Introduction in Audio Retrieval 2 (12.05.2011)

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Video in TIB AV-Portal: Introduction in Audio Retrieval 2 (12.05.2011)

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Introduction in Audio Retrieval 2 (12.05.2011)
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10.5446/348 (DOI)
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Technische Universität Braunschweig
Institut für Informationssysteme
Balke, Wolf-Tilo
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Content Metadata

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In this course, we examine the aspects regarding building multimedia database systems and give an insight into the used techniques. The course deals with content-specific retrieval of multimedia data. Basic issue is the efficient storage and subsequent retrieval of multimedia documents. The general structure of the course is: - Basic characteristics of multimedia databases - Evaluation of retrieval effectiveness, Precision-Recall Analysis - Semantic content of image-content search - Image representation, low-level and high-level features - Texture features, random-field models - Audio formats, sampling, metadata - Thematic search within music tracks - Query formulation in music databases - Media representation for video - Frame / Shot Detection, Event Detection - Video segmentation and video summarization - Video Indexing, MPEG-7 - Extraction of low-and high-level features -Integration of features and efficient similarity comparison - Indexing over inverted file index, indexing Gemini, R *- trees
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A press on but actually what this key board does it displays synthesised notes and this is the sexiest is what kind of book oranges should pustule you can just allowed nested can just the frequency with a lot of love testing possibilities so this is how you can now view can produce synthesised sounds and what's what's interesting to see what it is that with such a synthesizer and the Sunday compiler have held the concept told the you can also find is to your new to the grid data of here from 19 74 they actually I have done in the 1st steps to of electronic music and the scene in which she has to go directly to the sauce came to me that this is the case he at the SAS and the son of a
I and the way we have quite interesting of a would necessarily here only such music but it was before for that they were the 1st steps to lose a set through the and is quite interesting care how he should behave with the buttons and he managed in the sound like that this is what you could do with the synthesizers back their right now to be an old most of the music is built on the computer and the World synthesizers now soft made and they were quite well something like that for the basics of actually wanted to be here and radio OK back to to the technique a sustained RexCorp as ever previously mentioned the programme which he says sounds it may be a sign that that sells for producing some which is more close to the perfection of a typical instruments on his use of the said this kind of for behaviour of sound in time saw the 1st days of the attack with a certain overshoot in the level of their comes the case where the actual Dizaei Lebanese is reached then and longer sustained face where the the 1 that was aimed for sound and then place which is usually a shorter time so that just decreases coupled with 0 became 1 of the most important part in all the is the digitalisation or 40 of the Solar we have spoken about the order data is presenting the seen but in order to save such as the new 1 would need to see each point on on the same island this is actually not that not very good at it because I imagine for of music based and you have a lot of it up to save sober of solution is to offer a saviour sampling and the concept of sampling the is just off looking at the bigger to us in time on the corner of the state for example of the squad here so this is a
This is or signal and then willing to look at different and there was a time when I'm going to stay here and there and you and your computer and so on up to the to and the sea and in these communities discrete moment and willing to check what's the empty to seek out and the forest and 2 to them going for matches 0 this 1 here that on the next amplitude somewhere Shia and so so this is how I'm going to discuss the dispute that is that the same but the most important part is when the script eyes and have to make sure that the resulting see how enough in order to the costs of the region of the Tory did not seem seem out of chorus of Pope was used to save the state of the 2nd 1 is 92 care that they can't across the city and when performing sampling the basic after the stakes and the policy that the sampling the great despairing basically means of how many times in the time you need something to arrive in tone before a boy have pulled step into the sea of home many times but have tool to look and see on the cover of what the amplitude of the sea and the higher the sampling the better the of quality of the of the digitalised team and the birth of a can deconstruct awaited on the other side of actually might try to was less state a December that that is the case that is a which so called why see the did digitalised data and which which could see the whites and the author of resolution of 16 it is is used this means actually tool of the polls said 16 different amplitude said about the same things that it's a actually applications and so it depends on what you have for example for music it so quite Caumont use a sampling rape of 44 at where for for the same thing with a reach is called 1 somewhere for that on a can of the idea is because of the difference in the data for example of portfolio with interested in the quality very interested in the flow spectrum off-frequency we don't you want losing so the interested also in high sampling on gallicized will in the end the credit interested in understand why they are the ones we don't really care to get all of the crime noise or something like that actually would you want to get rid of them so we can look usually filters feel that the power this is why it would make sense to use the highest and so it also with for the network size meeting the that signalled because no assembling great means the state that would cost me and that the French to the
