithography to batch 9 those inside insulated to actually con that connect your Gates sources and drains the almost
ready you know 1 deposited the EC the connection layer and those the last piece of equipment that I'm going to show so this is now began the vapor deposition device but this time to physical deposition that physical weapon at position than you know due to his load lock here you wafer transferred into the process chamber here and turn on the deposition the a
sputtering machine which means that you have ah Ghanaians which bombards some material source end you can see here that the Due to the I bombardment there's a plus bubbling up In this ions they sputter owlet atoms Anjela actions and this creates a covering all
of the are metal on our way through a
way that so we almost have finished ship but 1 we have basically hopefully a working to but it's still we have several copies of sitting on a wafer so we need to dies the wafer all that means cutting it into and a single chips that we have and then we'll put it into some package bond connected to the outside world that's by placing the use of wires that you policy here and then close to package and well then you have a chip just sort of have to be tested whether it actually works but I your finished so far I what would be
best friends in a chill
fabs so I mostly suck showed you research equipment which basically works the same way but in Industrial fads you basically I have robots doing all the work because I mean it's repetitive work and humans in this process are well they'd be contaminate the clean room so it take those of the human sort of 13 room and have roaches doing all the work and then you're better off so and sort of leads to a that you don't see everything you just see some robot carrying your wafer into the next there process but all right and
I know already finished somehow at this was much faster than that in my testing so we'll can already have to late I few OK you all know did you make games that is all microphones please q behind them and if on the stream of single angel will relay you questions as our human interface device I'm so start with Mike to please I think this was a great talk um my question is can you do in which a player sigh I thought there chips with multiple layers and I wonder how this is done yeah so they're sort of 2 answers to that so in the newer chips and this 1 you have multiple mesolayers layers and this is done by basically that repeating
these 2 steps over and over again
so then if you Bolton insulator and then on top of that place Con Ed all the edge contacts and placed the connections and nowadays you have on the order of 10 connection layers and I don't know if your question goes on to 3 dimensional flesh should sort things like that no but it's only the connections that are among its multiple layers it's only the conic this if users and stuff it's only the connections of focusing here my might number 1 6 best reading what kind of art techniques could you reduce that would enable users to check the conformity of what was a UNICEF into the uh in on a diverse uh with the original each frame microscope of election microscope yeah so it was you know on the witty and my 2nd question would be pursued according to you to invent or developed very low-cost technology that would go all of us to check the integrity of the integral that separates it would have no devices like we do uh a shot 256 and a a piece of code alright so 1st part of the question is how can we analyze the functioning and this is really a really hard task to do so nowadays you're talking about billions of transistors and they don't exist on their own they live so they they only functions through the connections in between and so you can check whether the fabrication produces the transistors that you want and how all this works is you all you 1st dissolves the package and then take so successful the microphotographs of microphone not microscope images all of the layers so start with the topmost metal layer and then selectively etched away every layer and you all you basically can reconstruct the layers that utilize made of either the forcible true I'm sure that uh some parts were currently adopt on what we have energy that's so possible I mean the doping level you can actually see the the semiconductor just looks differently but I mean it's still possible to to just change the functioning of bit and have completely different of functioning of the revised this is something that other people to actually have demonstrated that you can sort of change a couple of transistors and that creates a bacteria in your CPU want of such exactly and uh Masson question here on the west yesterday's do you think it would be possible to invent a low-cost technologies need on our thing so I think that the average so thank you much the before please ask a question please thanks for the task and I'm just wondering myself how default to muscular is going to be printed editions working so you also need to use some lithography but this time you don't use of rays of light Bud arrays of electrons and electrons you can curently the shines somewhere it can make array of electrons go into some except location and that actually works with much more precision than optical topography you could somehow use this to and create the CPU themselves but distilleries scale because you have just what it basically is very similar to this all cathode ray tubes did the big money issues that we have before array of electrons going someplace but it's just 1 very tiny daughter of maybe 10 9 meters and you need to scan all of your surface with this electron beam the and then you have resist which are sensitive to this electron beam change their chemistry there and you can solve the partially way thank you very much please hello otherwise a reverse or halt 1 dies almost 1 the so dates because what's the mean he be the way 1st they are catch from the cylinder all flow of silicon and that's 1 crystal and then it's just the most simple way of producing single crystals in this big size but my by Ken but
concerning this square crystal
complicated buttons
I have not seen growing office square crystal actually I don't know but but I mean it's for it's definitely more simpler Javidan this round size the the Mike and the 2 plates of stories don't
use that the only light source used for full to look from top refused you be blocked in the water and computes
the size of the diol solely small what light source to you it's there it's actually school years ago ultraviolet light and that's is really a wonder how you can make Perraton so small so they use hunt 193 anatomy there's light the to produce features the size of 29 a meters and usually there so it's order of rule of thumb that says that you can only have features half of the wavelength so little bit over 99 meters and you use some techniques which them basically you can overlap to even sequentially the image of 2 beams and there would then while multiple time expose your resist and this if done correctly can create for smaller features thank you the might number the 1 place at so in the plasma etching how they modulate how much material such you removed and the photo resist destroyed the same sense that the so 1st part 1st of all you can control and measure the current of plasma let
