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Low Cost Non-Invasive Biomedical Imaging

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the without a but and now we come to the talk entitled to low-cost noninvasive biomedical imaging current medical imaging has problems it is expensive it is lot rarely preventively used and uh maybe you've heard of the story of f and their eyes this the magnet resonance tomograph they put in a debt to Salman and they can get a signal from the brain activity from at there's also lots of problems in the software as well a little story is maybe you look it up enter call this whole mass can be solved with the technique open called open electrical impotence tomography this will tell us team rental good the globe of applause for the you thank you hello everyone and today I'll be talking about on Monday in open-source router by medical imaging using a technique that's in our R&D code electrical impedance tomography and not many people have heard of it which is why it seems like it's important to mention I 1st of all
welcome them again and I just give you the vision of what it would be like if everybody had access to cheap by medical imaging right now you only get our image when something's gone wrong and more about you only actually get to use these tools when something's gone wrong in a 1st world country when your lucky enough to be close to a hospital of and have access to these technologies that's a very limited number of people I what's even worse about it this is hard to have so if you wanted to improve this technology yourself medical physics is an amazing filled but it would be very hard to do so because you don't have a 3 million dollar of MRI scanner sitting in your garage and maybe you don't know that that's the few just not many of us do and if we did have achieved by medical imaging we could do things like how do preventative stands so you'd wake up in the morning you'd like take a shower the device would be quietly imaging nobody would 1 you in the slightest little thing when rent wrong you do machine learning over be wonderful wonderful for health care
on so does the vision of what by many of them by medical imaging could be on and the other point is sometimes we move forward faster when we share the information I worked in defense for a brief period and P wouldn't really share information between each other and I think that inhibited science from moving forward certain
sharing is caring and so am today and then go through a few different things under the true current by medical imaging technologies of give you an introduction to electrical impedance tomography so I'll go through the open source of electrical impedance tomography project that go through some of our applications that we could apply it to you and then I'll suggest a few different next steps that we can go into because by no means a finished right now we
have 4 different our main existing imaging modalities and it your MRI scanner which is a wonderful tool it's huge but very expensive are the most commonly used imaging is actually CAT scan which stands up our backs raised through your body which is ionizing radiation which is a bad cubic root causes cancer but in the long run if you get too many of those scams and is that she the 1st hour the 1st scan that you get when you go into the emergency room is most commonly used and as we all know about those grainy images a come from the ultrasound of about of of of fetuses wonderful tool except for the scattering of Jews sound of gets scattered when you have different density materials next to each other and not exactly an imaging modality but a very important of diagnostic 1080 is e g of this so
you might ask how do we classify these right now all we have 3 main types of resolution spatial contrast and time spatial resolution is are basically we are at what our space you can determine 2 different objects from each other both on contrast resolution is soft tissue or subtle differences in tissues and time resolution as it sounds is of how things change over time and how quickly you can do these images together and you can't stand alone your basic machine in a hospital cause 1 to 2 . 5 million dollars and you probably didn't get 1 for Christmas to play around with a well on it's also got this ionizing radiation you got a lot of our maintenance and dedicated technicians and MRI so you average 3 Tesla magnet with its own are helium quenching chamber no less as well as dedicated technicians and experts who can actually read the images on again 3 million dollars an amazing and beautiful technology but it's really expensive amazing spatial resolution the best when it does this something at this very high spatial resolution it actually takes 4 minutes and 16 seconds which is a really long time to take to do this wonderful spatial resolution image ultrasounds migraine needed scattering on how the average cost about 115 K not too bad so is pretty of mental health risks EEG EEG doesn't do any image reconstruction on in fact it does very little in many ways but it is still very useful on your average grade by uh EEG systems 40 K you my also know of some open source EEG projects which pretty cold
OMP so just a note the radiation of CAT is essentially the biggest on cause of radiation on know contributing cause radiation in the United States and
