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Thermodynamic processes and equilibrium - How to express changes of a system in numbers

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there is a gentleman like to welcome you to our cause is a great chemistry 101 my name is Dr. Lyle and today's topic is how to express a change of the system in number massive
cost-cutting describes as data system the numbers it takes the number of components the number of phases and a certain number of data area I know what change the home office that
consider only genius system composed of and good part this is a 1 phase 1 component system according to to phase rule we too will and only 2 state variables describe for instance a temperature and pressure to to I refers to these variables in the initial stage of so we started single-phase single component is the clearly-defined by pressure and temperature no we want to change the state by varying 1 or more space variables for example you can you get a system at constant volume to a certain extent just imagine a tin can hold that get different temperature and at different pressures TF for the final and Pierre for pressure to describe this they change in number we need to specify the changes of barriers of temperature and pressure this is usually expressed by dancer component the head of the if final value of the variable minus the initial day of state so that appeal because P final minus the initial it's the way it was a key file minds to you naturally that have a unique would be fine and the initial where the state of the art with a 0 and its process that are always throw final minus rho initiative and so on the changes of the state variables that lead and opposed to on it but the calculations always find learning mind initially in physical chemistry any change of states like this 1 is called the thermodynamic process someone and I was especially interested in the energetics or processes classical feminine is only used the description of the initial state and the final state or process it doesn't care about time Bruce states you will find that there time in any doubt and I in this sense the Linux is really a time of flight reaction rates
with time being the most important variable is around chemical kinetics another branch of science an important question bound and there's there's a given change of the phase occur because all the women allow for this process and if so the boundaries Gabriel his further how fast is us to completely describe process
requires not only do indicate that the changes of state variables but also on the indication of energy transfer areas the so-called process variables he she will and work at it's important to point out heat and work are not be very he and work on the
properties in the form of American description this volume of air as the mass the temperature and pressure but neither Scott key not work heat and work are always associated with changes of the FIL let's water it would sets barrier an important difference between the process you know about the arrows and the changes of state variables be low the Arabic that if the pop dependence of the bruises variant to illustrate this let's look at what it means here to state in discussed last time nothing there and the states can be visualized as points on the P you need to use the if we go from 1 to 2 and keep the temperature constant we move on the path prone red the government tool which is free by the pressure constant the removal of green and if we move from the fall Ugandan movement part of constant antigen we call it has a constant temperature I have because have constant pressure times about
we call upon all constant whatever that is between 2 and 4 we can get from 1 to fall on in many different ways for example in from 1 led to the fall or from 1 where read fall over 1 way to and the 2 in terms of that piece the pressure difference between 1 and all the past does not matter all changes of state of the art how independent it makes no difference through go which may be performed the process this does not hold for process variants it may well be that the work on the 1 2 fall a statement from the world on how 1 of the really fall in terms of working he you always have to specify the exact path that made no difference for the state variable discover Ambrose's there specification of is essential for the case no Hepatol given by the state marriages had constant during the process the Spiegel and by summing Kwun Eitel Prairie whether there is another very important the application of the past from the nation state in the fire so modern and has often referred to processes when the reversible path on the the they give you a sample or what this is also having Congress the volume of to have in on the expand to its initial but quote browsing play expanding to initially the initial states final state in the expansion process the gas expands and in principle it should be possible to dig a work by the in fact it is a key process of any internal combustion engine the point is
but the work that I can gain by the rules that very much depend on the path consider that clearly defined initial state i the Congress they and the final state the in fact I may move in many different ways from dishes to plan if we carry out of the process of expansion in a vacuum that the environment and the pressures of 0 and the system expands that's a piston exerts no fault and if there's no fault there's no this
pageant has very but without gaining any work done with you that's what thermodynamics is called a spontaneous process as the ability of doing what has been achieved parting ways that this process is called University instead the work has been gained at all the useful but is equal to know the process is not reversed the system won't spontaneously moved back to the initial state yeah that's though we can modify the experiments more precisely you with the experiments and alter the pack note that you may not modify the initial and final states as a final process we try to carry out the growth in such a way that the water expansion will be associated with the lifting of in this case the certain among
the wellknown gravitational work is obtained by the exchange to gain the maximum possible on the well we have to construct a neighbor races which issued permanent pressure it equilibrium between outside and between surroundings and when the piston moves to the right the way this and the maximum amount of work this report know this is the limiting case EPA pressure on the right and the left hand side of the had that apparently move but they were obtain the maximum possible and called reversible path process
is reversible because the maximum amount of our gains shape of the fate of work is is sufficient to compress the system to its an without changing anything in
