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Electromagnetic Threats for Information Security

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it is and and the and hello all and welcome only the following talk focuses on the vulnerability of electron devices to electromagnetic interference with regard to IT security with the subject of the MP that's getting more and more attraction nowadays sagacious special it's shocking cast me and wholesaler presence best with explain and classify the types of attacks that we are exposed to they both have extends experience in security research having worked at the French National Cyber Security Agency shocking has a PhD in electronics and has recently joined the team the labs and matter of join me in welcoming them on stage few good afternoon everybody and you for joining us so we are some because millions of that a persistent here I mean we are very happy to be here today to talk about the inference for information security and the whole we may find ways to induce can in digital and analog electronic devices thanks to directed energy weapons but the
so we are both for the Atlantic security experts uh we do also Roger communications security analyzes some some horror and embedded system uh security research as little signal processing the the quick disclaimer because I was of the John Bob more AUC in new way of so the resource was laundering my a research activities at the French Network Information Security Agency and all the content that would be presented today was known during those research activities I'm not sure source a proton conclusion provided by the model in knowing me to present this research they rely the kinetic energy was in a persistent the the so the agenda for today I will be introduced to the topic of electromagnetic security then to present you why we are looking for a effects induced by EM waves I mean then we will have a look at the young venerability off some devices and whole we may it involves those effects and turning them into an information security issues and at the end of the talk we draw some conclusions and prospective off concerning our research to sort through the diplomatic
security so you may have heard of
or seen those nice movies avoid the Hollywood movies where and are using some EMP repulsed to disable Electronique and the editor devices like for any uh and facilities using those EMP repents so even bad man has any reborn in movies so basically it's for come on pupil EMP we balls or a fantasy report the but see the light is many
countries of the VUB capabilities in order to involve the MPV balls in order to induce the perturbation into targeted devices other and also try to damage them things to hype or resources so those sources or involving the same if they got as high altitude electromagnetic a the waves emitted by nuclear opposes and those high intensity fees induce predator currents and voltages into targeted devices and all those surprise it it currents and voltages I induced perturbations on communication devices hours when asked any digital data the so the effects vary the from very well label effects Saul basic disturbances a lot and gone really sure so so the permanent they made his own devices the so what you're looking for basically is to be able to detect and analyze the effects induced by the sources during presented exposure so that you're able to design appropriate protections and your and critical facilities 1 important point is basically to reading the whole and there is to sulfur failures so that you're able to understand the whole atomic devices reacts the during President exposure as well as the more interested using we in which we replace them the and from that we are also able to understand the there any cascading effects the basically if we target 1 system what kind of effects may induce on over connected devices the the or the so as we said it's
not found this enables a couple of events of purity in Europe and France about presented a brief summary of what happens in Europe and other countries of it's start from very simple error arrest the sources so whereas guns used by some of might issues during managers activities 2 would trigger a winning not the game machine in Japan but I then you have some low use of EM just through disrepair to unauthorized security systems of critical infrastructural some specific places like the seminary rishons there some recent security systems and during so that for disabled during parasitic exposes as us some banking UK and the the so this summary is interesting because it defines a couple of of the vessel in which some sources with high mobility oral mobility have been used In order to disrupt some targeted devices In the same way we are about to understand that those devices thus the term prior to the very high knowledge or skills to be able to design them this is the last column of this table and you can see that basically if someone is interested by building some sources a couple of information are really available on Internet the so the use
