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Tightening the Net in Iran

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Tightening the Net in Iran
The Situation of Censorship and Surveillance in Iran, and What Should Be Done
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How do Iranians experience the Internet? Various hurdles and risks exist for Iranians and including outside actors like American technology companies. This talk will assess the state of the Internet in Iran, discuss things like the threats of hacking from the Iranian cyber army; how the government are arresting Iranians for their online activities; the most recent policies and laws for censorship, surveillance and encryption; and the policies and relationships of foreign technology companies like Apple, Twitter and Telegram with Iran, and the ways they are affecting the everyday lives of Iranians. This talk will effectively map out how the Internet continues to be a tight and controlled space in Iran, and what efforts are being done and can be done to make the Iranian Internet a more accessible and secure space.
Keywords Ethics, Society & Politics
Ocean current Slide rule Intel Game controller Digital media State of matter Gradient Weight Multiplication sign Shape (magazine) Neuroinformatik Architecture Intranet Different (Kate Ryan album) Internetworking Cartesian closed category Digital rights management Information Weight Expression Expert system Bit Twitter Distance Dijkstra's algorithm Internetworking Video game Spacetime
Data mining Slide rule Internetworking Weight Student's t-test Text editor Mereology Demoscene
Slide rule Game controller Weight Branch (computer science) Twitter Number Intranet Roundness (object) Term (mathematics) Internetworking Different (Kate Ryan album) Series (mathematics) Information security Cybersex Information Digitizing Projective plane Control flow Type theory Internetworking Series (mathematics) Order (biology) Right angle Freeware Family
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Web page Motif (narrative) Execution unit Focus (optics) Presentation of a group Hidden surface determination State of matter Multiplication sign GUI widget Civil engineering Local area network Evolute Virtual machine Mathematics Internetworking Iteration
Web page Web crawler Mobile app Digital media Multiplication sign Cybersex Maxima and minima Web browser Plastikkarte Computer programming Twitter Revision control Facebook Content (media) Term (mathematics) Different (Kate Ryan album) Computer network Touch typing Computing platform Traffic reporting Vulnerability (computing) Cybersex Standard deviation Digitizing Projective plane Computer program Plastikkarte Division (mathematics) Control flow Arithmetic mean Motherboard Infinite conjugacy class property Statement (computer science) Website Right angle Row (database)
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to to that
and the and uh and uh the it the because around pops up in the news frequently and mostly when it pops up it's often about censorship and surveillance and I was speaking here Marcela ID mother on this is actually an expert on this topic which is especially as to get works at the Oxford Internet Institute COST researchers politics of your and of the running Internet's but you also works for the NGO Article 19 19 in her talk which we hope will have to slide slides of very soon inherent she's doing around them all of the current state of censorship and surveillance in so thank you follow waiting on Tillman please give to give a well-known the balls to most a and the well thank you for coming and being patient and to hear me talk today I have to admit it did not anticipate doing this without my computer in front of me but I guess it's a good exercise in becoming less reliant on my devices but do still have my phone in my hand with the slide so I think that will be useful so in the name of the talk is tightening the net and so as introduction what I'm gonna be talking a little bit about how information controls worked on the Eranian intranets and you probably listening to my voice wondering why someone with an Iranian name sounds kind of American and I am I grew up in Canada and I spent most my life going back and forth between the various countries and lived in a broad and back to your own so that's why I found this way it's a canadian accent and and so I I can't slides to accompany what I was going to say next and it had a frightening irony in vampire but I was going to get into later on but it seems that I can you know replaced the frightening Iranian vampire for now I'm so the reason why I am here who am I am well I where a lot of different hats as the introduction said that I am no that's not my slide there's a frightening woman from me and to so I haven't I'm doing my phd at the Oxford Internet Institute and there I'm studying how social media evolves in neurons information control space to see how political participation shapes especially during elections and things like that I and I also spend the majority of my time on a London-based NGO called Article 19 and there I work with say Iran team that that tracks and have freedom of expression and access information takes shape in the run and all this of my slides on the way up here you know is there is a problem it will come from the same and so an article 19 that thank you all with plants in and in the
and don't can and should be in
the can I actually control it some of the signal OK we can go to the next slide in the mines no
we'll just this is kind of late so this is the part that would appear when I'm explaining why am what are you it's a scene from the movie but I have been referencing is called the girl walked home alone and I I think you should all watch it and so we can go to the next slide and
