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Reaction rate law and reaction profile - a question of temperature, concentration, solvent and catalyst - how fast will a reaction proceed

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this gentleman I like to welcome you to our calls physical chemistry 1 1 my name is Dr. well and today's
topic will be how fast the hot to with the chemical reaction receipt but the key question to arise in chemical kinetics 1 of the length the question of affinity or right if there a gee this critical of it in Canada if you would ask what about reaction rate which surrounded speed up or slow down the reaction the visitors center process reactants are transformed into prior p during this process we track the conservation of both the reactant and product the describes the dependence of the reactants conservational son and still all curve represents the rate of composition ourselves the record shows the concentration of the product he varying with time the slope of this curve describing the rate of formation sup p the unit of the rates of the composition information concentration over time that it it's and set for formation rates of positive and decomposition rates on it by dividing them by the respective document number we get a classic reaction rate without and science microscopically kind of processes may be displayed by the so-called reaction profile something like a miniature golf calls from your ontologies the profit
of potential energy in going from the reactant molecule to the broader molecule usually with the energy that the energy barrier it appears as the maximum of the energy required the reaction rate is influenced by the details cause of this reaction robot in addition to the concentration of reaction and temperature also a crucial for action into the reaction rate will depend on a number of parameters by default they binary concentration of reactants we may keep the 1st fall parameters constant and summarize them to so-called reaction rate constant came to this mathematical expression on decrease kid times as for is the reaction rate law the reaction rate along if the rate of the reaction and the function of the confirmation of the reactant or react the rate law can be rejected only opponent of the research you know it has to be determined experimentally the rate law all the formal power function the exponent of the reactant concentration is called beyond all the reaction
for reactions must react the maybe they're all of whom the order indicates how sensitive the reaction rate responds to a change in concentration some of them the decomposition of N 2 O 5 is a 1st order reaction the rate is proportional to the N 2 O 5 concentration the decomposition of N O 2 on the other hand is a 2nd order reaction the rate of the reaction is proportional to the square of all N O 2 concentration the reaction the old blast until the overall 2nd of 1st order with respect to each of the reactants the rate of enzymatic degradation of old is not dependent on on it is the the hero all reactions fractional reaction also possible if the decomposition of has better follows a 1 comma decimal 5 of them were is 0 order reaction the reaction rate is independent of the concentration of reactants and thus constant for the whole reaction this means that the concentration of reactants decreases linearly with time in kind of analogy for a new
order reaction with the related into a container so they have that up on can amount of liquid to the rods and and the label into the pub P we keep doing so onto the is and the level of each factor is a
measure of the concentrations of all on view respectively the volume of the transport layer is a measure of the rate constant k the rate law officer
differential their radiation of concentration of on suspected time is a function organization of it said by integrating we may end up with a concentration of a function of time the so-called integrated rate law
for a 0 order reaction the integrated rate law is the an important characteristic of the kinetic processes is you have no the time of the race's concentration has got do have initiative way
as I can easily be calculated using the integrated rate on the half life of a 0 order reaction is not constant but gets shorter and the reaction proceeds because other
reaction reaction rate is proportional to the reactant concentrations doubling conservation means doubling of the rate
in a mechanical energy we're not going to fully equipped with the tax from better come on up to the top the peak this means that the amount of pollutants body is constantly getting smaller the
dynamics of of people that is correlated with the rate constant K
if the integrated rate laws 1st order reaction we didn't exponential function the concentration decreases exponentially with time accordingly I have not this constant the decomposition of N O 2 is a 2nd order process the rate is proportional to the concentration of N O 2 was correct when N O 2 concentration drops to have the rate will drop to a lawyer this nucleophilic
substitution is 1st order with respect to each of the reactants and 2nd order intelligence the same applies for
viruses so this this and this carries 1st of all goes back to ascertain and hydroxide too long you
the simple 2nd order reaction integrated rate law without up with this relationship between reactant concentrations as time the half adopting Griesemer when the reaction proceeds I'm not being the
initial concentration all the air and it does take twice as long from half unknown to the wall on their from unknown who have or could be the book alone I and the