of electromagnetic interference to disable or disturb electronic devices is directly linked to the topic of electromagnetic compatibility in which we defined so a general standards to test equipment and saying that to they is lots of experience any and of normal behavior when they are exposed to in the normal electromagnetic environment for this is the topic of testing the In the same way we try to limit the nominations of any kinetic 20 device in the environment and by reducing the you know rate generated by those device the so as you may imagine as you apply basic standards it's award of stress and compliance with those those devices are the laptop here and we try to have the best so the the the best compliance of those these device 2 0 so that it can be used in a In the any place choose should be used In the same way and some information security guys have been working on those topics and have seen that basically basically we can find some correlation between the processes that and dissemination all those devices this coordinated this topic is called time best and there is a so the side channel in aria in which we call the activity of a chip all a system adopt a process by these devices In the same way the some researcher working on forward injection on the smart cards and to earn a PGA is so it's using basically um the near-field interaction between a source and the target so that you're able to extract some keys the or any interesting secrets on the device so in this way we see that's basically we go be out of the star and also applied in the in the in the in the area we don't know the 1st day uh we don't comply with us on those because we haven't really our looking at very small correlations or susceptibility ever that may be used to earn to move to to to reduce the security of those devices so it's a reward of section it so are the others the risks of for information security but it's basically a a phenomenal uh that originated from the UNC so it's a physical phenomenon and in the same way starboard targeting information systems that are based on a 20 devices is highly use food when you are looking at the security of those of other these devices so the 1st law of us soon was defined in the previous slide so we have the emanation Fred's which might reach a introduced before it's for the completion the confidentiality of of the information as were able to recover about are from the emanations of the electronic devices and in the same way the integrity and the inviolability of the device is directly linked to the immunity of this device to parasitic fits so or challenges are the 2 of these 2 ones the 1st is how can we assess the venerability of any unit 20 device to parasitic exposure and so if we want to do some risk management we need to be able to rates any EM attack again any the fact tilt concerning the venerability testing of electronic devices so let's have a look at the complexity on whole wheat we hope we're I would like to be able to test devices so we have complex systems we've not also of different kind of Montreal and the communication and the links of we have why your door wireless connections between devices and then we have a lot of under it didn't and deterministic interaction between the devices as we are using some specific protocols and at the time your injecting weights so we need to be able to reproduce this so this is a test set up we have a problem of scale because we may want to analyze the security of a chip as well as to be able to analyze a security of food breathing and this makes a lot of them and tougher random parameters are appearing to analyze the data different attack scenarios but we
different payloads the issue of modeling because we cannot model the full infrastructures the uh a uge bridging with very very small electronic device in there Due to the modeling issues and ends its requires a lot of scientific fields to be and to be used in order to be able to model and to analyze they're coping off wastes into those breathing the so as we just said there are a lot of random parameters and if you want to understand and to be able to predict any of venerability of the device we to do some exhaustive testing the but the problem we've exhaustivity is that it requires a lot of scope random configuration so that for a specific parameters we are able to reproduce any configuration we would like to work on and this makes some issues with the reproducibility and degenerate isation of the results so form a reduced number of configuration we would like to be able to understand the would do the behavior of device for do the confident would set of configured possible configurations the and in the same way when we want to analyze the effects on the complex system the detection of the city of the of the effect is complex said yeah the so as information security researchers so what you would like to be able to is to have the ability to rates any kind of attack again a specific device so the electromagnetic instrumentation rarer right like the use source to disturb or to induce failure on any and if biases the can be characterized by those free parameters so the very viability of the devices and it's got cost is it possible to find its own internet or do I I to do I have to to have a look at specific of and tutorials to be able to to to design it the dimension of the source can I put it in my bag or in the car so it is defines the mobility of the source and the capabilities so dual I have the possibility to tune the source for specific frequencies can I modify the amplitude of my source and those parameters are very important to understand they can be used to defeat specific edit trying devices the so for that it requires a lot of technical knowledge maybe maybe not after looking at the internet we have seen that there are a lot of resources for that and the effective range of the source do I have to be close to my targets can they've a bit far from it what do I need some information about my target do I have to tested before being able to do it in real scenarios the can I industry my source so once I have designed merciless come I said it or the and is a target specific do I have to design a source for each target but when I we I may have to work on so for looking at this problem there are 2 ways the 1st is starting from the source itself so I have my source and it can be connected to an antenna or an injection probe so then the have into propagation mode there were addition in the free space or Duane's ACM IEEE ways in the cables that I am in the conducted on we have also the link between both of them we have the kobe to the target is it a from being so I'm my targeting a wireless interface of my target or is it a bond or coping phenomena I am inducing my waves into some Kundaje if part that indices them and I have my effects which is the last part of my propagation Chen if I start from the source then I we define specific scenarios for a specific devices but if I start from my targets and I checked effects being a very general environment then I might be able to true to check all the parameters that limeade made experience what they want to harden the critical infrastructure so we have chosen the 7 way of having of having a look at this problem and the our been working on the effects induced by parasitic field onto a 20 devices OK