so on there was a troll on Twitter yesterday when I post about my talk you were saying that i'm kind of doing warmongering or something like that so it's 1 of the the disclaimer 10 I do work on human rights and I am talking about some of the repressive thing that happens in your own but this is not a I talk to scare you away from here on in fact some
if if you go back I'll come in
fact if it if I weren't here and if I were in doing this particular type of work I would probably be in Iran with my family for the holidays so I urge you if you have no security concerns please go it's a amazing our country lots to see I but 1 thing you will find is that the Internet experience is a little bit different than what you would experience here Lifeson which kind of brings me round to the topic of my talk so the Iranian Internet sometimes known as Sultan that and this is a term that a lot of us so do kind of digital advocacy free run no and often use I think the term was coined the of around uh 2009 or 2010 by Iranian that journalists who focuses on technology name you must act by 4 you can follow the hashtag on Twitter and you can see lots of different things related to Internet censorship and surveillance in Iraq and so next slide and there's also the series that I helped run with a look a number of colleagues article 19 which is called tightening the not the name of the stack and if you wanna get into the nitty-gritty details of what happens in terms of Internet policy in terms of how users are put at risk in here on that this is a a series you can follow and it started initially with that the national intranet project which is sort of and sometimes known as a whole minutes and then I we looked at soft foreign cyber tactics and you're for the next edition and now every and quarter we come out with rundown of what's going on online in Iran with a series of advocacy recommendations for various branches of the Iranian government if you want to get more information beyond the generalities of this talk to check that out this stuff um self understanding the and filter now in order to understand next slide I'm so whenever I do this means next slide so understanding and what happens online and you have to kind of understand I in here on the is on the infrastructure of control that kind of i shapes how this works and you can show this to you
know I here which is kind of ATM map of what's going on uh in Iran and you can see that in Iran and the head of state is in fact not elected it's the supreme leader and he's kind of 80 a religious authority but also he has ultimate veto power over everything that happens in the country and you can see him up at the top I'm not signaling a change of just pointing out from its he's up at the top there and everything sort of like falls under his umbrella and and what's interesting to know that every 4 years there are there is a democratic elements of the government in Iran and there is a president by gets elected and within the President's Cabinet you have the Ministry of ICT information communications and technology and the within the Ministry of ICT you see a lot of what happens in terms of control inside of your answer the Ministry of ICT runs the telecommunications company of wrong and they maintain an authorized all the piece and so in some ways has been really good in because the current administration that was elected back in 2013 and it was reelected in 2017 is a moderate administration and so it's done a lot to improve Internet conditions in a wrong I'm Internet speeds have found that improved by huge amounts so sometimes the running and that was made known as quantum that's which kind of is like slow internet but that's really improved since this government coming to power the government of President Roh honey and and other things like Internet access has come to to as villages that often didn't have this kind of access so and in terms of ICT for development there's been a lot of progress over the past few years because of the work of this government and that ministry but in terms of how am surveillance occurs so all Internet traffic is routed through the telecommunications company of Aron including private and government I schemes and that TCI as you can see of rate below the Ministry of ICT is responsible for blocking pages and blacklisting keywords and up in terms of surveillance the TCI also uses proxy servers for surveillance by liking all unencrypted web traffic which is why it's really important that a each TPS over websites neurons and what was particularly as that concerning is that underneath the control of the supreme leader that the body called the Revolutionary Guards and so every time and there is a princess movements in Iran or there's any sort of opposition to the status quo the Revolutionary Guards the averaging kind of and then you know call protesters arrested and gather intelligence and so the higher GC the um excuse me yeah but the In 2009 the higher GC a consortium owned by this kind of paramilitary organization thought about 51 % of the Telecommunications Company of Iran because the government was trying to privatize it but in essence it's ownership falls that this kind of repressive body within the establishment so beyond them strengthening the that the Revolutionary Guards with you know financial to financial means and they had direct access to the data of ordinary citizens switches stupid concerning we think and act like now
and this was the news back in 2009 when they I got 51 per cent of the shares of the telecommunications company of Iran next slide and the so
just to go over a brief history
of controls because along with the infrastructure of control there's kind of fun a legal mechanism for how this kind of established itself so back in 2001 and filtering really started in your because but there is a crackdown on newspapers and a lot of people started migrating online the scripts for writing Persian on on online was developing so there is this huge migration and it was only around 2001 to the government started targeting and doing censorship of these are you know more performance for progressive journalists and activists who were writing in kind of I'm going against the dose of the reading you can go back you wanna have too much is that are you doing it all
