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Drones of Power: Airborne Wind Energy

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the the time and he the the it is not to go from the space spectra were
and sperm try to use drones autonomous flying vehicles of Apollo generations so this is the 2nd part so the outline here is on
here so the outline is the 1st of which reduce the source you're up and to motivate why it is a good idea to harvest high altitude winds and produce energy from that uh that that technology to power will come in the 2nd part here this is all the technology will support a woman and you and in the 1st part I want to show how we build a winter on for low cost for yourself and experiment with this kind of technology
so let's start with the 1st part and here are as a reminder this the conventional energy of supplier wish list so probably what you global players in conventional and what to think about it or tell you they would say that this issue will be clear enough resources and uh meaning on time scales here it is exploitable of the order of 1 human life expectancy it's controllable especially economically and politically it is depreciable economically and you so to a very high profit for some players um unfortunately there's also the technological come and sometimes it's driven by hopes saying it would be OK but as
we know it might be mostly harmless so as we see here for instance there catastrophes like Chernobyl that this is after the catastrophe where the memorial for the people died then you have some air scenarios during the catastrophe
you this is the water rise being like desperately tried to extinguish the fire by the um score-stratified creates and of course what I don't have to mention here but in times of fake news is important to
mention we argue for the catastrophe so this this year of a plot of the the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere taken from an ice and as you see here the ice ages this variations of a 5 from a thousand years and now we are at this spot here that points up and if you resolve this into the scale extend this time scale from the last thousand to 2 thousand years so you're here at this spot at 2 thousand year 2 thousand then you see that this rice uh started at the industrialization so it's a clear sign that we have to do something and you have to do it quickly
we're not so long as I tried to propose something which can be part of the solution then sustainable energies and use a wish list of what probably some of you were thinking of use of sustainable ubiquitous continues accessible and profitable at the very end so does such a source exists and for special define what it means so sustainable means it should serve present needs without compromising the future and this is clearly not what we are doing now uh so it should be available on time scales which are like the lifetime of our essential start if possible it should be you we produce meaning that it should be present almost on any location on earth so that we can without a very complicated of long-range infrastructure that have access to the energy it should be continuous meaning it should be present at almost any daytime and seasons so that we can plan of what we produce and of course it should be accessible meaning it can be tagged by the technology and nucleases nificantly cont significant contribution to our energy mix and profit of course also be so does it there exists and the answer is yes and I want to um so that so this airborne wind energy can be a big part of it
so here I have a table of some sustainable energy sources and we is uh the items of written here and I put some of the uh sustainable sources so as fusion there's solar energy to rescue and also the spatial energy of which boast presented by on by Stefan before hydro energy geothermal energy and conventional wind energy whereby convention in energy I mean of wind energy up to approximately 100 meter which is the half height of uh wind turbines approximately and as you can see some of these are some of the items here are not fulfilled by all these uh um uh some different approaches so for example the spatial energy is clearly not ubiquitous because you have this being as we heard with this just like the um basically hitting a certain spot on the Earth and they transferred into energies you have to distribute this energy also it is not yet accessible on the other hand we need energy you conventional wind energy is not ubiquitous because you can only select certain spots and it is not continuous because you currently planned when the wind is blowing in when it's not blowing so let's add to this list what is called high altitude wind and how did he win this clearly sustainable because it's also wind energy so it's not like driven as all the other wind energy as well um and high-altitude unions to go a title heights which are about 200 meters and tried to drain the energy from these uh wins the so
