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History and implications of DRM

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but and and
and the and and and yeah well digital rights management or DRM the I remember several situations where i've been struggling with am I went flying on a plane in my music wouldn't play or I would have to burn of music onto a CD and it wouldn't work and I could use it and I needed tools to circumvent that end up to here are listen to things that grow protected and limited theorem come from and where does it go well money probably going to give us some answers on that she's uh the company manager of the Free Software Foundation and she's giving us an overview on durum and um also claim soldier was going to be implemented in working in the future and what we can do to so commended or to some yeah tried to some get rid of theorem this please give a really warm round of applause to money it hi a time only on my face when children of I'm terrified right now but I'm glad I'm in a room with my friends and I'm saying this because you know it's very unprofessional I'm pretty sure after this moment you will be able to tell and terrified and I want you to know that it's OK OK so
another quick note about me I'm not a lawyer
I know very little about the law actually on but I kind of sort of know how to read policy and I kind of sort of know how to talk to people that policy I'm really good at reading Wikipedia the but I also know that user freedom is important user freedom is the idea that we have devices and software and technology in our lives and that we have rights and freedoms with response to that they however user freedom requires free software requires software freedom I'm going to be talking a little bit more about that sort of relationship later on but I want you go into this talk knowing that I believe I know that software and technology needs to meet certain requirements in order for you to have the rights of a related to it that you need and is so now it's a single Europe
some people say digital rights management I say Digital Restrictions Management because it's not about rights the term digital rights management carries this idea that that somewhere maybe even you have to have something that you get out of it out of DRM but you don't write the only thing it does is it restricts you and your interactions so how is Dr and
implemented it right now I'm acid
technology itself 1 of the ways we see it most commonly is that you have this piece frequently media sometimes other software on that sort of wrapped up in this encryption this is a very technical explanation as you can tell the on and then somewhere down the line you have your device where you were required to install another piece of software usually proprietary almost always proprietary and then your software somehow décrit this other thing and allows you to interact with it on someone else's to of so some of the ways that we see deer an action is limited use either times or number of times that so time might be I I really lucky I live in a place where the library system lets me borrow e-books however there are only valid for so long because of the dominant so unfortunately I don't borrow e-books of it's a great idea of more number of times something that happens in video games especially as you're allowed to install them some number of times 3 or 4 maybe and then after that you lose the right to keep using it a persistent online authentication this is
something else we've seen in video games are too great consternation of the public at various points on where you can only use that you can only play if you also have a connection to the Internet I say that this is very classes because there are plenty of places where people just don't have internet connections and especially not neutrality issues coming up which were not gonna talk about any more but we can talk about later on product keys and you know when you get your copy of Windows hopefully you don't have a copy of windows but he did happen to get 1 but at some point in the product he ordered that you had to put in the here's my fearing example product
is there was this game I love does a child call be incredible machine on and how it worked as you had to get something from 1 side to the other and you were given all these little widgets to put it together the and the thing was the game require you to to basically put in a product he had a number of selection that came book so I'm a demo version of this game but I really really liked it and the demo version give you 1 product key so I used to have to stop the game and started again until it found the 1 I knew on and that was sad when I was 5
this digression here are 1 of my coworkers asked me about video games and how you're forced to follow certain narratives and your punished the athlete this is DRM because frequently when I talk about it especially in response to my work I think this very fairly general definition of the technology on we can talk about that later and feel free ask me questions cool so what
i somebody think DRM is a good idea or why do we think it is not a good
idea right right this is a conversation about their rights in this case is that there then they is these like creators or rights holders on rights in this case like specifically for into who owns this intangible thing may be kind of owns it on and then you on this other side it's like you personally here I'm severity is this idea that the people who either created or purchased it from the creator purchase like the the concept of this thing that they've made up that the deserve your are they deserve your of obedience in how you interact with it and then on the other hand were saying that but you have these rights and that you should be the 1 to set your own terms so what are we lose with the
right so as the people using it we're losing something on 1 of the