who sorry have totally did not make that connection and so that was in 2000 wine and they wanted to codify how the system works in terms of the filtering committee that enables this and so in 2006 there is a draft law known as the Computer Crimes what and I am actually article 19 had the lot team in the wrong team over the part of it this was before my time at the organization they actually are at the only source of at translating and analyzing and that this a lot and so it came into a draft form in 2006 and then by and 2009 they really wanted to mobilize it and make sure it went into law in 2009 and was when the green movement happen and so I the government was kind of trying to rein in control over what what kind of discourse was going on online because they have they effectively shut down the internet for a small period of time during a protest movement and so right after this happened they takes picked up speed on this in nature it passed by 2010 this became a lot and you can take a look at this document I'm in more precise form I'm had different things like article panel which makes things like encryption a legal came out of this document different things like that but the filtering committee that decides through multi uh multi-agency network of different ministries and different experts in the government what content needs to be filtered you want me to do this you can use a sorry if you have that and that means you yeah I here use a thing we could have something it you know I'm sorry I didn't I didn't realize and you scratching his entire time and not for the whole of so as I said the next thing I have is a video which I
feel like it's going to get really difficult and and so the lot came into effect in 2010 at and the from bodies came into the formation as well and things like the revolutionary keep at bird set up their own cyber division and is scared of in 2009 right after the protest movements and Iran's police forces all but also an established and time uh their own pulley Cyber force named faster in 2011 and because the establishment was realizing the Internet was so basically crucial to the functioning of the nation and national security was being compromised things like cyber attacks against the country's infrastructure is happening the supreme leader basically wanted everything to him and so he created the Supreme Council of cyberspace which its name translated into English is very sci-fi and I'm fun say sometimes and that happen in 2012 and and so this is all kind of like boring and I guess what date so lots of things but it's really important to how things happen day-to-day Noorani audience lies and how they experience the internet and so back in Nam a few years ago a colleague and I am now can at the University of Amsterdam decided to go through with the censorship redirect page so every time you wanna have visit a page that censored it's called pay band uh . i art you can probably look the thought that you want and so we using the Wayback Machine we like traced it over the years and how it evolved and how I kind of reflects on this changing Internet policy some unity cracker playing the some probably gonna really mess this up actually lie at some this is the linear
can do it that we yes it's like yeah I can the on the
basis of a lot of 2 of the 3 different versions of the
In the literature related to the loss of
regulations evolves as norms of what constitutes as filter content becomes more
entrenched with the wrong from the inception of the very 1st version of the page whereby users are told In the name of God according to the Computer Crimes Act access to this website requests it is not possible the masses users of uni censorship pages torn down in the next version provide users are only told that the links there viewing are some of the register things within 2 we also see that the environment that I our website creating pages related to mention policy the 3rd version of the founder continues with the theme of religious references with the poem features that states if you listen to the words of the poet Saadi he says he consents to require the consent of him immediately to the right of this user the text in the name of God the Merciful as if to celebrate cell users that the censorship they are experiencing is by the will of God these religious references are continued version for provide the main feature of the page is a changing image that makes references to national holidays and events maintaining the theme of allusions to show as well and national this image for instance depicts a mosque marking the festival of the mom reason asking users to click on a link to submit ideas for the 1st 4 5 of the fun of the RIRs attention to the Islamic nature of censorship the links featured here are perhaps the most related to state propaganda in comparison to the other versions while the previous version did not display any links all previous versions of the fun of our feature the popular Persian language learning platform lover however this version emits a website the omission of the main image inversion 5 makes it hard to establish a firm connection between the previous and following versions this finding is in line with the notion that archives of web pages are not always successful in capturing all of the content however for the research shows that this person still made use of images regarding she has not all the acid the green movement Internet controls now run from 2009 it's a 2012 report by the OpenNet Initiative has captured and save the version of the divine and I are as it was on the 20 5th of October 2012 this image features Quranic writings the last 2 iterations of the website in version 6 and 7 are very similar in design the sudden change in design was explained by an anonymous source to make filtering more pleasant or rather to appear as a subtle part of the Iranian Internet experience rather than 1 presented with indoctrinating aspects of the government a significant change that comes in versions 7 however is a prominent feature of the engine policy things concluding we consider
