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Watching the changing Earth

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that and uh and the it so a hello everybody to the next talk here at this stage caloric the next talk will be held in English and here's a quick announcement in German for the translation any serve thought of it in English line on the minor Deutsche should because that's all on down streaming adopt opponent see dialing go pull it all work on 2 of the Hondas of of I know of 40 on it I find it fun Sousa should be above that song Dedham 3 of these in volatile off there will also be french translation as well as a German translation for the next talk and you can find everything under streaming dot C. lean goal docked all ends of hope displayed behind me and the next talk is called watching that changing 0 0 satellite dada and change and the gravitational field of the URLs can tell us a lot especially when there's so much public domain satellite dots are coming in from different projects or maybe CC uh satellite data and how this is done this Newton knowledge finding all of this be people of data this with uh with uh explained by Manuel in uh the talk he drops stuff to see if gravity still works all all in fancy words he does gravimetric methods and sensory in gear dizzy the a that is a pronounced right and and I'm not sure but did the big ends and a round of applause falls begun monolayer
Chen ll ll so and so hello and welcome to my presentation and watching the changing of others this year's a call for papers for the Congress of this opportunity to talk about my work and the related fields which is the gravity as far as Congress is concerned and under misunderstood force of nature so in the following
couple of minutes I want to talk about gravity gravitational and about to grace satellite Missions which maps the Earth's gravity future every month and I'm about to gravity fields and I the show good results and then we will go forward into the future that's nice so it's actually
call actually court judges some and it will give you a short introduction until is the the British Robert termite defined it in 1880 as the science of mapping and measuring the US on its surface and is still holds up today from the different depends on your methods and applications but he was correct and the most known for their profession is probably led so weighing some people was colorful instruments and traffic cones you find them on construction sites on the side of the road uh but you actually have a lot of applications not only enjoyed as he but in related fields like to physics fundamental physics if you want to build an autonomous car you need geodesists and metrology of this talk is specifically about a physical geodesy which is the mapping of the gravitational field of the US and in this case specifically the satellites so I drop stuff on the US which a stressor gravimetry this talk is about select gravimetry the no
gravity interpretation and the usually talk about gravitational potential and this is a scalar field and gravitational acceleration is the gradient of the gravitational potential heavily talk about gravity enjoyed is the it's usually the combination of attraction of the Masters gravitation and the centrifugal acceleration but here we talk most about gravitation as a potential can easily be calculated at least according to this very short equations and we have kept to g which is the gravitational constant of zeros or other planets if you want to do and we have actively will triple integral about the order of and this is basically what breaks the like term we have to integrate about the whole mass of CEOs we divide up into 2 small parts and we need to know the density of these parts so the density times small volume you have the mass of the US if you integrate over it so what the density of the whole us is not known so if you want to calculate the potential sufficiently you would need the density of the penguin on the other side of the what we don't know that so what do you do if you cannot calculate the quantity and you write a proposal and get all the funding but this
is what happened about let's say 20 years ago and the result was the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment or Grace for short In this talk we will only cover Gravity recovery so gravity feudal serious and as we can see these 2 satellites of their of flying in the same orbit and the main instrument this distance measurement between these 2 satellites 10 he see the 2
satellites prior to its launch in 2002 and that this cable and microwave ranging which is the instrument gives us the high resolution gravity field of the of this is spatial resolution of around 200 kilometres and OK you might think 20 kilometres is not really high resolution but we have it for the whole planet and not that say for Germany and also we get the temporal variations so for 15 years now we have each month was only a few exceptions the picture of the gravitational field of the US
uh the satellites flying height of about 450 kilometres 220 kilometres apart and we see here the orbits of a single day so 15 of its today and you take 1 month of data to generate 1 great if you the working