things we lose accessibility at when you have a piece of DRM to media or material because you can access it because you can't change it you can modify it you can't use it on your terms you can't share it you can share modifications I think 1 of the things we really loses accessibility in this particular case accessibility refers to the ability to change something in order to make it more usable for people who have different interactive needs right so 1 example would be changing something so it works better of the screen reader websites are a very good example I don't know if you've ever looked at the HTML in a given Web page but it's usually quite messy at least the ones I write but it also refers to may be changing the font being used I've heard that but for dyslexics in a sans-serif fonts better on but if a web page is presented in a serif font they would have more trouble reading it color for color blindness is another issue art right we make amazing are people make amazing art but I don't even wanna go as far as to say that the end of the year remixes that come out where somebody took all the Top 40 songs over the course of the year and then put them together for 1 song kind wanna call that remix really that is the part that takes skill and talent and thought and creativity right and that's something that you just can't do when you don't have access to the media there's convenience of course as they hurled his name I forgot I'm really sorry I mentioned but he's been in situations where he just doesn't have access to things that he wants to have access to the there's education are in the United States at least you're allowed to use any piece of copyrighted material the not a lawyer of in an educational context when something is the and that you no longer have the ability to bring it into any context especially if you're trying to work in a place with limited technological services or limited internet service that's too too quick examples I have this is I used to work at MIT OpenCourseWare and 1 of the things we do is we would package courses on 2 hard drives and send them off to people 1 example is a was reached an idea juvenile prison in Idaho where they just weren't allowed access to the internet and another 1 was of medical training workshops in West Africa of those are places where people lacks a sort of you know privileges and access that we have here of free speech high helps a lot of you get this 1 so I'll go into too much I'm riparian not replacing we're gonna talk about that a lot more later on when we talk about 1 of my favorite things which is tractors but and sharing spirits and human connection but I don't know how many of you this is true for but for me I love books and I love reading and I find myself reading a book that touches me in some way or that I think is important valuable and I want to share it with someone because I want them to understand the better I want them to have this new idea that has really affected my outlook on the world you know I can't do that I can't share my experiences with using this opportunity for connection because I cannot give them something some some company somewhere else things I don't have a right to it I translations translations
on this is kind of related to accessibility if for example you have someone who only speaks you know anyone given like with like me I only speak english of I need to have things translated for me but when you have these restrictions that can be done so dear and
causes lots of problems but does
that solving the prob also I because you 0 people still really insist that it
does it turned out it doesn't solve any of them the of 1 of the things people talk about when they talk about DRM as they talk about hey rating they talk about people taking things they talk about loss of profits on it turns out that there's been very little if any of replica fashions of for not having dinner media of I can never in a that
entered circumvention laws which is probably a little bit more exciting but here's another quick note about me
I'm not a legal expert but I'm really good at reading Wikipedia thank you are so this is
some stuff I wouldn't I in 1996 the World Intellectual Property Organization created this copyright Treaty the World Intellectual Property Organization but is a conglomeration of nations is 191 all or maybe they're on spuds you members and then some additional territories and other contested areas who all got together and agreed that DRM was really important and they needed to make some some of the new to make policy use across the world to protect the sanctity of it right so in
the United States we had the DMCA Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 on
this is a lot of stuff normally I like to read slides are in case anybody has trouble seeing them but I'm not gonna do that right now because there's a lot I just want to highlight that the DMCA actually does give you permission to circumvent these restricted technologies right you may circumvent a technological measure that effectively controls access to a particular portion of the program to achieve interoperability of an independently created computer program that's really easy to understand right so interoperability
me that was my next question so they have a clear definition later on and that's a little bit of the code like Title 17 code which is a useful of interoperability is computed the ability of computer programs to exchange information and usually use that information this actually a pretty narrow definition on but people are still scared of interacting with that right sharing
software for the purpose of violating or encouraging others to violate copyrights has been held a legal on so at this point in thinking and talking about the implications anti-circumvention laws have were beginning to understand that the intent matters on so when you create a piece of technology to get around anti-circumvention laws you're taking on a certain level of responsibility that it will only be used for research or for interoperability as opposed to people doing whatever they want with it like a legal services i.e. breaking on 1 of the little anecdotes here that the US houses in theory this is slightly less restricted a the media policy the of 1 of the things that happened in terms of chilling effect so this is a lot of people who would otherwise we want to be a circumventing this DRM decide not to because the risks are too high and the damages can be too punitive