so now I am going to introduce you to our strategy for the analyzed the analysis of the effects on specific targets so we will see that it's not a trivial problem and I will present a would do decisions dish isa that we have made to add address this issue and so here we
are in um trying to warm observed uh due to effects of the presence of electromagnetic parasitic signals as around rounded due the target and for that that the game generally is always the same uh whatever the field as the scientific field you use and this stimuli so it's our parasitic field and you want to observe changes on the target uh that will respond to your stimuli and you want to correlate the this stimuli and the changes and that did the challenges here our that as the shoki introduced uh because of that complexity of the problem and there are a lot of the different kinds of stimuli that we can the uh sent to the target and we can also user that at each editions of a different stimulations and the the 2nd problem is that we have to deter mine what to look at to decide that there is an effect on the target or not so in fact the 1 of the main challenges in that game is to design the right glasses to see the effects of the electromagnetic simulations so that's what we we propose that what we did and and we propose a well usually you want to identify the critical functions of this is that we want to monitor so it's a kind of do do health parameters of your system the and then you have to find a way to monitor and those critical functions and maybe define some metrics to then compare or classify where do different the the effects that you observed on those of observables the so sometimes it can be easy you think about that a rotating robotic arm maybe you can just say OK it's still work sorry doesn't work anymore and when it doesn't work anymore you say I have an effect uh but you also sometimes need to have more of a finer granularity in your matrix uh so far de rotating robotic arm and you can think about the the positioning error of your arm uh so you will have to find a way to measure that and then money . that during the tests that will deter mined then eh so there was an effect if that effect was really correlated to your stimuli In order to analyze the data the venerability August system to so the we adopted as a generic approach we so OK instead of adapting our approach to do this in a specific context uh we felt about that generic approach which is uh system-centric so our idea was to try to analyze the effect as the operating system you can see them and its interface based so as a introduced by shoki there are different types of coupling on the device and the the we enumerated the interface is uh for the physical coupling that are available in the device and a we found their way to have access to some information coming from those interfaces uh at the operating system and and in the end we have a software that is running on the operating system and that is monitoring the different interfaces uh looking for effects in fact and what's interesting with that strategy is that we we don't really you need to understand the propagation of the physical effects of to do software effects in fact we we try to have an observation of the software layer linearly effects during the tests the and as for
the vast variety of different stimuli that the rule the attacker could use we decided to a consider the lowest that ICA profile so uh low-cost source uh no boundaries source the so we may still use software-defined radio we there several amplifiers and the this is because electromagnetic give away that we a sent to the target but argue with people areas policies so it's said low profile the little of profile and we have to set up that are depicted here on the left and we have our own radiated propagation set up so it's in a Faraday cage we have our targets running the monitoring software that we design and we have an antenna inside the the faraday cage which uh will send the stimuli and outside the case we have a monitoring computer which will uh gather the information collected by the monitoring software and the hour of error sources instrumentation and on the right we have the equivalent a set of 4 convicted as a probation so
we want to define the test sets in our and this configuration we put a couple of devices in the faraday cage and now we will show you SOM the effects induced by parade during positive exposure and by understanding how we were able to correlate the effect to the parasitic we have found ways to involve the EM wave for the laws new that can lead to inject data into devices or to interact with devices and so you already so just for being a so