this historiography of the päivänä I website demonstrates a time on the beginning of the heightened Internet controls from the inception of the
age 2010 to the present day
the changes in the pages essentially demonstrate the
evolution of the ways uranium state
represents censorship policies the notions of religious motifs decrease over
time was the focus on Internet policy
becomes more presence but the last iteration of the page yeah and that was something I am
and as they struggle to go back to my new presentation only
did it without any glitches and saying
I'm and so over the years there have been different programs of the government has kind of put into place beyond the censorship out that they do and things that I have been following through my own work have been the spider program which comes from the Revolutionary Guard standard of digit division the cyber kind of irony and cyber division of the Revolutionary Guards and intelligent filtering and the national of information networks and the different ways that side the running government has been trying to attack journalists activists and human rights defenders of in terms of the attacking these kind of vulnerable individuals that pose a threat and there's a lot of different projects article 19 had in running Cyber Army report about this and it's been really great work to track this being done by the that campaign for human rights in Iran by the researcher and Neurosci Rashidi and by 2 other researchers who then tracking this with that on threats project that Colin Anderson and Claudio Re'nyi I'm there's tons of great research being done in terms of identifying and these attackers I and the
intelligent filtering out project that the running government has been doing is something that I looked into with and another colleague Frederick J. crowds in 2015 and basically at that time we were noticing that they're running government was making these really grand down statements that's the Ministry of ICT and about how would they had a sophisticated means to censor individual pages on different social media and basically this has been a old policy that they've wanted to do so S. sites like Facebook and Twitter were are censored after the protest movements in 2009 actually in the lead-up to the protest movement they were censored and so for a long time and various members of the government have said they want on what these platforms and find a means to just sensory individual pages or problematic content and leave these websites open however that's really hard to do unless the government has a relationship with these companies if they have a relationship with Facebook or Twitter and so back in 2015 they made a grand announcement that they had finally nailed that we were doing this on Instagram and Instagram as 1 of the more popular social media platforms and so what we noticed was that the censorship intelligent censorship which is just individual pages and or individual pictures are accounts being censored it was only being done on the mobile apps the and the reason was that Instagram had its time yet ruled out TTPs on the mobile application it had an them on the birth of the browser version of the website and so they're running governments great grand unveiling of intelligence censorship was in reality I'm just Instagram not doing this and so on and we found what kind of content they were targeting which was really interesting kind of a cultural research in terms of how censorship was working and then now that McCauley got in touch with Instagram and they soon rolled out the it's TPS on the mobile app and then an intelligent censorship came unraveling as the mother board are right along the row around smart Instagram censorship isn't that smart and so that's just 1 example of these grand policies that actually don't really and add up to very much out in terms of
intelligent filtering out the researcher con Anderson recently found out this database of Europe your else that differ IIS fees were giving add to this some company called so I hope I did was I can't talk too much about this but this was kind of a public notice he put out task anyone interested in this dataset to see if this is actually another phase of intelligent filters however the minister of ICT I did respond to list and said that they are not actually compromising uses data and he condemned the work of the Sun Company signed up I does which doesn't quite add up which I guess helps illustrate how confusing and Internet policy is in your on like water they actually doing where that water they actually saying and how does that align with the laws and those kinds of regulations
i and 20 16 and the budget it was announced that Iran was spending about 66 million on the intelligent filtering project however it's really unclear what that adds up to like what are the deliverables on this work that they're doing so again it's kind of like this quixote quagmire of what's