don't let me um I why uh it is ubiquitous source and for this it with was also here and part of the team and I'm very happy has made this very nice plot Europe uh which shows the western part of Europe and it shows the ratio of wind power which you can extract at an optimal height which should be the law the 1 thousand meters so this is just an arbitrary at the moment limit to say with that we can have an system which can basically get uh at up to tell the meter height and compare it to this uh wind energy which is still basically available at 100 meter yeah and in this part you can see at the coastline there is a line here and this line is the dying where in the interior where you have already a doubling of the wind power so meaning some at the coastline itself if you go to high altitude you have the double wind power available that 100 meter even better directly at the coastline there's another line which is a factor of 4 better so as soon as you put your installed binds on land site you would be a factor of 4 of them but you have access to a factor of 4 higher wind power and here in the region slightly south of light since there's another line this is a factor of 8 way become better in wind power and high altitude wind power so seeing that the coastal regions have already a factor of 4 in this ratio better and the land between 4 and 8 um all their of signs sorry that should be appear of course and so saying that year um the site of convention in the energy harvesting and which are now very limited and where you put the for instance all the wind turbines and North they become much more accessible if you go to higher heights because they can basically use all the land sites and so this is the year of more sites available when you are how this is optimal height and here as an example of how
about why is a continuous source you see at a time distribution of the wind velocity in January 2016 and like the um the velocity use you're increasing from yellow to red and uh the altitude is displayed here and this is the time scale of the month and what you can see is at 100 meter height you have almost like only in the lower parts you have wins whereas if you bought a higher heights you have the reddish parts where you have high the velocities period so this shows that continuity is already improve if you go to high altitude especially for land sites and this is almost impossible for continued for prevention wind turbines you would have to build the must higher and uh and much much bigger structures and also what is displayed here is the optimal harvesting height so this is the height again below following tell where it would be optimal to um harvest wind at a certain time over the display over the whole month and if
1 goes from this plot add to the histograms to the personal to the and of the time distribution of the different velocities you get this picture here so this is not the spot so the histograms of 175 from a thousand intent of the optimal height so if you just adjust your height and 1 of the things that you can see is that the mean this clearly shift but uh to I haven't velocities if you increase the height and also if you and the optimal attitude you shift the whole probability distribution to the right so and and what have increases there is that the fraction of time below 5 meters per 2nd which is like the and the time where the cats in wind speed for a wind turbines and would like starting lose energy the probability to have such wins is increased from 76 per cent of some 87 per cent which is why the book but a lot of increase so I just into varying optimal harvesting heights is not only almost but it's really impossible for conventional wind turbines so 1 has to find another could technology was is better income uh give you access to this high altitude winds it the
so this is the plot again from before so I have now uh little but motivated why the sources to be good at a continuous now the question is is it accessible and how it is accessible and this is the technological part which is called airborne wind energy so how do we access this high altitude winds period so on for these let's
come back to the design challenges which would be necessary to go to high height so I added to it means that you don't just can you can just to increase your power and have more talk on your foundation and so just stayed up the system so you should avoid proliferation of master and proliferation of the tower information and also very attitude means you shouldn't have passive stabilizing static structure so find but find something which can vary the
so just as an example here uh this is the sky walk in the Grand Canyon and this is already of pride uh scary lever arm you which you have and there is an comparison you take your modern wind turbines you rotated by 90 degrees and compared in size to this you can see what kind of talk will be uh like uh and uh we act on the foundations so this is already a very big piece of technology you have your the so we have to do
better and so this is the 2nd part namely wind energy so the technology itself the so the 1st slide is
probably the most important of this part because it explains the uh the idea behind this technology so if you take Thomas drones which are at most flexible connected to the ground where reattaches and expect managed their wind energy by others blogs so how does it work so look at this as conventional wind turbines here there you have most of the error energy is produced by the outer part of the wings they are rotating with the highest velocity and at the same time you have the highest the largest lever arm so you produce most of the energy in the outer part of the inner part is more or less that passive stabilizing structure so you removed that structure and replace it by the something which is flexible and the 1st was comes to mind probably is a differ with which attaches to the ground and then you have just the active party which is now at the aircraft moving in the circle which before was circulated by the wing tips to extract the energy this is the principle I'm so how do we bring down the
power of when circulating this act off so we have to in some way um air transform electric power so there are which are not shown in the picture before lighter than air system so you just basically take balloon you put your wind turbine and high altitude and uh extract the power and he the test that confuse serve as the power lines but what you gotta do is