that at the beginning we use some general computers and the more he tossed some common the eyes and even logs of on the computer and reasons or a positive signal to the target the so here we have a couple of logs of you don't need to read them because we summarize them for you and you have seen here for example of the 2 of the keyboard links to be rare testing for the piece to and the he was being and as you have seen some so we were able to get those effects so we were able to correct to data are that was received by the computer and ends true a randomly injective keystroke on the computer a on the is we have been able to disable the have a disconnect the devices brief for the 4 connected to the computer and also to correct to descriptors so this is backdoor Copeland effects because you're targeting data which are not intending to connect spinach the then we wanted to test some scalar systems alright industrial control systems so we put the several tori in the faraday cage and we tested SOM the behavior of the of the Federal Motor which was word running a specific part so do normal behavior of the device is the blue 1 um that they try to show it to you here the the blue the blue which is norm the normal behavior device and in green and orange we standard or purses and we can see here that the the you I have been able to modify the position of the of the several motor as well as the speed of it so we are able to randomly manipulates the several military using or area of Princess then we walked on the SOM Digital pre error processing the algorithm ah here it is the the predistortion algorithm a running on and it on and speech they're pretty social algorithm is used to compensate the power amplifier distortion where we are using it in the nonlinear origin so we computed the unknowns be predict the nonlinearities of the poor viruses Timmons once and do you actually distortion induced by the parameter varies to 0 if you Dennis 1 by the you have 1 but in the same way if your injecting some RF pulses during the computation of the did produce the distortion a bio and used by the fire so here it's the GJ for jamming the were able to modify the behavior of the predistortion algorithm and by modifying this behavior here it is done despair fear In the back we say here that you have so innovation of the sides Noble of the source so it means that we are jailing the old devices that are co-located to do Roger frequency of so for example the mobile station around this target at once so we were able to June to modified the buckets emitted by the by the by the mobile station then it sends the kinds of data we find a high right so any device that receives the signal receive corrected data and on the right in the same way I was really increase the sidelobes all the devices that communicate around this sense we've says the you that are using of the the frequency band you're doing a the targeted 1 then you are able to stop communication on this level so this is the cascading effect having talking about yeah another interesting point in that example is that uh do the computation of the predistortion of factors that is not to perform usually uh every 2nd I mean it's more at the scale of the minute so in fact we the just 1 and managers intervention that you can and you can make the the radio front-end sales gem itself uh during several minutes until the recomputation of the predistortion factors the we'll solo instrumented the analog interfaces uh and uh we are green here to present the results we had on the MOS transistor and also on the acoustic transducers the microphones so there so there is some literature about them from the EMC community about this is said to be the of magnetic circuits and it's admitted now that uh and some analog circuits uh do some of the envelope detection so it's a kind of amplitude demodulation of the parasitic signal and the especially in for a to um a operational of amplifiers and there is also a an offset that is added to the cycle of it when no ever parasitic field present of the target and also so as it and we are talking about an analog interfaces a year they are usually you end up on ABC's so all the work that were that has been made about the the ability of analog to digital converters can also be used uh in that case so during our tests we have been monitoring the behavior of the 2 terms are the term uh they had of the CPU of our target and we noticed that uh when our uh parasitic field was on we so that to do so temperature that was reported by today and uh was kind of erratic my still how can it be used by an attacker uh we try to derive a scenario of exploiting that factor and so we ran additional tests and we noticed that the the temperature that was reported by the Tamil veiled uh was the that means kind of a all the ticket to the electric field magnitude the parasitic electric fields managers and so that means that the attacker what he's able to finally control the behavior of the the temperature reading on the target the so we imagine this scenario where a an attacker uses that to would send information 2 would have many issues to process that is the monitoring continuously the temperature on the target and in some cases I mean in cases where you have for example uh put an air gap strategy in place in order to seperate to uh several information systems of at original critiquing but this kind of threat that can be a serious and also of course if I can if an attacker is able to control the temperature that is the the transmitted from the I to the as CPU or a reader of the temperature uh 1 can easily think about a sabotage the scenarios
the during our tests we also wanted or do the old you front-end so we basically just recorded the old you uh coming from the yield you got uh and we you with it we make that we then microphone on with a microphone and with a wired microphone let or without microphone and we always uh have been able to notice that and the there were some effects of the presence of positive fields the and again we try to imagine scenarios where this could be a threat for information security and the system the that