principle is quite simple and the distance between the 2 satellites is effected by gravity so we measure the distance and then the calculate gravity an inhomogeneous gravity field this is quite simple let's say we take a spherical because it has only a single density from act to set lights fly along and the distance between the 2 supplies life doesn't change there's nothing to pull 1 or another and they just move along not changing the distance now we introduce a last it's a mountain this can be any must change of density change somewhere inside the US and the leading satellite experiences the rotational pulled by this mask and of gravitation falls off with distance it is stronger than the pool experienced by the training set light so the distance between 2 sets 2 satellites increases the
now the satellite the trailing edge leading satellites has passed amounts into distilling feeling its gravitational pull but now it's being decelerated because the masters behind and the trailing satellites is still being accelerated toward the mask this means the distance between supplied decreases and finally the 2nd
satellites from and passes the mouse and acknowledge the fuse a gravitational pull decelerating the satellite the leading satellites this feeling less and less corotational pool and once both satellites left the gravitational influence of this mask and we will have the same distance as prior to encountering the mask so the gravitational acceleration is 0 sum at this point so of course the US is little more complex than the single mountain or the single density anomaly in the ground but but this is the basic concept no although we come from
this measurements to the action potential some the former is basically the same as the there's a couple of slides earlier after meals to cook a triangulating the potential and it looks more complicated but we don't have triple integrals anymore that all these quantities in Europe basically easily calculated of and we start with the the gravitational constant and the mass of zeros which you can get from a physics book if you'd like and then give a couple of geometric quantities of a and our but basically the size of my 1st ellipsoid as in the major axis and r is the distance from a calculating point let's say this podium for which I want to know the potential value to the center of the ellipsoid and then we have land the and these are the geographical coordinates of this podium at uh capital P. is a short for the associated lose all the functions of also depending solely on geometry not on the mass URIs depending on software where you want to implement this formula and that probably has already function to calculate this and if not it's easily done by yourself as formulas look very long but where quite simple the interesting part of the 2 parametres just C and S. uh these are spherical harmonic coefficients and they include all the information about the loss of the US as measured by the satellites so we have 2 satellites in space and the user gets just with C and S coefficients which are a couple of thousand for the gravity future implementers form that has a potential value the so the use of the term I coefficients are calculated from the grace level 1 the products so these are the actual measurements done by the supplied this is arranging information the distance between satellites said let all that's the stock and real data and so on you add a couple of additional models for us gravity which you do not want to include in your set like remedy feud and that and you do you processing of this is done by a couple of different groups and J. P L G a set with this the German Research Center for the sciences can I see is ours the Center for Space Research at University of Austin now these through 3 institutes also provides the square that grace level 1 data so that they take the raw satellite data process to the Graceland 1 the products which are accessible for all users and then calculate further these coefficients c and s but there are also some additional groups who provide gravity useful calculate these coefficients and for example Institute for Geodesy of the University of crops of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bonn and they all have slightly different from approaches to topic and come to tomorrow same conclusions there are countless papers comparing the different gravity fuse with each other but the user usually starts with the coefficients c and s and then it takes a formula like the 1 on top of this slide and calculate your credit you value or whatever you want and all of that when talking about
potential and talking about exploration and these are not really useful quantities in day-to-day life as someone told to you I'm ingredient gravity decreased by 50 might you have 2 choices you can say well or can say on no we organized I don't 50 50 chance and you'd say the correct thing so we're looking for a more useful representation of the creditor changes agreed to future no gravity future reflects mastery distributions and the most intimate redistribution we have this water storage as summer winter most no more rain them less water in summer and so we express all remedy change in the unit called the coolant water height this is the layer of water on the surface with a thickness equivalent to the mast change MesoRD measured with the satellites this