when flight which was shown in the picture before so here you have a moving Oct aircraft which can move in with something which is called the direct mode meaning that you have on board generators on the aircraft's so essentially it's the propeller aircraft but the propellers are reversed in RepEnum modes so that the repellers produce energy for you and then the test assesses power line so this is the principle is shown here so here you can see that generators and then the power is uh um uh bear brought on the 5th of this 2nd part of the 2nd and elect strategies using the support this mode so here you have ground-based generators and uh the test itself transmits the power then no power lines in the tester so he argues that the powers given by the pulling force times the readout velocity of the test so you circulate in some patterns with the aircraft and you use the this force acting on the aircraft to unwieldy this test from a drum and the drum under the base station there's a generator attached which helps you to get the energy uh to just from the energy into electrical energy and of course at some point the Jeffries maximally at a out and then you have to have to go to a really in phase where with minimal energy you really in the Tampa again and start periodically this phase again in
so these are the concepts and there's a whole is more of them 1 wind energy devices and proposals which show that this technology is still in the very early stage of being developed so you have people you flying figure of 8 patterns with aircraft um so something Ariel lighter than air turbines which is very exotic like this 1 probably this 1 you have seen their in media already uh proposals like this year there are quadcopters which produce the energy by rotating off their um uh of the propellers here and and all kind of exotic uh lever arm and arm and uh aircraft which you can use and so and it's doing
little bit of a more order into the technology in this area into the proposals and uh 1 of the things I will discuss which is very probably promising is what is called cross when flight time so here an example is a comparison of a conventional a lighter than a a system which should be Whelan and then so this is 1 of the biggest wind turbines and the the harvesting area is so the effective area of such a wind turbine is the swept area of your propellers essentially so let's look what happens if you from moving aircraft instead of through uh the wind them then the big just before it's like of that size and if you take an aircraft was as the scene of wing area is the wing areas of the propeller here your harvesting the area is of that size is much bigger and the reason for this is that the effect of area is now given by the wing area times uh coefficient which is the square fraction of the lift to drag coefficient of the aircraft times lift coefficient itself and this factor is of the order of 200 so it gives you a a lot it increases the efficiency of your um uh of your reading so dramatically this was already found by light in nineteen eighty and you can now ask there wiII uh does it take 30 years from this idea to 1st systems and the answers in this community from 4 is probably a very interesting is why all the others for projects are appearing on a 30 years later it's because of the computer power so for the control algorithms which allow you to control such like modes was not available good so
and as an example here is an illustration of 1 of the uh um current leaders in the field of quantum bits power showing um across went airborne wind energy system the conventional system so here's the conventional wind turbine 2 megawatts and the conventional physical mental system and the cabin when system this this is the ground station and this is the aircraft so 1 of the things which are open but I'm invisible in this picture is that it is much less light even site impact in the environment so having something like this is much less disturbing from the uh from the esthetic of our interview with and this huge wind turbines good the so now the next step would be to
the to repair closer to the technology and see what other system components like that you need it that you need to build such a mn a device so 1st of all there is the drone or the fixed-wing aircraft and we have seen that it's very good to have large list and there's more direct coefficient so you need something which is like a rigid um uh glider more less on board unit sends censorious like accelerometer gyroscope GPS receiver barrel meter and a independent you 2 are there uh measure the R D as and this is to determine the system state that should then it's likely acted on by the control surfaces of the in the actions of an aircraft by ailerons flaps and the rudder moreover you need of course a microcontroller and I were in which to the state estimation so from the sensor or they are they uh um they compute the state of the system meaning this position attitude velocity and you have to navigate and so and of course you might need something like a propeller for takeoff lending and energy generation and carry case of ejectment and the 2nd thing is of course the ground station so you need the drumming for cattle wind-up key need a motor which eventually it has to be transformed into generator more if you have the list note in the power converters also Michelangelo's us and algorithms which synchronize you ground station operation with drone and you need a runway catapulted of something like for takeoff and landing so so funny includes the pipe there even is a simple but the devil