actually happening or not in terms of them the ability to silence different voices in on but they have been kind of them targeting different users in different ways and turned 20 15 20 16 at the geared up spider program as always round rounding up series of models and people in the fashion industry in Iran but are quite prominently present on Instagram the and while some of the statements coming from geared up was saying that they had technical hacking abilities what they're actually doing was arresting these models and are forcing passwords and getting the accounts that way but but during that time I actually got Instagram requests from 1 of these seized accounts on me kind uh clothing which you can see over there and you can see that the dog had taken it over because there's a notice that saying because of such and such low this some account has been sees under the spider program and so that was happening for a while under this again am more actual physical takeover than technical sophistication of kind of work another thing that's quite concerning pad and the campaign for human rights actually was the 1st report on wise and the Supreme Council of cyberspace requiring all telegram accounts to register with the government and so I'm telegram is a hugely popular inside around it's almost ubiquitous and it's often uses a social media application and so the public channels are run by administrators and if you have more than 5 thousand followers they basically needed you to register again approval and by registering they would add a to that account and the bot basically get an information of the administrators and the followers which is quite dangerous because last May when in the lead up to the presidential elections there is a roundup of telegram administrators that a lot of digital activists believe was through this registration program of having all of this personal data and the the
speaker the yes in terms of the national an Internet project and it's quite a contenders project in that a lot of people say that on 1 extreme it goes toward being like that North Korea's intranet kind of closed off from the rest of the world and I through my own work I don't think this is what they're running government wants to do and they do you want to localize certain things like banking and different forms of infrastructure against sigh cyber attacks like Stuxnet but some in general what they wanna do is keep data inside the country so they can have access and control and part of this project has been to create imitation versions of foreign companies self like I said they couldn't and enforced Facebook or Twitter to censor things for them because they don't have a relationship but if they have local versions they can effectively do this and so the and they've come up with alternatives for things like Instagram with lens or which you can see has a very high oddly similar I user interface and by that
oftentimes users inside around 0 trustees imitation up so and usage of monks for it like Instagram is always much higher than it is for the local alternatives
and 1 researcher a few years ago saw and that the way that the the telegram that imitation AP was implemented kind of trace how the data was going back to the government so there is generally a sense of distrust for
this kind of work and throughout the year since 2016 this attempt to localize user content has really increased they put ultimatum all and not platforms that have not been censored yet like telegram Instagram that they had a year to bring the servers inside of the country or else they would be censored this obviously didn't work on the so in at 20 17 and this past year they've been doing different things that kind of have basically added up to um that non-discrimination like they've been going against net neutrality values by offering incentives for people to uh use local traffic and access local traffic local outperforms and websites over international ones and they've been giving million-dollar incentives to developers to create apps and for example if they got a million users they would get a million American dollars for a developing such and such a and platform as recently we just translated and analyze the new um policy that's forming into a lot by the Supreme Council cyberspace policy in action on organizing social media messaging applications and this is just a set of rules for local absent for naps that need to follow in order to operate inside of Iraq
I this especially against but that that at 1 time so I have
another point that kind of come up and over the especially over the past year is how controls all only come from the running government but they also come from abroad so and companies like Apple and done Google in order to compliance sometimes over comply with US sanctions they've been denying certain services to Iranians so what has been happening in has been uh a running up developers have been seeing their apps being rejected from the Google Play Store and apple that store and mainly because they were providing and financial transactions over it and even things that work directly doing financial pigments were getting blocked searches on 1 particular act which is kind of the overview wrong cold snap they they were told to remove financial payments over the AP or else they would get removed from the App Store once they did remove that it seemed that they knew that there was some sort of financial transactions occurring offline and they still remove that out from the App Store just to comply with sanctions am there is also a kind of threat to other companies eyes and the nuclear negotiations went through back in 2015 there's a lot of foreign companies going in and there's been a huge um influx of talent the telecom sector like Vodaphone in orange and the different companies like by going to Iran and there's kind of a furor that social media giants like Twitter and Facebook might find incentive tossico it's always good to keep pressure to um for them to remain transparent about their dealings with Iran on the new minister of ICT recently said that he had on starting negotiations with Twitter to unfiltered Twitter in Iran however at Twitter has refused to you officially reply or say anything