and from from that observation with several works that were derived and we considered that to do and of microphone is the usually a user interface that gives access to uh the device assistance of interfaces and we designed the several proofs of concept uh exploiting this and way to interact with the the system and in order to executes a arbitrary voice commands on the target we needed to approve of concept on the right you see the ready 81 so in that case and the the room de-coupling interface was due to the headphones cable and then we also we performed additional tests uh and the design a test to see due to test the the convicted of probation bath and so we were able to inject a voice commands by injecting deposit excite node inside the ball or network uh when the phone was charging so this research it has been the least at high can vary but we have still live to a quick reveals a tool about those
of this tests so I need to recover my
mouse OK the so in this video is still
do ready to the test set that we have that we are in the faraday cage uh our target is the smartphone and so we can see that the headphone cable on the left side of the screen and of course to our aren't antenna and that is a sending the deposit cycle and we can that that there is some activity on your front-end because the you did that the red dots on the upper right corner of the deformed screen and in in that example we sent along a voice commands and asking to open the website and at that time on on that that 100 version of there was no real feedback to the user and the website was opened without any other interactions with the target it and a convicted case so here we use you know our set up so we had the ball supply with the computer oblivion and here we have an injection probe With this cable going to our radio-frequency source and our target is here on the desk and there is pledged to this divorce a get then we then then genuine charger and in that case we we just as to open an application what this and
that so
if you need more information about the technical details on those of proofs of concept that you can refer to would adults we made Anakin barriers and we also release the eye tripoli paper and here we just tried to imagine to perform a quick risk analysis about 2 of those kind of vulnerabilities and of course the there anything you you can do by using the voice command interface can be done using those techniques what's also interesting is that
we completed the this the this study by trying to both of from Doran back coupling scenarios uh we also would be direct DAT this interconnected testing and we tried to his teammates do get back profile and the dough there you do require of paula uh and the the equipment that is required to perform those kinds of attacks and of course these attacks are highly targeted attacks because the get attacker needs to I changed the at least they're do away for the virus way for a tool adapted himself to the the this situation the target the phone for example or do of power network specificities OK
so really just some additional details about the injection voice command injection techniques and concerning this so 1 1 you have seen that it's a you is became a that is targeted targeted and we have connected this USB cable to the computer or so and we have seen that the signals was going full reported for work and the grounding of the of the computer and as reaching for the U is be as she is the microphone I see for this is interesting because it is the sum the known issues from the in the community so the cross-talk between the USB be bought and a microphone I see that's the information security point of view we have some really didn't have seen in history that's how was showing that you're able to inject defined signals on these voice command interface I thanks to all those tests we have so we have been able to analyze but to detect and analyze the effects induced by I am I so intentional electromagnetic interference is during President exposure but we have been able to classify the effects so defining the criticality of each effect Weaver was of the application and we have been able to its major impact for the security of the divide the tested devices and all of those informations contributes to the the information security risk analyzes and to and pose don't put some additional of protective devices so that's what I am I cannot be involved 2 performs those kind of the attacks against electronic devices and more generally uh we have a we observed that the electromagnet keep may electromagnetic attacks are a kind of a realistic threat even if generally if you want to perform more done denial of service attack uh each will be a targeted attack because you will need to work to adapt Euratex set up to your your target and to do the the context around the target the we also wanted to emphasize that the the attacker profile for these kind of attacks is getting lower and lower because of the technological evolution uh a uh devices that are needed to create some of the we required sources uh is more and more affordable and available freely available tool to anyone on the Internet uh and it's the we we can say the same all over on the deplore amplifiers for example and of 1 word to try to join people but to this kind of research and we noticed that the MCE community the information security community and to the specific yeah uh physical kryptonite season the sites and and and for the text uh communities of word to on their own bath uh but in reality we are only looking at the same problem and just we have different points of view and different objectives so maybe it's time to joined together and try to uh and share resources and knowledge about the these issues so we thank you very much
for your attention few
as usual you older room reference is that we used to 2 grid spoken and