is in the detail and here from the nice told a colleague of mine John to gap there has done in 1 of his talks um and I like it very much because it displays very well what challenges have to be still overcome so it starts with the theory is where nothing works but everyone knows why and they had to demonstrate this let's have a look at this video here which is 1 of the flight attendants of 1 of the
companies theory so the act of this on off there is no sound the numbers on I thank and and the desperation of the founder was clearly here over the end and you could see that the ruptured and then there was no way to recover that most of the aircraft was lost seconds sometimes
practices when everything works but no 1 knows why so there also positive surprises and here is the launch and a catapult longs for an aircraft which now uses and wage so I saw a positive
surprise for for a test and finally uh sometimes if you combine
Theory and Practice that nothing works but no 1 knows why this is where the complication really is the devil is in the detail and here you can see you from of light was constant flights everything the normal at and the and then the um prototype is again most so this is complicated and so
but there there is a lot of progress and so I want to come closely at a very could quickly introduce the current industrial status so I've always on 3 companies with whether that so 1 of them is anna kites in the land and they have no a system which is based on a ability station on such a truck and is a crosswind system of a passive wing so it's the advice of free of the free templates and abuses up to 30 kilowatts of energy then you have and its power and they have
fewer the launching site in the Netherlands and they are currently producing this aircraft you this type which uh in um crosswind is a constant systemness mode and at the end will produce up to 5 to 1 of 50 kilowatts of power this is under construction and finally there's
links McCartney in um error California and they have been the direct mode aircraft here which is flying and I can show you some of you or that they have on their homepage very nicely with the soul of of flights so that you can see that the successor know what system is working and you see
on more propellers you can see the path down here this is from the tougher attachment point out so the things are working there there are prototypes and yeah but 1 of the
things which are important as 1 has to test test test and get experience tests so experience is what you get when you were expecting something else to so what it mean so we have to
test analyzed adopt the systems so because many of us who could see from this design variations in the zoo which I've shown many of the concepts are still open so for example the design of the African frame if you use a by plane flying wing or anything like or something totally different is still open the traffic construction what kind of materials to use this still open the materials itself is still open for the aircraft etc cetera the mode of operation that he's take-off landing and direct versus this mode is still an open question what is the best thing to realize in of for industrial products and then control hardware and soft and I were have to be tested for only of course that have to be certified by the um aerospace and agencies of course you want Africa faces so what you have to do is you want to even and then have total loss is an experiment you wanted do the experiment with the to a total loss of your system so we don't need but in steps you shook build a cheap and disposal the test platform instead of 4 years not the scaled up system 1st before you be expensive prototype would to tests on them and this brothers to the idea to provide a low-cost open-source test platform where everybody at home can build its own window yeah and this is the 3rd part of the talk
so the do-it-yourself went wrong it is the
um yeah what are the ingredients here so 1st you drawing so here I wanna show the Ephraim and reinforcement tech which is necessary to prepare you are framed for the additional forces by adding the Tampa there's a ground station and here I wanna motivate why the drone is essentially behaving like a fish in this case a Berkeley up the next thing is um navigation curve many forward as very important uh because you have like a constrained coming from a and finally you need something for your for control which is the other pilots so in this case it's the autopilot open source project which we adapted n so let's come
to the airframe reinforcement had uh so what do you state your favorite polystyrene airframe so in this case it's an easy start to that and blue the wings together this is the lower side of the wings you put in there a problem rocked Europe and this part and ends you stabilize it with the racks which you blew into this lets you can see here and then you wrap carbon in the in the following years of the forward part of it where them most of the aerodynamic force is uh that attached then you have the carbon worked a combined around it has the and you install additional fuel for fixing the um the uh wings on the diffuse slips so the fuse here we cut off the engine blocks included additional carbon right so you can put this problem what's on these common words here and fix everything with groups so and to so we have that looks like uh 0 and how what is the size of this model is so here here is the original size of aircraft uh with carbon and can later if you want to passed by the assembly area and look at it and have a look at it but should ask theories so this is how it looks
decomposed into different components so again we use and so on and so on this there was for and former control surfaces the central unit here is the of a pixel without a pilots and so they they're microcontroller which contains some of the same source you've a GPS and the addition of a tendency antenna for uh um data from an for data transfer to the ground station and you have a C control for manual control uh when you switch to switch of also modes to have manual control in emergency situations or if you want to make other kind of flight tests these the yeah so this is the