is also easily calculated this is my last equation promise um and that this looks familiar the last of the 2nd half of this equation is basically the same we saw the ones like prior to and so the Para meters in front in front of the some of them is the average density of us which is around 5 thousand 500 kilograms per cubic meter that we need the density of water let's say it's at a thousand Cooper cubic meter and in this the fraction of the middle we need the Para mí decades uh which is soak which are the so called love numbers now this is not a numerical them representation of mutual attraction and but was put
forward by I think all about laughter in 1911 and they are para meters and concerning the elastic response of the roster forces so if you put a lot of weights on a part of the Earth's US deforms and these Para mí just described the let the response of the US to such loading now we have calculated or food and water right it's a for 2 months that's in May
2002 and 15 years later in May 2017 and we just substract to these 2 relative use these to include what heights from these 2 epochs then all what we have left is the change in gravity between these 2 approx 15 years apart expressed and the water layer of the true to the changing gravity measured can you can see a couple of features here there should not be any seasonal variations because it's the same month just 15 years apart as always the long-term gravity changed between these 2 approx and what we see is for example mass loss in the northern and southern rice fields and we see tool that blocks someone in northern Canada and 1 in northern Europe and which are due physical processes so this is the case you use static adjustment and during the last ice age and the ice she is deformed zeros Don what to maturity in mantle had to flow aside then all the the ice is gone the let's uplifting anthems mind there's material mindless flowing back so it's fun back in the US is uplifting and this process has been going on for 10 thousand years and will probably a couple of years longer know how do you get data
them everyone can get to the grace level 1 the data which are the observations by the satellite like again ranging information between the satellites and all of its me today just Stockham our data and so on you can get them dissolves kernels that the ISTC which is information system data center at the you Forschungszentrum Potsdam or at the physios oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center them run by JPL tents if you like you can calculate your own spherical harmonic coefficients for brevity the or you can compare for example satellite orbits they give you was 1 year yourself using your own credit if you'd like to see if they fit together or not and you can get credit if you'd models if you'd like a large collection is that the international center for global cost models and they have recent and historical gravity models all in the same got a format so you only need to implement a software once the 19 seventies through today they also have the proper references to papers and he wants to reach to work with them to these a so-called level to products so you can take the gravity viewed from their use equation I showed you earlier and calculated equivalent what I should like them if you don't want to do this and they're some taking and the service quality can last which is a play on words I don't want to go into detail about them they offer a cruel and water heights tight related for each monthly solution from the gray supplies just has a lot about the fear us if you look close ended and the following I will use the monthly solutions from the ITS cheap grace 2016 and provided by Institute for Geodesy at University of about the previous graph I showed you was also created with that good gravity model I'm not going to detail about and further processing like catering and gravity reductions down to 0 to this moment not at time so here are some results let's
start with the most obvious 1 and the Greenland ice sheet which has as we saw earlier the greatest loss of last in the grid according to the gravity future and this year the water layer on the whole describing the change in the loss of mast expressed as a water layer of a certain thickness so that say in the southern tip you have 1 meter water layer this would be equivalent and gravity to the actual masks lost in the screen and but we also see that's what the signal is not very localized so it's not bound to the land mass it's also in the ocean and this effect is called leakage and if you do signal processing and you will notice there are methods to reduce leakage by my next slide was that of the show such a result but I have done no reduction to the so if you use my formula I showed you you pretty much get the result like this and this gives you trend of around 280 gigatonnes 2 year in last loss over the whole land mass of Greenland now we get tons is also not very that useful and expression and and I want you would need of water has a weight of thousand kills 1 town and 1 to get is 10 to the power of 9 tons and if you familiar with small sports and the soccer future hearings once a futurist 140 you meter high water column has a weight of 1 ton I want to get on and or a few notes a sports ball but if you're more often playing guy them although the the ace 388 hand which has a maximum take take of weight off 575 tons so only 1 . 7 million of these airplanes for 1 get on