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But So here we have seen that it is where the big before but the taking into consideration the for example that 92 the media have for the time counter the computer and the players could have been proposal by the computers because it was a great game of the 19th in the city was a media format of music storey on the grid but here comes the grid of the 10 needs of missing have not been made yet 400 all the time it's a great difference between what you were supposed to Staub by starting comedian data and the ability to not sound as at said that and put it into the cable order and the output of the same size of cancer can be used for fishing the data and the she wanted to any changes the put exemplary fuel field that the notes are so that they could you can obvious December broker incomes for me to Fukushima natural OK booking is go to the next section load information in date so we actually ahead of the World today that we have music's and music scene these we have sounded sound effects of you call like for example have a database of signs which you can use like for example for a team whose he made you know this more than the soft going to use with the pieces of instrumented different moulds you can planting and create so this is the audio and you can all have been in database and search for what he was doing and how some upgrade for them on the other side the date the also presented also of the process of information transfer so I if you had just music police and to the point down side you meet for example storey she speeches where not the take that it said at the same time but the message extracted from and if would have for example the transcript of the speech that takes it will be the same close Yimou's information takes to have what the boss and the between the speech said but you don't really have put example of the sort that the way he said that information for example of the action of the public it can also be used for Recording so conversations total calling for costs for negotiations studies at the beginning permission account storey in the data usually when dealing with the audio databases that piccolo applications of polio for this I was in the context of the time 1 of them is the indication of told you see so for example of the old you create the classical example here is more when you go to a music show and you want to buy a some using these 2 woken up certain something your head and you don't know how it's called some of the type that you come Goldington made by from Amazon because you don't know how it goes and you will to the music and then to the right to head that she died at sea with the news that melody that some like this and you have this audio as pretty by paving the database which is able to understand your creating so if you see this in a way that would then it could be would you either the sound more information about the man with your information about this is that because in ideal of code is pretty or indication of what you see another application is the classification and such see simulator for example want to cross the river to get the scene music pieces of missing but it belonging to the same for a certain John like for example where the song and the eye want something stimulus I'd like a bit of K but like this staples so once BigSim and this is a typical case of classification and simulator to and that is also why the synchronisation where for example of the text and the have some spoken speech some speech and they want to synchronisation between between the 2 what's open and but what the hell but the extra for synchronisation is not something according to the Daily in the lecture so what they are going to autofocus on as the occasional or during the grid OK sold the peak of tasks in the occasion of Stephen will want to find the title for a minute piece ahead in my head may be Oregon off as an it's 1 of the 1st applications think it was written for for 5 4 and the six 2nd so well not from the Human place but you can pull out your cellphone status and and later tree-code some sort of a shorter the piece of music from the radio and then to them with of this music Thesis called scenes it may be turned away by items of something like that but it's also a great idea so we decided occasional for using singers can also be a great idea for more money state for example of the fight among blink advertised on the radio and the want to be sure of their Radiohead's his promise and but by his or around might have worked as an treaties there all with down or contract before that don't need to see near the radio and tried to of the conflict he deep to play my advertising triphthongal 4 times for all time but the icons before or more on this automatically by the M able to before McGinty occasional for using so what is going to happen it's blue when it bought the radio programme and compared the radio programme with my advertisement and the matches when it says that the programme compared to different part of windows of the programme match with my advertisement then it's great contact and the Tree of them time and had been seen in the used case can be used by the Coca right control and for example looking that what the radios played just the company them with different sort some pieces and see if they have licence contact soul and other of the 2 because of the application is hold your mind so want to here some sunk from my terms or something like that an account and the police have stream to meet for from the local of services he would use the
Located the 2nd the dappled of application is the classification and matching so the last here is defined told you signals which are perception and see so air want to find pieces of losing which are kind of the same and there is a great really be feel that the Book recommend the systems to interest that so for example of the more you to where off the family they also have a great at the lower programme of the both programme the interface where you can use it to improve like for example give me some which are seem to this 1 looking for me out of the sweeter simulator this 1 for example usurped some stimulus to Queen something seeming for model not and they give you a taste and that this is actually done based on matching for songs how well they may Torrelavega because he tried to get so busy John the classification or your libraries This is this is a nice application for your libraries to off from his classification automatically and the secret the station off all the time as a as a mansion synchronisation between speech and fixed between notes and audio where my right now following the Dalton 0 what what is his singing right now or achievable or the of takes from from speech for example sought to find the specific point in a speech but said this is a part of not going to concentrate on so we are much more interested in created by some OK so of the state of the bill for this tree applications that start to the identification which will still retains his nature of its the simplest of this 3 programs and there actually it's a successfully been result that it has Sam is an example of the bill that stepped on land so you can take it tested it also believe is the to in the next lecture interesting applications for the classification and matching it still of its use local ruled tool manner lamentation so actually stand with a local manual were met at the time and all the ultimate because the cations works on their after a small collection of some sort this match across as it is still programme at the key Campbell's load of training usually and its it from where it's a provided stick approach to be close a procedures here machine learning techniques and though they were but it's not that is not as good as they go into the kitchen points tempo for synchronisation and in the meantime 1 can obtain no political area it's like for the synchronisation between which language and text OK so we spoken about the state of the general applications but the for speaking about you databases the need to speak of how to make the top 4 seeds published or and usually the order of the day however storey in robust in the face will actually get nothing more than bandages called