law itself so long as the question what to do with the ground station and here let's look at the wider growed the strong behaves as a fish because uh what it does is it like a like in fishing you would need a free-moving Tatar it has to be fast and face if we union and read out and it should remain twist free so that it doesn't give any not if it is not on a pension and the thing which we come up with
the best source for our needs at the moment is an offshore fishing in it so you need offshore here because the drum has to be perpendicular to the rod to this guarantees you let you read out phases twist free on the test or other official Rochester of drum aligned with a rotten and then you get a Connect twist on the tether which as I can give to not the Newton knots and then it's is not a good idea so destroying the castle in so and is is the 1st flight is so we were very into the US didn't start of the 1st flight test and he has a theory the so the and that was mostly manually assumed the 1 and it was order so unfortunately the lower in so what happens so this was the
result of the tables was broken and because the test that apparently wrapped around the back of the aircraft and then it became uncontrollable so again up if what do we do if you don't know any further better
better use carbon so we put some carbon on the lower part of the of the you use that to reinforce it yeah and then of course you have to
think about writing your uh navigation codes to navigate from on there if you are under tethered flight so here is the core of recent for how to do it so 1st you take 1 because of our pilot uh this autumn open source software you take 1 crew of two-dimensional manifolds which incidentally given is a hypersurface embedded in three-dimensional Euclidean space In case of constant traveling this is just a scene he's furor as to which is centered around your ground station then you take a plane curve which you wanna fly along at all costs segments and a pinch of differential geometry to of rapid on the sphere to make this curve of appears on the sphere you take a limit of classical mechanics for their some uh for the flight control to transfer the preferment accelerations into uh actually um the control surface and at my emotions and then you need of course a child doesn't coffee for doing so you put everything together into of course not across into the computer algebra system and the well and that the CPU may get a ton of degrees and then you come up with this move at the C 1 curve and here
so the chromosome here uh so it's uh this is 1 part of the great pattern so the other part will be behind here it's uh composed of 2 would you use it segment and 1 turning segment and they are C 1 blue together here and these are the questions we provide paper I wanna
go into detail so now you have to modify the source code of this other pilot project so here there are highlighted some of the patterns which you basically have to where you have to more do modifications just to implement new flight modes and um uh change some of the control algorithms and then you come up with the the next flight tests the and he is so the next time
it yeah the the end of the the and the 2nd World War and yet look for the other missing
soldier for at the end is the 10th been directly through here so it was really retention the data and you can also see this
if you do a data analysis on the flight data later so use for example multiple possibilities here for not of data this is possible to analyze so the other pilot this was very very is very very nicely done in this open source project so they have a data file with all primary and secondary data you could use for analysis so for instance this is the light curve of different flight modes which we used to have the attitude of the aircraft you can look to deviations in radial and transverse directions you can look to tap attention or a like a measure for to the tension by looking to the length variation of the tether and you can of course to time series analyzes of how your Figure 8 pattern for a float along
and the that is what you can do with this very very nice of them out a pilot open source software which is available and find the by many people and on the internet so the question which remains is after all of this is that with the sophisticated safe to 100 % and the answer is no it will not uh it will there will be the of course accidents happen but the
thing is nothing is fail-safe and so here's a set of intervals and the results of that at the there's a there's not a person guarantee but we have to try very hard to get it as this phase of a possible 50 so yeah this is essentially it's that was