so this is um the more beautiful representation of the process in and and then by the JPL if you go to the website of the grace projects they have a couple of these and illustrations they obviously worked Harken that hard on the leakage and you can see localized where the most of the gravity most of the mass lost on the left and on the right you see accumulated over time the last which is
lost and which Trent gives you can also if you look closely in the center of green and you see black lines in the so the ice floe um as determined by what interferometry interferometry um so we now pretty much where prices lost where masses lost and this goes into the ocean and this would be a good idea to see to check all grace results from the mask we find missing out
so the medic dies and the additional loss and the Olsen doesn't agree with other methods Methods who determine the sea level rise uh 1 of these methods is
supplied grade ultimate dream was started in the 19 seventies but since 1991 we have so lots of dedicated satellite missions uh um which only job was basically mapping the global sea surface so they sent on the rate poles
which is reflected at the sea surface they measure the runtime and then they have a geometric representation of goes you service now if you compare this with the mask we calculated all we got from the grace result calculated sea level rise from this additional mass in the ocean and these 2 systems would not add up the geometric sea level rises higher than just additional mask so there's a 2nd process which is from expansion of the water the father gets 1 needs more space and in 2000 uh the climate of the so called Argo floats and started the star free free floating devices in the ocean and currently there are over 3 thousand and they measure the temperature and salinity between sea surface and the depth of 2 cells meters the and these are globally distributed and so we have at least for the upper layer of the ocean and how much fun expansion there is and what we want to see if
uh do these components of additional masks in the ocean as determined by grace and some expansion of the upper ocean layer come to the same result as the geometrical measurements done by satellite imagery and on the left we see an image taken from the last IPCC report on climate change from 2013 in green we see the sea level rise as measured with this set led to a tree in the time spent 2005 to 2012 and an orange see a combination of additional last as our measure by grace and some expansion as determined with our go inside the ocean and these tools follow each other quite for these 2 graphs follow each other quite well them on the right we see a recent publication 1 by Chen Wilson interplay the letter 1 being 1 of the PIC to Grace mission and who actually took the data from 2005 to 2011 basically come to the same conclusion um so now if you really
don't want to do the math and so on and services who make the graphs for you and 1 of those is the axiom European gravity service for improved emergency control and if you can measure how much water is stored in a certain area we know that there's a lot of water has sooner or later to be removed from this area this can be a flat for example interests emission like race we can determine how much mass how much water so and are the reverse large enough to allow for this water to be flowing away this was the intention behind this was so
of functional is not the future so I
wanted to do to do lifetime but there
yeah so yeah lighting without
work as expected them so you will be greeted with this graphic and you can plot for all areas in the world and the 1st thing you have to do is you change your gravity functional we want water heights and this is what I talked about it in this talk and you want to look at the data sets and at the bottom you see that a large list of graves gravity these are different groups I mentioned providing these monthly solutions and so we choose 1 of these groups and then we choose an
area which we are interested in you can freely choose 1 area like here Fennoscandia or you can use pre determined areas for example the Amazon River basin or a deliver or something like that and these various are all over the world and you can see the gravity change in these areas so that looking at Fennoscandian and then you readable plot like
this this is a cruel and water height them even though this is that your physical process so we see here the layer of water which would have been added that the still the total region has selected the and we see a clear trend up again this is due physical process this is not additional ice or water or anything can I return to mine were cannot the so we are left with so if you want to do this yourself and I have uploaded to the flower plant and the all my resources all my links and the axioms page also includes the description of what is done in the back end and well data comes from and what you can see in the various fields now I want to
give the last on the future because unfortunately while I was preparing my abstract for this conference at 1 of the grace that light was turned off due to H models lost in 2002 plan for a 5 mission Europe survived 15 years which is not quite good and but now we have normal ranging information between the satellites we had ranging information and micrometre accuracy a couple of micrometre and the no we all cannot realize these information anymore this means no fuse with high spatial resolution and I'm not sure what the temporal resolution so the current work which is done is taking all satellites which are in the low enough all its and calculate the gravity viewed from their positions because everything which is the lowest the orbit is affected by the extremity future take the satellite orbits look how does this all the change and the reason is gravity from I can calculate the gravity future unfortunately not and this high resolution we used to and so but fortunately there already is next