so here I just put some of the those by medical imaging modalities onto a raft so that you can kind of think of some in terms of spatial resolution and time resolution and when they fall in the picture of of common things that go wrong with people like on X rays of CAT scan the great fall for looking at bottom burned breaks on of pulmonary edema that were on the long Island tuberculosis huge in 3rd world countries and that's a problem you know that she needed to produce higher spatial resolution to be undetected and it's important to sort of understand what you can do it at different spatial and time resolutions under like the optimal goal of all of this I put non invasive electrophysiology what that is is high spatial resolution and high time resolution that's where you can measure on uh ion activation all basically what cells are doing when they communicate with each other which is right now the dominant base in an invasive manner
today I'm going to talk about this new technique called electrical impedance tomography and describe well will fit in a month for there already
exists the so what is I again it basically you send out an AC current through the body found say a 50 kilohertz can't and that would take different routes based on what tissue variance sorry can't be might go around some cells and straight through others and that's really important because and differentiating fat from muscle is 1 thing that you could do that you can go further and differentiate tumors from healthy tissue on because of tumors have a different impedance spectra to the healthy tissue so far as you can see that would be very useful to do on this set up here is of of phantom what it is is on the 2nd simulated human body you get some so what out the body is 80 % on water as you might not on the as meal vegetables you put it aside and then you I use that to image so we have current flowing through all these different directions and we we create an image right
now it's used for lung volume measurements this is a baby with a deity set up on muscle and fat mass there's a paper on gesture recognition that just came out this year I'm meeting look at Blair's stomach fullness on this and research papers on progress in kidney cancer detection on there's another research paper on hemorrhage detection for strike I mean also look at the uh this more on the on the depth of anesthesia our in our in surgery as well which would be another interesting use for it so
all of these are sort of in the works of and you might ask rate of sounds amazing of why isn't everybody using already so well that it's it's really hard the technique right now on has a big problem the it's spatial resolution seems pretty limited sorry arm is limited by the number of electorates but I'll discuss some potential ways to get around that on as we go on the mine I ever get to the spatial resolution of MRI that maybe we don't need it to to be useful because it's so competence nothing about is expensive and discovered a source localization and E. J and yet it is non ionizing so as not not harmful to human tissue is also a great time resolutions are has advantages and disadvantages so I'll
just I'll remind you of what the 1st MRI scan look like at this point in time and as you can see from the a free copy it in 1977 and now it looks pretty awesome that's a slice of my head by the way is a 3 Tesla MRI scanner element this is slowly IT looks like that's with 16 electrodes only power and what will look like in a few years time I don't know and I hope that MRI it was is it gives you of a pathway that he as he could take to
so now I'll introduce you to the of EIT project on to the but in the IT
project is obviously themselves and it has a PCB design than an eagle pattern it has come from Lebanon in C has a Python book that let you see the reconstruction time it also has a reconstruction algorithm which I'll go into and you can I get it from getting a writer also
has a reconstruct an image that so yeah so at the i-th right now has the electrodes on them what you doing is you send this 50 kilohertz can't through every combination of those 8 electrodes and you get a different impedance value for each of those measurements on on the left you can see the basically what you're doing you know the electrodes are positioned and answer yet 1 value going horizontally you add it to another value coming from another direction and again and you can sort of see it's getting a low resolution image as it goes around adding those values together if you use many many views you bring the image back
and this is of the Radon transform that's what's called and you basically just 7 lots of current the troops and through these different scientific angles and build up something for the signer grammar which the best
arm and then you convert it to get the image back and I used Open CV which is really common image processing library to do this you can just over the regular image yourself arm and try it out on but what I did exactly the same as what you do with on a regular image arm except I use current to be the input data
counselor to the PCB on in
illegal on the basically it has a few different features you connector for it your 8 electrodes on is running an ARM cortex m 3 which is quite nice on and has a dedicated of Tianjin arm for doing your arm director of Fourier transform in real time which is also quite nice on a date debugger by program it I'm at it's got a plane so all external battery options on the has you want to get a serial data off arm and a few articles of the but the Bluetooth mode and get the data are Bluetooth you tho I going wireless on
at this point you might be asking how is this safe for me to play around with a which is a really great question because of the answer that she ah it is under some guidelines on called IEC 6 0 6 0 1 . 1 guidelines for safe use in humans on and basically we so that should be amended open EIT is less than 10 microamps which is great on because that's well within their guidelines and if you wanna compared to other things the completely legal say on Futuna is right that late-night TV ads for those AB stimulators that stimulate your muscles are about 15 to 20 million wants around just for reference and as a scaled to look at the 10 microamps survey some of you might have use them already and that's the yeah huge hugely are more common than MOA putting treated in his body