the reverse the path is the opposite of the spontaneous note that for the same process as the amount of game were very means you spontaneous and the maximum value of the US that was is important to always specify the exact path of growth when discussing he and as you may have noticed an
important concept and dynamics is equilibrium in fact classical balloonatics is concerned exclusively with the appearance so the state showing no change over time of emotional state variables say
competition now under the sometimes and I realize the value is not who systems apparently in equilibrium 1st of all the to be exact when looking
at 2 seconds faster than the business pentateuchal but but I stated that 1st each system is in equilibrium with its that but in every them into public contact there the changes over time
overtime catches up 2 systems were in the end the uniform temperature throughout and you have it with we moved from from this idiom to thermal Edward if you want it spread through this interim room in numbers we might take a difference in temperature as the metal in distance for or the back of the initial sources proton on it with the we consider 2 subsystems is a high and low pressure initially each system has an equilibrium of that where as the the the the contact and allow a pressure changes opening of wooden presence will change over time will eventually these change over time stops the system of reach or equals the pressure difference is the manager of this fills the gap of initial system prompt pressure at in the it is possible to figure chemical equilibria in a similar way consider
rejected and land brought up and the fall FIL enacts the final state variable the chemical potential mu which is our 1st statement on this from of reaction equation from time to time it right if reactants and
products are not only of the of the current potential for today on problem with the different there may be a reaction in 1 or the other way and in equilibrium the chemical potentials of reactants and what will be the both
the banks have mission to quantitatively expressed but it pressure equitable and chemical equilibrium in number note that if you
find it really as federal change equal to 0 all steady state is not sufficient we must give further condition to be met iterative music reminiscent you where the start
it's roughly critical in 1 instance so in Greece cabbages just that system will move to a deference it would I didn't take back the destruction of the system would move right back to the original starving that this is a necessary condition for a review of the night it with after his election the
original you must restore again therefore and exploded that mixture of hydrogen and oxygen if not in it really although its state government change in time also attended stalled indefinitely but it is this is the may used but it is obvious that the oxyhydrogen was not going repeat because a change that occurs with no longer be undone if I take away is stuff you wouldn't have thought all agree the concept of cabbage is the fire in fact this is the so-called the euro's not all of them their system any that and solve it written with the system be and system being this all along the agrarian with systems see then it follows the system is also involved in equilibrium with system sheet this may sound video but is in fact important were created conditions all temperature action system being being
a performance but the moment that only makes sense this is law of if a and B on quality program and b and c I'm going to put in all of these systems have the same temperature the fear of loss is sometimes called the equipartition theorem so all energy is distributed evenly across the whole system
that arise today's lecture with the additional promise they are hired the at we call it roses we quantitatively characterizing process by specifying the state variable changes that have the Peter Qaeda B as so long after I process by specifying the process variables if you and other you will and unlike state variable changes the process variables are dependent on the pad and we need to specify the path on which we have moved from the initial state to the client patterns can for example I have to follow on the barrier and of course it's a pathogen reversible and the
maximum amount of work goes to this there is a power of part of you that you're doing work this raises the spontaneous of the useful work with 0 therefore watching all to see you again
Chemische Forschung
Phasengleichgewicht
Genaktivität
Querprofil
Chemischer Prozess
Physikalische Chemie
Chemische Forschung
Topizität
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Zinn
Physikalische Chemie
Phasengleichgewicht
Oktanzahl
Reaktionsführung
Quellgebiet
Pfropfcopolymerisation
Gibbssche Phasenregel
Druckausgleich
Konkrement <Innere Medizin>
Herzfrequenzvariabilität
Sense
Reaktionskinetik
Körpertemperatur
Initiator <Chemie>
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Chemischer Prozess
Single electron transfer
Querprofil
Wasser
Druckausgleich
Teststreifen
Werkzeugstahl
Herzfrequenzvariabilität
Wasserfall
Chemische Eigenschaft
Kontusion
Körpertemperatur
Thermoformen
Antigen
Elektronentransfer
Chemischer Prozess
Biologisches Material
Stoffwechselweg
Polymorphismus
Feuer
Diamantähnlicher Kohlenstoff
Druckausgleich
Weinkrankheit
Wasserfall
Vakuumverpackung
Paste
Abschrecken
Initiator <Chemie>
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Chemischer Prozess
Stoffwechselweg
Zigarettenschachtel
Diamantähnlicher Kohlenstoff
Gezeitenstrom
Linker
Initiator <Chemie>
Wasser
Druckausgleich
Explosivität
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Chemischer Prozess
Stoffwechselweg
Zellwachstum
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Chemischer Prozess
Herzfrequenzvariabilität
Lactitol
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Metallatom
Körpertemperatur
Quellgebiet
Initiator <Chemie>
Druckausgleich
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Homöostase
Gap junction
Wasserfall
Reaktionsführung
Strom
Aktionspotenzial
Pharmakokinetik
Krankheit
Druckausgleich
Homöostase
Repetitive DNS
Hydrierung
Fülle <Speise>
Feuer
Körpertemperatur
Mischen
Krankheit
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Inlandeis
Sauerstoffverbindungen
Knallgas
Herzfrequenzvariabilität
Stoffwechselweg
Sense
Körpertemperatur
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Chemischer Prozess
Potenz <Homöopathie>

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Thermodynamic processes and equilibrium - How to express changes of a system in numbers
Serientitel Physical Chemistry
Autor Lauth, Günter Jakob
Mitwirkende Lauth, Anika (Medientechnik)
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - keine kommerzielle Nutzung 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen und nicht-kommerziellen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/34684
Herausgeber Günter Jakob Lauth (SciFox)
Erscheinungsjahr 2013
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Chemie, Physik

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