me check where the slide is this
1 here so by the
so basically you can I mean these are also charges right and you have played CO which are 0 which have a potential difference and you can measure the current through this and this will be proportional to d but the mind instead of 1 the that act on utilized there was a 2nd part is what resist destroyed in the sense that no at not necessarily you know destroyed so you have some attack on the folder is used if you have a default is stick enough you don't care been there this is slower sacrificial layer it gets to solve away afterwards anyway OK Mike number 3 planes thank you I I would like to ask you about vertical stacking just mention and that the current use through silicon vias how do you make the holes in the chip the this the I'd say also with fetching but I actually I don't know units soaring OK it and they to 1 place uh yeah regarding just is small feature size whatever before a state action loss of photolithography not in here but in other mediums is is actually true or not so the unit that under water and within liquid where the wavelength changes exactly you can use of water and this has low dispersion well it it it changes the as of the wavelength of your ultraviolet light by a factor of 1 . 4 4 and so now you have 1 . 4 4 times smaller wavelength and you can image things that are 1 . 4 4 times smaller that's correct it but it doesn't it's not the whole answer to how can you produce patches that 29 meters with 193 none light thanks number 3 places and my suggestion regarding the bonding and and modern CPU you have up to a thousand contacts and to you didn't mention letters and this the bonding down and to then emissions cool dimension the radius as right what this is squeezed around the edges as for instance two-dimensional way nowadays so basically it looks looks somehow like you or the ball grid array package but now I mean the spotted array packages also some kind of substrate and on the other side by side of the spotted array you have a similar range and this time it's not while it's similar to solar but it's actually bonding bolts and you use that what you you put the wafer upside down on this and the bond does by actually the techniques somehow like soaring you knew the top and then the the balls will attach it do we have any more questions note then please thank the speaker thank
we have a of that yeah I mean if you wanna continue actually I have a question myself and this question was is that some all possible to recreate something like this process in a sort of do it yourself away and I think it actually might be possible so I think well I mean a physicist so I think that the most while significant step to this this this but disposal mythography all turns out actually the cell from devices dead great sums kind of pattern in this microscopic dimensions and that's called a Blu-ray broader so maybe in the code used we're a bird are to create a pattern or the Eurydice but in all to 10 that would be sort of the 1st step that when x is necessary to create 1 integrated circuits of oral and which are no there no we we can trust these things so because we develop them all of the way if someone wants to come in microphone 1 place so there is the question what is the size of a you against the maximum size of reusable I full 1 word try this it on how small would have to be actually usable all I mean you saw this lady 286 and this says the patterns of the size of 1 . 5 microns and I mean have much small on the order of 400 down meters smallest feature size so all it sort of points in the direction that you could create patterns the size and I mean this would create a functional if not very fast the chip no and His nodding the Mike number of places and if you were 1 to grades achieved at your home rule uh equipment how will you do the doping because I think you need some kind of way queuing for it and all that stuff it's not that easy to handle that's not the only part where you need a vacuum by the way that the well what do can just by vacuum comes and for the implantation thing you actually and that's how it was done in the old days you can just flow us over the uh the wafer and this will partially diffuse and the silicon under the right conditions I mean you have to heat up the way for and then the guys atoms will diffuse into the silicon so that's much easier than these iron implantation you as but it's also not as accurate as you can control the doping to that accuracy do we have any comments from the internet by the way I haven't seen the signal Angela nature's article and Mike number 2 place concerning the sulfate stuff and what are the tolerance for the thicknesses of the substrate of the removing and so on because if we get it within like 10 per cent also that probably we can't do it but I don't know if I can do it by hand with the accuracy needed well actually that's what you need photonic photodetector few for no you don't rely on the etching going something like 29 a meters plus minus 0 . 1 per cent but you rely on the next material being different and the etching stopping at the layer between the on that don't no material change and so that would be actually easy I hope thanks and at Mike in the fight you know optical guide so here talking about the you making your own chips but I don't really think it would be very economical for feasible in the reasonable way to make it at home but there are a lot of fabrications out there we can just send your design and make it there would be more interesting to really create a platform to make that more affordable so we can just order on chips made customer at the fact actually there people actually more companies that go into that direction you may have heard of 1 of disease risk from B on processes out there by submitting their call sigh 5 or something that when actually 1 of the things that they want to do is offer both fabrication and so on has sort sort of as a service I mean you can if you're a company and come up with their own design you can already but do the manufacturing as a service that's what 1 of them will basically all of the big FAPs all 4 but if you're just some people then the following that it gets easier but it still while expensive could get Mike 1 place no yes I also want to comment on making these ships at home and yes I agree it will probably be will at least very hard to do this because you would need to miniaturize the equipment and stuff and it would be to be cheap and well if you could actually make chips that small at home you'd have a lot of problems