the In 2001 the EU got bored with the Copyright Directive it's I think that I had a
laugh thinks of this ensures adequate legal protection against people doing a bunch of things up for the purpose of circumvention right so so it's it's it it's slightly different way highlighting what's a legal here right but you're kind of a lot to do sometimes in the same way you can use the DMCA where if people are using it for non evil evil not a legal purposes that's fine the became
known to talk about 2 case studies but tractors the Web standards but really quick
I think this is super cool I think this is important talk about but this was a radio made available at the in Germany in 1933 it had a limited number of stations that made it work or that it worked on other this all numbers station was actually because the dial would only click to certain frequency is so was the really easy actually to take apart and to change that but it was illegal to do so I thought this was ridiculous and made me angry and I saw
this on Kickstarter on where somebody did the same thing but maybe even more ridiculous by putting another artificial restriction so you can only listen to 1 radio station on I
propose that we think of this as just as device restrictions management we're we're creating these artificial barriers you're free to make up your own back in for DRM I did so I
want you to understand that the DRM impacts the
physical world this is current i they make these automatically it's this coffee maker that uses little parts of tree ground coffee on they did a thing for a while there were they added DRM to it so that you could the machine would not work the off machine would not work on unless you're using a occurring designed and sold little part I think they call them yeah the richtsnoeren type
attractors why tractors I love
vegetables so I have a very deep personal investment in farmers being successful in providing the lots of vegetables but
also tractors are really cool they they're like really
cool the bad thing I think the and
i I I i and and root of John your specifically the John Deere flicker group has more than 14 thousand members right so not only attractor is a big deal John Deere has the following in at least the standard right so John
here also acts and requires buyers to accept this end user license agreement that disallows repair activities up so how does it does allow repair activities national that we have the use of computers the scary computers and everything that have all this technology on them that are locked down in different ways you need to have special devices to translate what the computer inside those to something that you know but in cases of farmers specifically you'll see things like you have to hire repair person might be expensive to come out talk about it on up right so if you want in your own device it's not it's not that expensive but you're 40 year warranty when you're interacting with that so this Euler in this particular case makes it so that you just can't prepare your own tractor but
this is made possible by anti-circumvention
laws they so we have anti-circumvention laws that were created to protect DRM but they're actually infringing on other user freedoms especially in response to technologies ethical technologies so John
Deere has also it is protected itself from things like crop loss or you're lost profits but because you know when there's a problem with the tractor that's their fault and that you can't fix because of that I something of
that sort of fits into this is this idea precision agriculture which was designed around the concept of Big Data and that when you're driving a tractor and you're actually creating and generating and storing lots of data a there's a group called
compact this rules out to them I think the super cool they're all about creating designing and sharing different kinds of farm equipment to get around the sorts dierent issues there's also
its standards state Web standards are designed by the World Wide Web Consortium are there voted on by member organizations are becoming a member member organization costs a lot of money in most cases on when those are the things that were using to define how people are supposed to do is design web pages as opposed to share information with users of the web
right dear and became a web standard what this means for us suppose the people here is that now DRM is a normalized technology this have pretty recently and what something is a normalized technology it's easier for people moving forward to justify creating even more restrictive technologies but it has all the same downside that we see in durum and other places in even notes on the web and you might think well the Web means I can only interact with it when it's online are more well the web is accessible and people can copy text like you all these changes so you you can do a lot of cases when media especially is being walked down on so why
does this matter on DRM on the web matters because it requires giving up Computing freedom you're being forced to install somebody else's software on your own computer in order to do this thing that you should be able to do otherwise where do we find yeah were the places that we can see at bay so
if you want humorous less check out a Cory Doctorow talk he gave agree 1 that we were planets in twenties 17 on the another 1 at the previous hoped and here's the combined
incomplete list of some depressing places we might find here and or suffer a lot down by anti-circumvention laws including such wonderful things as autonomous drones and medical implants and my hotel room door dierent can be a life-or-death issue I
don't have here that whole list if he did I'm very impressed on because 1 of the things effective medical implants right