so the thing that I spend most of my time working on I'm in terms of social media discourses telegram telegram is kind of an exciting new territory in understanding social media especially in in Iran because Internet penetration and telegram usage are almost on par so there is about 40 to 45 million Internet users inside of Iran and according to the company telegram there's about 25 million daily users in about 40 million monthly users so what this means for how people communicate how people are accessing information neurons is huge because oftentimes everything from shopping to staying in touch with friends to getting updates on the weather and traffic in use a comes from telegram and the public channels so and understanding this and how how the government is responding to such an important application
for communication is also really important and as always it's become sort of a target after a vulnerable at risk uses for example number of journalists a few years ago were having their and their accounts sees through an SMS sound I have to force entry and through SMS logins they're able to get in and so it those those kinds of and concerns telegram has been kind of reactive to these security flaws and when the journalist had their accounts taken over through the SMS tax they did help free reinstate them a few weeks ago there was a flaw in non and notification and that uses gotten here on on telegram that hackers were able to sort of take over you can see in the picture over there and telegram kind of reacted really fast and fix the floor but the issue there are a lot of digital rights activists on on fine is that telegram it is so important and it's so crucial to have a lot of and things operate inside of your on yet they're not really trying to prevent anything there being much more reactive so
um yeah there's also been concerns about how they can interact with the Iranian government as well as 10 done however telegram has kind of always
made under tit tit taking a stand to say that they are not cooperating with and they're running governments and down the but that they did you say large things possible things that they stand for freedom of speech yet they have found fail to really reach out to civil society and human rights activists on and so and there is a general kind of please words I this platform that so important for them to be a bit more cooperative and and prioritize them the human rights concerns in here on a little bit more I
and I was going to use slightly get into and more security aspects of things broke quickly go over it
and so obviously the security concerns a telegram and it takes up some of the work that I do an article 19 working with civil society in protecting them in that way and so just
quickly go over because I wanted to end on that particular note so this is like a very up
to a standard thing I'd like to say is you don't necessarily have applied the same security and concerns two year on that you would hear soldiers these grand statements of you signal used for often don't work of telegrams hugely popular so I often say what we work on making telegram Seyfert his users are not going to migrate away from it unless signal comes and creates a whole like infrastructure and platform that's going to cater to the specific needs of being both social media and having that affect usability features so that's really the last point I wanted to take away we have an but I also just 1 it's you have 1 kind of message which is I am too from village to be standing here and talking about this topic that I have I'm really passionate about and I a and really grateful that I've had this opportunity since over the years to work on and these kind of digital rights concerns on Iran and and as had certain personal hurdles in terms of and without coming into the nitty gritty of my personal life and the things I've had to go through but there's been this general and kind of mood and the past year with the need to movement and all these different stories of harassment and basically I I've been really grateful to all the people who have supported me over the years to make sure that the hurdles I'd have to encounter for the specific kind of unfortunate personal events that took place that effect in my career have to really help support me and when I was coming to light sake I was super proud to be coming to the chaos and computer clubs events and the stories have been hearing about people who have been victims of harassment have really out of some me and I'm I think you would be I would be remiss to not make a point of saying that in a little bit disappointed and the I
mean reading these things aren't of in and while they're in the CCA all of the you know the help to you give me the set of my talk and uh I if officiate that I've been given this platform but I really hope we can do better his this is not cool and it's not called for people to not feel safe and I know how it feels personally and I hope you know I haven't seen area I have chatted with her briefly I hope he's having a great time at this Congress is and and I'm really sorry to hear that some of some people they think they're doing great work and should be in the space are not here this here and I hope we can do better in 2018 and that the thank you
thank you and through talk Mohseni Madani and the 3 patients in technical problems thank you very much yes please Lionel up at the microphone still full microphones here in this room please line up there we have it in a couple more minutes for q in any you know that you know he he shows his but 1st are the signal enters in the back is he waiting on all odd any questions from the internet the normal thing OK thank you there is someone sending of microphones very what's aggression how things were your last statement really things lot here in my question will be about Instagram and telling them I don't know if I missed that part but it doesn't mean that then they many in government has relationships with them because you you mention that they helped me they show these things so you blocked and this is because of this so why this why this happens and why is it only these 2 particular platforms like I understood that Twitter and Facebook don't incorporate if you could say more about other things yeah but that's a really great question and I something