here this is what the dashboard looks like does the reconstruction you can connect to serial at baselines you can obviously just sliders to look at the area that you wanna look at you can read from a file and fiddle around however you like to and this is
what it looks like when you reconstruct something I have a phantom i up there which is uh a part of what out with a company that and I make the cop around anticlockwise so you can see in each of the pictures I the around a little bit more and you can see the reconstruction then with me moving the cup around again this might not be wowing me with the resolution only 8 electrodes it's a proof of concept but that's OK this if
we can make this I make this guy will yes that is a real time video demonstration of it His me with a sharp shot glass I'm in Iran and clockwise hopefully you can see on the left the image being reconstructed from in real time now we get to the bottom when you can use the consider that and again up to the top you consider so that's a basically pretty proof of principle version of running a good
I so yet 1st MRI scan of human lungs wasn't that amazing early IT scan was an era higher
something else so that you can use the phone i is I'm differentiating objects are multifrequency this is what they're doing the best canton kidney cancer on scans on basically different frequencies Struthers this times called multifrequency electrical impedance tomography and you build up a spectrum here about an apple a pair of about a sweet potato and uh and some water and I have I've centuries different frequencies and I get these different spectrums that different you can see that the different quite obviously different of that yes you can also just simply classify and on the left you can see where the water is the apple is the sweet potato is all the sweet potato and the apple on a little bit out about 1 that that's basically what you do when you detect Council so that's what I did but
maybe our we should look at the other pages and see what they did because they did better than me and so there's this guy could bitch on in 2014 he published and the spatial and temporal resolution using this technique to under my command is less than 2 ms which covers most of applications that I listed on on on that graph at the start the toll on downside here is that it was the intracranial array so it was under the skull onto very dense electrode a lot more lectures I will use a use like 256 on
so you can see that it can be like the
potential is there so how should we use it
fast was a nice low-hanging fruit fruit almost not medical imaging in the developing world where believe full billion people don't have any access to medical imaging no I'm a I'm a constant I y is the idea that's cheap domestic used to portable to power on so that would be a great place to start what we did
for us on some and that's this image again on and have a look and tuberculosis affects a lot of people in the developing world and you don't need amazing spatial resolution to detect it that would be a good 1 and all what about a pulmonary edema Fourier dinar is and where on the
long arm he is actually already use for that and you can quite easily see the different volume the president of the different conductive connectivity maps it's called on over on a working on it and a not so working right there yeah our next
steps in what should we do to make this technique that on what should we
do find any i t to make it better on if you wanna know innovate again let's forget how project just go ahead
OK that's avocado has a state middle knew why did you know would the
again I say I see the 2 main maps forward as 1 would be this low cost of by medical imaging on for the developing world and you could just stick with the static imaging reconstruction on because why not on you made a few electrodes than it currently has and 1 of the main problems with the technique is and how to get to the skin answer my suggestion for that is wages use a water bath and stick the body part of interest in a body of water because what get rid of a lot of the School of contact impedance problem or on the kind of exciting science from you've got the advancing science option which I would be a measuring both high high spatial resolution and high time resolution sets a non invasive electrophysiology solution all and that would be super awesome and there's only a couple of ways forward to do that and I'm innocent discuss each of those
and so roughly this physical configuration improvements that could be done on this thing that you can do it to improve the spatial resolution on this thing the candidate improve the time resolution and alan this is interesting taxonomy and I thought I'd mention which is right functionality and so when using a small currents to read an image what if we up the count up a little and before you know it you're writing and think noninvasive being deep brain stimulation in a focused way on that would be very very cold
all so the contact impedance major problem right now and there is a well-known solution I haven't done it yet but you do this single differential referencing on from common mode rejection of should be done we haven't done at that's the next step that means that it will work from the when you just attach with electrodes on the body what happens is electrodes are have a like a cat by some to patents on end of different amounts which can interfere with that that the measurement they were make which you want to be very accurate and just of your body you don't include the electrode information and then that's changing on so there's way to remove that that's well known already I and another physical configuration improvements as increase the number of electrodes wonderful naive just improve the resolution on for the placing the