on the the audience left that's carried similar levels of learned about wonderful people this is taken it follows them by their bride thinks that Bryant on deterrence and where is a free often use a few activist who has a defibrillator she is a medical implant in her heart will find their Dick Cheney also has an art has a defibrillator in his heart on and when he was put Vice-President the United States on the Y. find it was turned off of the wire-frame turns him hard but I think it started the solution of her talk about it you can take it into that were depth of but the important part of her story this case is when she was in her late thirties she was pregnant and 1 of the things that happens when you're pregnant you get heart palpitations and when you have a device that's designed to shock old man all cocky old white man in the fifties and sixties when have heart palpitations then suddenly you have this woman in her thirties who's getting shocked when she has heart palpitations up this is uncomfortable on it also use the battery up more quickly which means you have to give you a better place and certainly the life span of 10 years becomes a life of much shorter and then you find yourself needing to have heart surgery and get heart surgeries invasive however you cut it we also see vehicles vehicles
a very scary dangers things they kill lots of people on when you don't have control of your vehicle like there is a great little video anecdotes on the Internet of somebody like driving his car and then somebody else's like hacking into and turning off his breaks which some pretty scary to me on your seceded CCTV but when you have the cops for example recording things or the the TV is circuit television on so you also see it in stores where are your generating video footage that can be used in a court of law against someone if that video footage is locked out under DRM that people can restrict your access to it to only be on their terms and suddenly you have a legal team after you've been arrested that can help defend you because it can't see what is being levied against you others also died in general I don't know a lot about the battle laws the very complex but who owns your dad who owns data about you on and who owns the information generated from that data but is a very complicated question and when you're talking about it so we realize that maybe you don't even if you are not even able to access it maybe they would share it with you if you paid a lot the and all we interact with it on the terms
so what can you do you can do things you can make
things right so you guys can make devices you can make a media you can make companies that you can be a book publisher and you can share and give and sell DRM-free e-books and that's amazing you can be an artist who makes DRM-free music you can make an organization or nonprofit you can make things together and taking the communities that are dedicated to working around DRM you can make policy up and tell everyone the most important thing you can do with any issue any cause you care about is tell every single person you know someone wants give me great advice saying that there's no wrong place to talk about free software and this is there is I doubt about it with my doctors I talk about it with my taxi drivers I talk about the woman who cut my hair because I talk about it with my parents I talked about it at 3 Creek pre pre pre Christmas dinner at a friend's house around the kitchen table but which was so great you know and that's how you get people to care you find these compelling stories and you tell them you find your story or you find someone like apparent sailor who has a great story or you find somebody who has accessibility issues or you find somebody else in your life who needs to have DRM-free media who needs deserve it i circumvention lost to not exist you can also organize there's so many actions we can take as individuals or as groups we can talk to people on individuals we can talk to politicians we can talk to other content of policy makers we can talk to nonprofits we can talk to companies who were buying things from we can talk to people who are using the DRM right and you can do this by yourself but it's so much more powerful effective 1 we take these actions together in groups thank you I like to make some
quick Acknowledgements I hear some
people who I would like to thank in various ways I'm going to highlight the the Congress organizing team for inviting me here and all of you for coming to this particular talk while I can sit with you there are a lot of you although I'd like to thank the free suffer foundation for giving me so much and the members and supporters of the FSF outward organization that's predominantly funded by a small donations and no membership fees and because those things happen I get to spend all my time thinking about issues related to user freedom related to Evan related to anti-circumvention laws and I think that's really great and that helps we come to places like this to talk to all of you about and hopefully your yield for the talk to more people I might also like to thank everyone out there who works hard to fight dierent support user freedom every day I'm going to assume that as my friends all of you are doing this and so thank you so much