that's been really interesting so I think I mentioned that this new government moderate Rouhani administration has kind of these in terms of how its position in the word that says and has been a bit more open to internet freedoms and things like that and so I think 1 of the achievements of like Akamai is stopping the censorship of Instagram intolerances lots of hardline elements in the establishment that have wanted this to get censored and it's kind of like come to deliberation to sensor over the years there have been some rumors that telegram has been working with with some the that with their running government although and anything that might be rumors because the Ministry of ICT every so often says that they have a direct relationship and then telegram comes in refutes set so am yeah that's up in the realm of rumors however but I think it's mainly the work of this moderate administration has been able to prevent the censorship science and media in connection with Instagram I know there and as far as I know they're not working with Instagram Instagram's owned by Facebook's of Facebook is censored but and I mean there could be many different reasons but these are all conjecture I'm Instagram is just kind of more for entertainment so they have less of a reason to block it and but also of the work of this moderate administration to kind of keep Instagram going although for a short while during election they were blocking Instagram life because it was being used for like protests and gatherings and things like that yeah and microphone number 1 please that was just thank you for your for your talk also appear in persevering only adversity wait nation state actors but also people outside the community that my not closer to the microphone please sure I'd like to say thank you for preserving all the adversity there's come away and for being here today to give this talk it's important and vital in your voice is valued the question of about they're on in a geopolitical landscape as its exerting itself more in Yemen Lebanon props other places do you see the technology that's been pioneered by the state apparatus is to say bodies inside of the then after on and in on will have a trickle-down effect uh in the into other countries that may replicate the oppressive which was structures in which they're wrong has as placed deceiving a model on as their on geopolitically exhorters muscle will teach you some of these the the technical sophistication and other things will um be picked up by other actors in the region yeah that's a good question I am I think they're and would like to have the technical sophistication that would be replicated elsewhere and I guess in some ways and uh the capabilities of some around cyber around Cyber Army which is kind of very hard to associate with directly with the government has sometimes affiliations a very loose and they have certain capabilities but in terms of like the technology I think for a censorship and surveillance and Iran more models itself on the technology coming out of China and Russia because they have had more effective and more sophisticated platforms and means of doing it so we think it's a little bit the other way around yeah microphone the on please thank you for your talk you from from you may the uh some government supporters being I received the the use these correct do you see any kind of clash between the Revolutionary Guard or the Regis power and the government the government yeah absolutely I mean after the nuclear negotiations the foreign minister devil various who is like kind a little bit westernized speaks perfect English and as he had a he has a huge fan base in Iraq because he established the nuclear deal he had like almost physical confrontations in parliament with the hardline elements so could have a gap there definitely is not and the reason why some of the telegram administrators who are actually supporters of a honey were arrested is because of this kind of clash between Alan hard-line elements like the Revolutionary Guards and the more moderate administration so there is this kind of yeah differentiation and you want so happens because moving to the last question at to make a phone number 3 please or here as 1 of the questions and what can we put all thank you for your great talk this very what researchers great information in your very brave proclamations um what to leave the room due to find your work through pressure on companies the you know word inside of Iran throughput from the governments of the missions were citizens of MCE what's the next 4 people were losing quantities of the world that you but yeah I mean especially if you're not American I think you were honey and government would be more open to hearing is kind of the non western perspective but I think like the reason why I think at some point to be here in Europe is because Europe is actively engaging in dialog with Iran so if there's way to put pressure through the different companies that are going into iran like like I mentioned there is no the British Vodaphone and like from France's orange they're going and if they can make certain demands for you know human rights out uh standards and things like that there would be that would also be really gray I mean campaigning and putting pressure in different ways to social media is always helpful and the the the main thing that I think we keep at perhaps have effect on his hopefully as a company like telegram is listening and they can make as security and privacy of a running and 1 of them 1 of the bigger priorities so that's really the place that I think can have found the most uh changed his or we can have more we can have easier dialog with like Facebook telegram and all these different platforms to ensure that privacy and security is upheld constantly methionine than humans for the top and please give her 1 which was to were just you
use know this is my and it peaked compared to the heat to put