part in water on another set of next steps would be I'm on the mathematical side I mentioned that I use linear backprojection arm which is a wonderful bound technique which is on that's how they that's how they do CAT scanners with so that's exactly what they do however it makes some appalling of assumptions like count of moves in straight lines that is not true but what you should do is get a finite element model and solve Maxwell's equations because has been used around objects on it's actually it what works in 3 dimensions to which might not be all that surprising but it needs to be solved for those 3 dimensions which is why you just need to solve Maxwell's equations and create a finite element model and those of quite a bit of work on the mathematical solutions that get higher resolution and so that's another
improvement area I'm and I know that this dimension is also new technique on which she with does a paper this year code of magnetoelectric Acoustic Electrical Tomography the and you might remember the the FBI rule from high school and so when you have a current flowing perpendicular to that will be a force now that false say it's by reading with 50 houses as the AC signal that you're sending through now you have a vibrating compression wave that sound you should pick that up with a little piezoelectric and element and that's actually a focus of work from that you can get on the really good edge information on because as I mentioned earlier sound status on at edges so you will also get the electrical impedance tomography information for that tissue sensitivity why not on combining those results together and you have a better tool on it currently gets lesser resolution in the middle simply from how you are a combination electrodes just ends up on having a Leicester dense number in the middle arm you can also do something as simple as increasing the power that you
sent through some issue games do that
is a kind of gory pictures on Missouri right now epileptics and if they had a really troubled by the problem which their own stuff may go into the hospital had the right to open up and they stick this array on on the head on through the stolen they leave leave it open for week on and they try to induce seizures through sleep deprivation arm and then they measure the on off the activation potentials that way to locate the folky or where they going to do surgery to stop you from having uh seizures on but it would be much better a nicer if you could do it noninvasively and you probably can't if you've heard the time resolution of the IC there's nothing stopping you from doing that by the way you just have to I get this just of a next step really and then i'll
also mention the right functionality I said there was a paper on the came out halfway through this year on by a guy could not near Grossman and what he did is he i showed that you can stimulate neurones by sending on current through the skull and in a focused way now why that's interesting here is you can noninvasively and stimulate neurons so that's the right functionality on this on what resolution or how it how well you can control of the focal point here and that was the principal beat frequencies so he sent through a to kilohertz and 2 . 0 5 kilohertz ends on basically you have a beat frequency of 10 hertz arise from that and end basically have stimulated neurons in this area that he can control of i in x and y axis which is very impressive leaves a lot of questions open so those are some
possible next steps that could go in obviously I think this is interesting from I hope that
you do to but unleaded if you want to sign up to a mailing list billion a link on the next page on if you wanna collaborate e-mail me if you know any funding bodies that might be interested in the arm that the developing medical imaging for the 3rd world of love to be put in contact if you want a kid and if there are enough people that 1 of the kids on probably of the next version which would have 32 electrodes on sign up to mailing lists and talk
to me thanks and each document from here a little bit of time for Q and a and is if you have to leave the room that make it in a of a very quiet way so is there uh there are some questions of scene microphone for 1st to please go ahead stop and the great thing thinking about developing countries and getting a medical take a but at the very 1st beginning you said imagine a world where this imaging will be all available like every day and it's a bit creep me out a little bits do you really think that is a good idea to co and the the to go in the shower in the morning and uh half your art know your prof talk telling you that there is a small mouth spins solid lengths I think it's so that's that's a good question basically the question was on the on that there's a privacy concern with looking inside your body on doesn't sound that great to some people come to those people say you should turn off and I know that sounds a little harsh on but please just turn off the user and the ends with all scientific movements followed comes great risk I also say a can be used for good or evil I and it's up to us as a society and how we wanted choose to use it and how we structure ourselves and some potentially motivate and incentivize corporations to use it in a responsible way I'm part of making this open is a