Most of the databases who for bold and you can store either the new or sold your they don't really care what use board their and their actually not too far from the point of it because you can have a great editor of both the new and old in the book to save the somewhat despite the were song but this doesn't really had pupils and on Continent such there is also the concept of spy ropes would usually the difference is 1 of them I managed by the operation system and 1 that is diminished by the database he said additionally the at like for example of the type of fight that size by for the last time it was a song for the future of the loss of life for example sound features the and play to all of those lulled saw with the couple and their just the same as with Dundee and I need to remember to we and we spoke about the need use which have some feature length the brightness and so on this is exactly what we had here or so and the need to get on with the future of the state help us before the mountain and the for example the cost before transcription of languages text or phone I'm update music pieces for for me
That's the section where according to concentrate on and this is the most important part that you want to the or during to so this is the central point point all of our of how would lectures accounting audio howled early surge in order and the cost of the most easy approach is made that the subject and its creative to have met the because you can have semantic meant that the and the for example of the type of these or dispute that if this is a speech were some kind of key all this is meant to be a psycho again in the name each case where the semantic matter that the word was a photo of me and various lawful told me near of animal my my best friend and my best best friend somewhere on December think that that it is difficult because it's difficult to generate because it augmented information so derivative is great and suggested on to have a prop and searching 1 on at the time on the other side you have some automatically generated method of the for example the time or place for images that can be taken edited told you jewel Sands or so that the bones new recording the 5 name of the school of the size of the Isle of that automatically who can use it to its great fun meant that that his Cray as I've said before have it you can use it and this is the foundation of the people of music exchange my kids almost would have heard about the success that we had Overview may have also used told because you were searching for a certain type of the type that has been already introduced a someone of building the plant holding his computer and this is basically a Howard with tree was searched for them at the time but this mentally indexing regarding the book but they were inputting has meant that there is a going density and expensive and the disinformation is usually home for example of the British on the classification 1 might see their state that this music bases book but he is not really an expert so maybe this is something that saw a beaches Dynamic state of may be dismissed the spin off to more gentle sold some sort of point to point for search with the recording sound but that the piece is not has not be could be labelled quality won't find the most the major problems here is that you have not plausibility of the following the by example of this is actually what they called a multimedia database should be so I'd want to search for sound that he has like this and they want behind the will to see what police and and they wanted database to return the information of highly what they want according to search for and for this we need to be able to such as the said full to create a by example directly in the audio 5 sold not quite and the maiden what that could systems of managed to do it is to something like a script with the Pokdum approximate strings and the might of the like most said late on all music priesthood from music database where diet life 0
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was able to of high frequency is where the worst a world of poultry and the the bandwidth all of the show measures the lowest and highest of those frequency volume get that the and again for voice its lower than 10 for music and then you have this feeling features which can be measured in the time domain so you'll independently near the scene of which is on the two presented as a band of British was the time and have something for example something like this and to the best of times and the US has something like that would have the frequency domain We have density in like for example aspectual of something that this was the frequency have here on only 22 Mohamed few something like the frequency and you have a local his 400 something like their presentation in the frequency domain will speak about spectrograms skies OK so that completed the amplitude is the fluctuations but on the sale of it gives me the allowed so of silence is Kraepelin tool to 0 and action if wanted to take the field of silence have total to before some heuristics but usually when winning have 0 AMPI to there has is no noise move and movement that also independently have the every 2 and a G so described it as the power of life is Dan that signalled and you can calculated by by some in the figure of the scene those to eat saw something that this great off each of each AMPI to pitch point into the sea in the scene that the average Kennedy dividing by the number of points as the average energy another feature in the time domain is the 0 crossed for the the frequency of sign changes in the seat solo what basic boat here is that a for tools are secretive points have the same seen on this is a very good to see all of this was deputy if they have difference he knows that there will be 1 and it will has 1 change and it will about the number of for of changing changes and everything is an almighty so that they can comparison across rates for tool for sounds without taking and frustration that they have for the might be might have different things the silence ratio is another featuring time domain and the action this means