also um uh what I was say is that the current status of uh element energy uh can be seen here by a nice Booker and the string of the spring up uh page which you can go here and we very very happy to have any kind of critical remarks input to help in the uh developing the system further so please if you want to this web page there's a lot of information including a paper and you do very happy for any kind of health and the the and finally I would uh again stress that we could rely on this tremendous work of the open source community working on this on a pilot project that has helped us to realize this project in very short time so very happy about this and so I want to think of course um so was here and for most dominant much-needed was about the students and was among cannot be here for all working on this project and putting some of her work also and thank you very much for your that here Iran in the year 1 and vise so 2 questions the 1st and the so you tell so you talked a lot about how what part about controlled flight how does it compare entrywise to uncontrolled by basically putting a propeller on a kite and so the thing is the propeller on the right you with kind you need uh you mean I guess some uh non rigid structures so meaning that the 1st question is how the wonderful parable to propeller on a kite it's non regions so um this survey questions goes back to you so because this something it is not clear to me but in any case and a rigid after laying it's harder to control the kite so that people work with a kite and so by kitesurfing or if you do wear like the rescue height from the ground you know it's like moving not that fast in there the wind field so it's easier to control this is a big benefit of quite and also the weight is the big benefit but the power output because of the best ways to lift to drag coefficient is unfortunately not that efficient as a rigid aircraft so you want to go to the original graph if you need to know please me quite because the questions and answers here number 3 please and that is the last question I'm afraid that you can ask questions after the talk of going to go to those places form and I was wondering there are some ideas about this being like this or station room and then like she's on hydrogen or like the charge the batteries by words and by force users like realistic really I think this is also this approach will be quite expensive and you have to and you have to install this infrastructure on the moon for us and we have to establish the the flight phases back fall off and yeah realistic is the same you know here at the end of the question of money and investment and an amateur whether this will would pay out by the time we we we analyze this kind of approach is here thank you so thank you very very much and I and define an endless don't give them a 100 and how to how to what to watch the reasons
if if of course it would it eked compared and if the
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Font
Kontrollstruktur
Forcing
Gamecontroller
Open Source
Gamecontroller
Projektive Ebene
Identitätsverwaltung
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Topologische Mannigfaltigkeit
ATM
Addition
Pixel
Spline
Gruppenkeim
Datentransfer
Mikrocontroller
Quellcode
Physikalische Theorie
Informationsmodellierung
Einheit <Mathematik>
Lesezeichen <Internet>
Flächeninhalt
Forcing
Einheit <Mathematik>
Zirkel <Instrument>
Rechter Winkel
Mereologie
Gamecontroller
Zusammenhängender Graph
Diffusor
Wort <Informatik>
Term
Aggregatzustand
Softwaretest
Knoten <Mathematik>
Momentenproblem
Quellcode
Ordnung <Mathematik>
Arbeitsplatzcomputer
Gesetz <Physik>
Phasenumwandlung
Physikalische Theorie
Differential
Resultante
Ebene
Kreisfläche
Algebraisches Modell
Computer
Kraftfahrzeugmechatroniker
Zentraleinheit
Topologische Mannigfaltigkeit
Demoszene <Programmierung>
Physikalisches System
Kugel
Software
Flächentheorie
Klon <Mathematik>
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Hyperfläche
Softwaretest
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Open Source
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Physikalisches System
Ebener Graph
Software
Minimalgrad
Mereologie
Pinching
Gamecontroller
Codierung
Dimension 3
Räumliche Anordnung
Computeralgebra
Zentraleinheit
Tabelle <Informatik>
Kugel
ATM
Algorithmus
Mustersprache
Mereologie
Gamecontroller
Implementierung
Quellcode
ATM
Dicke
Subtraktion
Euler-Lagrange-Gleichung
Open Source
Datenanalyse
Euler-Winkel
Elektronische Publikation
Internetworking
Richtung
Transversalschwingung
Multiplikation
Zeitreihenanalyse
Software
Mustersprache
Projektive Ebene
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Einflussgröße
Standardabweichung
Analysis
Instantiierung
Quelle <Physik>
Resultante
Gewicht <Mathematik>
t-Test
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Element <Mathematik>
Web-Seite
Sondierung
Homepage
Bildschirmmaske
Arbeitsplatzcomputer
Strom <Mathematik>
Datenstruktur
Chi-Quadrat-Verteilung
Phasenumwandlung
Funktion <Mathematik>
Graph
Open Source
Physikalisches System
Ein-Ausgabe
Dialekt
Energiedichte
Datenfeld
Menge
Forcing
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Koeffizient
Mereologie
Gamecontroller
Wort <Informatik>
Projektive Ebene
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Normalspannung
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Hypermedia
Medianwert
Systemprogrammierung

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Drones of Power: Airborne Wind Energy
Serientitel 34th Chaos Communication Congress
Autor Sieg, Christoph
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung 4.0 International:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/34798
Herausgeber Chaos Computer Club e.V.
Erscheinungsjahr 2017
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Informatik
Abstract Airborne wind energy is the attempt to bring the digital revolution to the production of energy. It means that we convert the power of high-altitude winds into electricity by autonomously controlled aircraft which are connected to the ground via a tether. This technology can be a key element to finally power the world by clean energy only. In this talk we will explain the physical foundations, give an overview of the current status and show you how to build an experimental system by yourself: it involves hacking an off-the-shelf model aircraft and its autopilot based on the open and free Ardupilot framework.
Schlagwörter Science

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