and this is just what I like the my e-mail address and my StatusNet images in and In this if you have questions I'll make a quick request that if there's anyone here who has never asked a question before or somebody who identifies as a woman or non binary individual you go to them I could give a question and put yourself in the final thing to look at the line alright thank so we sort of like before there was replaced and I think of this top and and so in the staging of presentation that and source of problems and then there are basically no real repercussions right India and and of course I agree and I just want him on because I'm interested in this subject on so you have to about why there are no record of his freezing deer and up from the perspective of the person who's implementing it on some studies on that 1 of the things look that frequently is financial loss of whether or not selling a piece of media with without DRM matters that to the actual profits being made this is very practical argument I like to focus on arguments that are generally based around rights on which I did really bring of earlier I the like to later I can look up some things and send them to you that talk more in depth about this sort of stuff I know most people are compelled by stories are not numbers I'm personally compelled by numbers thanks microphone number 2 please I wanted to music research into the music and I purchased of audio files which argument in the past and competent by not being able to use them using them later on but then again I've encountered with many musicians who basically lost the source of life because the old model of playing concerts and selling cities doesn't work anymore and also no 1 is willing to play for music played from music except response on-screen services so I thought it would be protecting model of for example to read W and the audio was actually a fair idea and I was surprised that disappeared nothing I think about half a year ago so what would you what would be your argument for those who are actually doing creative work and expect some sort of the material in in some more money right in there and if you don't have resulted in more share of so the question is about whether we like what kind of arguments to make 2 artists who have lost other money making opportunities on specifically musicians in this case but I am not an artist and a little bit from having talked to some of them I think more people pay for music then we give them credit for you would know more about this than I would because you're the expert here and I'm not i've Masonic data around the issue I mean like that I generally focus on really rights different issues I focus on the importance of our interacting with the society that respects like that respects not as the people listening to music but the people creating the music on that respects the music being created are you know I'm in a band I'm very lucky that with my dad and we not only really free media but we also do it under a free license and we do that because we believe that it's very important we actually think we they just about as much money as we would otherwise but that's a unique case that's not much of an answer and I'm sorry you of a microphone number 1 this so I understand that as a user or consumer or maybe even as the there's an it's from the of not having during among medial on the ongoing events and you correctly you don't think that for the so called placeholders this in your and either efficient and what you can show up at the very it it's so this is 1 of the preceding and think the of people of the time when they don't understand what's actually happening in the world I the there here and he leaking were restricted technologies nationally on the work of there's also a lot of people don't trust researchers and research were not a society that respects as expertise but some of the some of research that last day this is the I don't have enough that of my head OK you were last question microphone over to police so this greed and this control of thing for a company you have a real economic incentives to actually implement DRM software goes this control change to the the economy and also provides a vendor lock-in so of making you really durum free software or make India of frequentist I don't see how do schools uh impacts the economic incentives for companies of actually implement this theorem is there a way that we can like Polish companies that implement the around in there and if you have a family that implement yeah and I heard some clapping 11 o'clock that how many have questioned economics and I know that think that people usually is the people with the fear they vote with their wallets that's the freezing they talk to companies right to them and that can be really hard to find somebody within the company who agrees with you but they usually exist and over time they can build coalitions of people there I build coalitions outside of this and talk to organizations talk to the companies that are implemented there and help them understand what's not effective and what is effective but also some of them understand that you were talking about money but money isn't the issue here and it's not the question we should be talking about who we should be talking about is 1 the responsibilities of people creating and owning this ephemeral concept of materials to you and to everyone else into society at large before OK thanks so i'm for so you remember you run out of time so there's no more time for questions please I and guess that's the here's this didn't give another out of or applause 2 which was to watch the
theft this due to the talk
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel History and implications of DRM
Untertitel From tractors to Web standards
Serientitel 34th Chaos Communication Congress
Autor Blanc, Molly de
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 4.0 International:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/34869
Herausgeber Chaos Computer Club e.V.
Erscheinungsjahr 2017
Sprache Englisch

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Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract Digital Restrictions Management (DRM) is found everywhere from music to cars and, most recently, World Wide Web Consortium recommendations. How did we get here and where are we going with DRM? Who really owns not just your tools, but your experiences when someone (or something) else is controlling access to the data and access around them? We'll attempt to answer these questions, and more, in a historical overview, contemporary analysis, and look towards the future.
Schlagwörter Ethics, Society & Politics

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