our e-mail addresses if you have any question or if you want to interact about those topics that we will be happy to do so thank you the cells that up to the microphone so and we also take questions online we have a single angel more answering the question feed and then they microphone to when a much further they interesting topics and I you're has led by commitment and you didn't scheme they charge are any cables wide or and this may be another question did you test this this screening of the cables and how much it is surfactants are of there the the cable in the results on on those uh room research topics we did not really uh we tested several USB cables and there's several of the genuine charges I mean it cuts out of the box the charter and we observe that the move we were able to on use you'll you'll frequency band we were able to recover a signal different of frequency response was kind of flat so we didn't really affect the effect on the target I thank you have a microphone and 1 thank you for the talk of this is all very new to me so very scary now because I a learning how to fly small aircraft and a lot of that is this last communication happens by radio on and I'm wondering we talked about effective range of what kind of threats are we looking at uh for something saved and so have an attitude of saving 2 thousand feet on a moving target that does that make it very difficult and died and knowing that um I don't know much about which is sad but it was really quite scary the of concerning the range so as the as represented reading notes a work only in the the source side we directly the assessed the effects on the target if you have any kind of device you would like to work on basically you put it in the unit test environments you take what kind of effect you may expect depending on the current stick characteristics of the source we have you have defined and then defining the range is just using some general of spherical equations that's defining you the amount of poor you need to generate to reach the single level you need to disrupt your device 4 0 it's more drawings or any any kind of those devices we didn't we did not specific tests but yeah it's an open question we we would really happy to work on that if you if I can that has the something in your case i guess is you will have to is to make the operation past that we described in the specific conditions that you would describe in fact thank you thank you thank you very much a microphone to go home thanks for talk and I've used for a small portion of office Yehuda mister attitude was set of and you can would or affinity the increase in temperature or culture of temperature after approaches for uh was to take separates uh center almost to carry and which often convenience of essential between jackals term used yeah I think that it was on a on an old motherboard on a computer is to restore a was interrogated by a superior and I guess the the dimensions of the the PCB line between the CPU diet and this variety was some something like that 10 centimeters I guess thank you very much I think we have a question from online the should have some example of that injection so this was an active attack and what about the Aussie ones like getting the data from the device for example pixels on the screen the shaping of the keyboard and as we get to the talk was focused on the the effects of a intentional electromagnetic in differences so that's why we didn't talk about the other specific parts of Tempest attacks or a section attacks I don't know if that answers the question well thank you for your response and I think that all which 0 no there's 1 1 and the only thing the I know that it it it it is this isn't really a topic of research but could you give us some point still recent research on him emancipation like that's are there was something on AES last year I guess the Greeks me still can In the investor taxonomy as a unique was section attack but we that as several feet range for example I think it can be a good pointer mark mark mark was cone research at Cambridge university is also a way very good resource to understand the topic of Tempest thank you very much in 9 in the sense that human pose for speakers that you think you have few she was to be so
that if the if I and the people it but act but at
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Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Electromagnetic Threats for Information Security
Untertitel Ways to Chaos in Digital and Analogue Electronics
Serientitel 34th Chaos Communication Congress
Autor , @EMHacktivity
Esteves, José Lopes
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 4.0 International:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/34808
Herausgeber Chaos Computer Club e.V.
Erscheinungsjahr 2017
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract For non specialists, Electromagnetic Pulse weapons (EMP) are fantasy weapons in science fiction movies. Interestingly, the susceptibility of electronic devices to electromagnetic interference has been advertised since the 90’s. Regarding the high integration of sensors and digital systems to control power-grids, telecom networks and automation infrastructures (e.g. Smart-grids, Industrial Control Systems), the intrinsic vulnerability of electronic devices to electromagnetic interference is of fundamental interest. In the context of IT Security, few studies have been carried out to understand how the effects may be a significant issue especially in the far-field region (distance between the transmitter’s antenna and the target with regard to the wavelength/central frequency). Most studies in Emanation Security (EMSEC) are related to near-field probing for side-channel and fault injection attacks assuming a close physical access to the targeted devices. In this paper, we propose a methodology to detect, classify and correlate the effect induced during the intentional exposure of analogue and digital systems to electromagnetic interference. Applying this methodology, the implication of the effects for the IT security world will be discussed with regards to the attacker profile needed to set-up a given scenario.
Schlagwörter Security

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