that for of the use that belonged to a period of time but the Great Christian here what these side so you can see that if you have of an entry to the show that had because you might have 0 crossing for for example and in the case of awful for crossing the and could easily sell actually there that would it would Touristique tool to establish a legal beach beach under which everything that you have sold on the open AMPI to that this is quoted the noise or size and what time also must established is the number of meetings numbers number of 54 points for which the something must implemented lower than the established aeschylean so that it is considering a period of silence so he for example a just 1 point on the island now may be the tools of 10 of the potato and Ampi to both than that of the present my my said Churchill it doesn't really composite but I hate the fact have the cost of classic give sequence or like 0 5 or 6 such treating and that might be side so it depends on my parameters and Howard find them but silence can be detected at the or case spoken of the global defined what below the frequency of weekend before wilfully confirmation of the signalled and this is actually means that we transport the same that we have been to the frequency may be decompile seeking to sequences of each of these decompiled frequency with corresponding fish and this is how we get the presentation of the big 3 of the victims suspect almost the same thing about the most and put them but you have the equations equations of which she conceded trees and the amount of energy for off-frequency debated equations named for the more important that is that the compost part of the seek sold as apsidal turned the compression you can hold the 1st 5 where efficient and cut out the rescue whose death for example that energy is aimed paupers but he and the 2 should be measured and invested and there are some features we can describe 1 case the boot of the crisis for example this is how the cost of looks like in the time domain this year and in the frequency domain and you can already served
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This is a great features to be used in classification like point sampled the and became music is higher than for for the voice of the music you may have a lot of instruments handles instruments may produce a high frequency is the equivalent of 10 20 Camelford's preconceived to stick use to the estate here but those sequences you don't 3 Create with police may be during the experimental all pressing the something this staff who may have a higher voice you may achieved that looked usually in almost beach who don't have that you have the music but not him so that has grateful for performance classification under the featured in the frequency domain is the power of the state should be about what can and can't do it with directly from the frequency so what you actually can distinguish is the frequency with how all of this was the end and the order of a high energy versus the those low-energy sold basically the ones with the highest they should database of a of the ones that are highly high energy and based on the the standard distributions you can cut the sequence events high for with low and you can centroids for example to established how high is that every 2 frequency based on cost during most of the energy and it is hoped that the brightness like point sampling music you have off from high frequency is so music may have a higher price than the voice of the voices fillet of local for key will be to sell the brightness will be on the for camera
On hot morning again featured in the frequency domain it accounts for the the lowest of the low frequency it's also called the fundamental frequency so or if you have a fundamental frequency for example for a for for music instruments that you have also have hot morning which means that the seed of the increase is the of repeat this based on the frequency in multi select for example you could have a standout which somewhere she had like 400 point the head and this is also fundamental frequency of this is how it looks on the same day size dime doesn't care and harmonics but if you do the same or more on 1 of food for example you will also have the time or like 800 which is the 1st time on a full time 400 40 and then you would have a 1 thousand 200 20 3 times for 100 for the 1st and so on harmonics and a decrease in the intensity
And those who want to work this time only question nations basically means down This year is the fundamental frequency you may see here there might be some noise but this 1 is low enough to take into account the relations This is the 1st car morning which would be the 800 the and the next 1 and the Fuqua Citypoint sampled the home negotiations again for stream Instruments what this means is that for example the 1st high 1 equal look something like that the 2nd half when I would have doubled the frequency towns something like that the new code of morning 3 times the frequency of 4 times the frequency and so on and the Allwood the old low but dissipate together at the end of taking the sound in in including the and the and not being of the peaches being played so as it said it to be difference between the spectrum offers some foreign instrument looks like an of the synthesised 1 because it synthesizer doesn't have harmonics you may be able to stimulate them but he has to say some doesn't think like that not the features which is 1 of the most important features which will going put and in the next lectures and its detectable only for failure at ICCS some sort of the way some of the case of the sins of simulations and it can be approximately by means of the 20th spectrum and usually 0 and most of their applications its the beaches cost to beat the fundamental frequency the is calculated from the frequencies and amplitudes of the peaks so as said this fundamental who is fundamentally frequency usually used as an approximate should without also procedures 1 can use so at with what can used to before the detection and most of them so 1 of the most well known not is the money for that spectral required to discuss this in the case like for example using mobile correlation with the team on to the beach discussed above them in the next lectures this lecture we discussed above the introduction into all during Tree but we have touched the basics off for the day of the week discussed the about what kind of all the information is stored in multimedia databases and we start to discussing the bulk Peter Blake and how we can before or during the well and so rich in order to take the next leg to will discuss about classification entry told you own told the 2nd major applications will continue with the load hold your features of a week to go in for the smallest difference human French defence Simon and could be put into procedures became use in order to detect the beach but it think of for the attention