next-generation driven diffusion on its way them the derived last week in the US where it will be launched in late March or early April by space X them you might look at this image and I think I just solve this earlier on and you are quite correct as the mission called graceful along this copy of grace which components of course and always labels and we see not only the microwave ranging between the 2 satellites but additionally a laser interferometry so from micrometre accuracy in the distance measurements we go to 0 yeah the wonderment accuracy hopefully but the main instrument would be the microwave ranging so I Conclusion them by
over showed you that the gravity futures sequential must transport them on the surface inside the that this us in combination with other methods that new insights and also some kind of mutual yeah verification of several different types of observations come to the same conclusion and none of them can be awfully wrong and that the access to list methods are relatively easy the dadaists available from all the methods are described in Georgia's textbooks and the technical documentation and there are other applications of 11 that's a climate change them you can look into draft and flop prediction that the ending to Southern observation that constellation you can predict from grace gravity few data so a lot of work to do the souls mint for what all thank you
for your good will interest in the topic thank you all of the all and I think we have time for 1 or 2 or maybe true very short questions please be seated during the Q & a session
is there's some questions archaic microphone read please yeah I time and the army and 8 as a my question is regarding the acceleration what's the influence of the Earth's atmosphere and those of planetary bodies lie in the in and the city to be accounted for so the external gravity and used to be accounted for us all the time effects of sun and moon and would be 1 of those additional models you put into the processing of this let's data than the US atmosphere has an effect on the satellites themselves which is measured on bought by accelerometers and then reduced and the gravitational effect of the atmosphere and the part of this is averaged out because we take months of time series and the rest also include provided as extra product products at the at least by the Institute for Geodesy and cut out so atmosphere the mass of the atmosphere is has to be accounted for he OK my phone to whereas vanish so all of a sudden event much from 1 of these sites uh that was all the possible
tools some measure changes than the from the temperature of the oceans on the all trees like and can you see at any new effective by just measuring the relative change in reperfused them as a precursor to allow any new will as I understand it uh certain regions of the oceans and I get warmer it's did that to change and Of course this will be measured as part of novel and it's also in the graves gravity future their primary papers on it so the last the extent of last in new was predicted by by grace I don't know to what extent this was correct but came so we know that this all the time we have a big role of a loss for all models how b to be the
set without the and of the war compose the peak but at
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Datentyp
Ruhmasse
Ablöseblase
Luenberger-Beobachter
Biprodukt
Gravitation
Satellitensystem
Explosion <Stochastik>
Web Site
Einfügungsdämpfung
Prozess <Physik>
Gravitation
Mathematisierung
Dienst <Informatik>
Fehlertoleranz
Digital Object Identifier
Zeitreihenanalyse
Modelltheorie
Maßerweiterung
Einflussgröße
Basisvektor
Soundverarbeitung
Ruhmasse
Biprodukt
Ereignishorizont
Dialekt
Mereologie
Modelltheorie
Körpertheorie
Notepad-Computer
Hypermedia
Systemprogrammierung
Medianwert

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Watching the changing Earth
Untertitel warning: gravity ahead
Serientitel 34th Chaos Communication Congress
Autor Schilling, Manuel
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 4.0 International:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/34825
Herausgeber Chaos Computer Club e.V.
Erscheinungsjahr 2017
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract For a few decades by now, satellites offer us the tools to observe the whole Earth with a wide variety of sensors. The vast amount of data these Earth observations systems collect enters the public discourse reduced to a few numbers, numbers like 3 or even 300. So, how do we know the amount of ice melting in the arctic or how much rain is falling in the Amazon? Are groundwater aquifers stable or are they are being depleted? Are these regular seasonal changes or is there a trend? How can we even measure these phenomena on a global scale? This talk will provide one possible answer: gravity.
Schlagwörter Science

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