I think with book as he said he does free environments and stuff and and now might be possible but I think it's probably extremely expensive or it would take a really really long time to mature the process that much and I don't think it would have that many people in the world interested in making their own chips and if you don't have that can affect not economic factor driving it's I don't think it whatever work and regarding the other guy saying well you can just sense your own plans to the fabless well if you talk about so modifying these ships or preventing the modification of the ships and preventing someone from installing pectoris you can really Senate away and be sure it's not modified I mean you need some way to are actually validate that you chip is not modified at all and as you said you only need to change a few transistors on a scale of book 29 readers and you have the back door and you wouldn't be able to prevent that if you just send you down design way it's a the I'm not really on the same side of you but I will just leave it as a common I guess of yet well I don't know you can
you can answer of course the just also the call and I think I mean by the form for the fabrication I think for me as a person it would be extremely rewarding to get to that point to have my own chip made it sort of builds the final frontier of making you know you see if I don't know I was just I'm not I don't I don't say some possible Madam station to it if you wanna do it do it you can do anything but uh well there's a lot of really high obstacles to get there I think differently yes and concerning the other thing all it's how you it's much simpler actually 2 x the chip and then at the micrographs and also see whether ordered sort of chance solid so it's but I think it's quite hard so to put it back for like that it all definitely much better you on a much better position than when you just by some until 2 the following year of I mean yeah you would have to take the intuitive apart of course I will I get the impression it was far from what we said earlier because I understood that you needed to take every layer part to actually verify it and not you can just use microphone microscope but if what if you can then of course all it's easier but it's sort of both eschew are sisters in your you're not in the best position by the setting up which and then sort of hoping that that what you want what the checking resolves to the well when when you check turns out through that you're actually fine but it's also well the the other side it's not really no good part you the yeah so that you could maybe implement some kind of check in your own ship designed to check if it's been tampered with you know some kind of check some what what the other guy who was a bit rude said earlier but while it's not like on the hardware level by implementing some gates some then return a different well you once you design has been altered by a few transistors yeah but in need to prove that this actually works out for this course that's also very hard I think there might be people who are doing this but I don't know where this says at show you know positive results yes this is pretty interesting I wanna go ahead and cut you off sorry Mike number 4 plays the height of the fighting at home it's not going to be possible because of the vibrations that you have been in the lab where you manufactured than the cells in your memory it's probably a vibration isolated of dampened um basement and only your neighbors using the staircases already vibrating your yogurt so much that had to modern nanometer-size it's just not going to be feasible for nanometer-size your to right but the fact that the clean room I was dead was actually a not migration free Asian dampened so I mean we need the colleagues of mine produced features of 10 of images so so when they were fine so this is probably not really repeatable but but I mean I'm not really wanting to Bruce produce 2009 meters but I would be fine with the micrometre size and anything at that resolution it's not that much of a problem Mike number to place and I'm asking is it possible to buy used equipment so something which was used sometime some years ago in some effect when just know all told of a because they have better stuff for research equipment that's definitely the case but I mean you're still looking I think gets a couple of 10 thousand bucks the fossils my sister I don't know maybe other universities which are not that well and OK to again in case the control commands equipment like rent equipment the 2 being into helping in developping of a process for making trips with this to raise but let's talk about this after words so the thing that you have to know is that do we know each other and world there is a previous discussion going on it do you have anything to add apparently not all actually someone at might number 3 price my soul silicon it's not the only processed areas to make chips can speculate maybe be bearers of possible future in other words you can 11 soul for of produce chips space no for processes I thing silicon will be there for a while I mean you have processes which enable you to communicate with light to the outside world and that's a lot of word today's processor are well bridging a boundary with electrical communication so once this is out there and silicon-based devices will be fine for a while I mean sort of the the next thing that drastically would change and once you go so for a while not switching based on charges but photons although everything changes but I don't really see that happening that's way question was going right and just as another and semiconductor material from all semiconductor materials so yeah there are other semiconductor materials I don't think for processing of 4 for basically the most . stuff low there's something else coming up I mean for power devices those silicon carbide and obviously you for a light emitting diodes and stuff you use of other some materials the OK someone's walking two-microphone fall no RED of anything to to say no I'm fight OK well let's think diary thank you for this great discussion we had also things for the guy with the laptop what to you
that it is it and uh and to the it and but act but at
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel The making of a chip
Serientitel 34th Chaos Communication Congress
Autor Ari
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 4.0 International:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/34903
Herausgeber Chaos Computer Club e.V.
Erscheinungsjahr 2017
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract You are surrounded by ICs. Yet you probably don't know much about how such a chip is made. This talk is an introduction to the world of chip fabrication from photolithography over ion implantation to vapor deposition of the connections
Schlagwörter Hardware & Making

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