hope that the arms of the like basically if people have access to it you can choose for yourself hired warnings and so the next question would be from the signal and these you have a couple of questions from the internet 1st of all what type of lazy frequencies in use uh the screws you signed so that the wonders of you also know square wave triangular and other shapes that's a that's it was also really interesting question on i it's about what kinds of waves are used and what kinds of AC signals typically it's done with the ACE sine waves on ranging from their angel of the place on 4 depending on what application you UNU so far and I mentioned multi-frequency EIT for cancer detection that uses a lot of different frequencies on sorry if you want to use other waveforms I think that would be really interesting and uh nobody's tried and you can that should be done so since there's a big Q on March from real work to go please yes uh I have a technical questions assuming that you won't use this technique from humans or organic matter little um what are the limitations for the re solutions spatial resolution and is there a possibility to reduce suspicions spatial resolution aiming increase the spatial resolution of reduce said reduce their year voxels solids yeah yeah so increases space resolution yes absolutely and so on yeah source furniture if you've the next steps I could get to that 1 of them is magnetoacoustic electrical tomography because you get to 2 from other types of information on which you could put together to form a high-resolution image I'm so that's 1 way and if you didn't need to worry about human safety and I recommend you just turn the power up that that will also work the of K I think we go back to the signal and have 1 shot 1 please is that our question from the internet from a doctor this time you wonders if you're in the clinical studies that comparative pulmonary edema diagnostics with your attitude ultrasound and why don't we just work on cheap ultrasound instead I get that that's a good question to be biology and cheap ultrasounds I'm ultrasounds uh and gives different information day T and it has a problem of on the sound scattering so it's a different type of information which has different pros and cons and on and I think people should make our achieve ultrasound and I would like to see the hybrid modality come together on you get really good tissue distinction with the IT Service does present forms OK then frontal please should have really good to talk and my question so far you always need direct contact to the action right so we have speed up the transit on water is any any way to detect of measures of the signal without star contract so maybe in if the if the object is in here or you just right I wish there was some northern and is the short answer an promising research some are making up and while you can think land use x-rays how they worked wonderfully around 2 to go through the air and and but if you use them out that any new to increase your your your chance of cancer so today use them all the time in yourself down again our CAT scanners out of an expensive yes it's a thank you and I I think we have time for 1 more from my from 3 years yeah my question would you of that what's so maybe of Mr. but what's the order of magnitude for cost so what this be feasible at like a hackerspace for the supremum and uh just the industry you see the possibility to make money with with some of these colleges and yes I'm not alone and that there's a there's only like like ID papers on again and then they should be applied and endowment you could make money when it absolutely and I am there's no component in that that arm costs are more than a couple of stamps I as a user context and 3 it cost a couple of dollars and I mean I don't know what your budget is but obviously I think you could do this in a hackerspace arms without any problems there's nothing stopping anyone from from doing this and I'm as we know microcontrollers becoming cheaper and cheaper sir when not so and I don't get in the use of sign from the sidelines so I think I can take another question from toward this as the fourier so those images of the planes yet what about humans yet and yes so this way of solving for volumes you using finite element models and solving Maxwell's equations basically I just arm and then you can do that I'm basically I just did the shortest route to reach the image reconstruction that was available which was linear back projection so which is on typically done in a 2 D plane I'm absolutely he noted in 3 dimensions yes but so I'm very sorry we're out of time so that you that there you can have the chance to talk with all speakers uh and uh just right now the next talk coming out of his in about 15 minutes and it's uh I also in English 0 then and a big round of applause from the
go through due to a due to some of
my my my it ict compared the the people but at the top
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Low Cost Non-Invasive Biomedical Imaging
Untertitel An Open Electrical Impedance Tomography Project
Serientitel 34th Chaos Communication Congress
Autor Rintoul, Jean
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 4.0 International:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/34817
Herausgeber Chaos Computer Club e.V.
Erscheinungsjahr 2017
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract An open source biomedical imaging project using electrical impedance tomography. Imagine a world where medical imaging is cheap and accessible for everyone! We'll discuss this current project, how it works, and future directions in medical physics.
Schlagwörter Hardware & Making

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