hydrolysis with a reactant in non command mounds integration of the rate law is somewhat complicated I will take on distinguish if 1 of the reactants is present in large excess part of this equation simplifies to simple exponential function again pulled a 1st order reaction referred to it as a pseudo 1st on the action that the together the most important ingredients for simple order reactions for a year or reaction the reaction rate is a constant the integrated rate law provides a straight for a 1st order reaction now have a consistent so not all the concentration over time you this later for a 2nd order reaction the plot of the reciprocal the concentration versus time gives a straight line from this node all the times the rate constant k the town note that the rate constant have different units depending on reaction or the half life constant only for a 1st order reaction for a 0 order reaction is getting shorter for a 2nd origin is very long or reaction proceeds the concentration
dependence of a reaction is described by the rate law now or temperature dependence in fact the rate constant of most reactions is very sensitive to temperature in general the constant increases training if we increase the temperature manage tolerable songs they but I can tell you the temperature in the corresponds to a diary of the constant arranges gives a more quantitative description of the K. relationship the famous Arrhenius language rate constant k equals A. times the to the negative III or art is value is the activation energy in kilojoules per mole and any is the frequency factor of real exponential factor which is the same unit as the rate constant with these 2 parameters the temperature-dependent of a process may be completely stock the activation energy corresponding to the energy barrier and the reaction which must be exceeded for process to run the frequency effective correspond to the limit of the rate constant and efficiently tech and their lot of favors the use of the Arrhenius exponential function this function can be mathematically bandits with straight line just outlined below lowering of the rate constant against the citric over there the famous Arrhenius this is the end of time in the room is blast is related to the activation energy and yes to the set this related to frequency the rate constants for of eternity temperatures may be calculated using the Arrhenius equation that he a sample of the
composition of the mean was studied at different packages the rate constants love plotted according to Arrhenius there really is blocked using this act of 25 comma decimal 2 of from this we
can determine the rate was tool about 8 times 10 to the 10 1 2nd bit division energy is obtained from slow wanted and 76 comma decimal 4 million people with both of these coefficients an archive the rate constant and attended just but the Arrhenius English but let's look at some of your critics of deducing
reaction and money of the reactive approach each other bonds us to Rachin new bonds generate the boat tends energy of the reactants with increasing it which is the
maximum in the so-called activated complex all conditions that the on the atomic level can corrections consists of the formation and decomposition of an activated complex all transitions the activated complex of this they is activated by the pound sign on numbers on wall has and the earthly women catch
the action brought by the conservation of high-energy writing in the to H I molecules collide the book times energy increases we rejected complex pounds on the
activation energy the energy difference between reactants and activated complex is 1 comma decimal 4 5 and channels after
passing the activation energy among the brother of hydrogen and by the fall energetic of the product the located on a 0 comma decimal 5 4 on medication was no would have found them yet this corresponds to the end of your reaction it's in that was on the action we discuss the model substitution reaction more detail and defined the reaction calling if you also tension energy of 3 atoms system baby he as a function of distance being there and being seen you take kind of
three-dimensional energy surface although the action there
might have been which leads from reactants to the products in the energy landscape but the special pair to people that in time passing the lowest energy band this red line corresponds to the reaction coordinate look at the
the reaction clearly if the lower the energy of the conditions this is done in glycolysis is that a more complex possibly the ones in June but you have to have the lower activation energy in the reaction brought by correspond to intermediates maximum correspond to activated complexes but pounds again the reaction process of the formation of convolutional this and the collision theory of candidates for this fueled that reactant particles must collide with a certain minimum energy in the form of the positions most of the
politicians will not reach the minimum energy only not only to the conditions only a very encouraging sign
energetic enough to form the mission they to use our landscape analogy in most collisions will not suffice to climb the activation mountain all 1 only very few collisions of who would longer the complex and then transform the raw data
distribution in the gas can describe alright so roles at 300 can only 2 possibilities to ppb all particles have energy all the key Queudrue's promoted or I will corresponding to the integral of the Metropolitan car if we increase the temperature only by sending 3 columns this number will increase to 100 people but upon the the rate of reaction will increase by a factor of 50 but part of Island's
here you can can there the graph that would be kind of state space between the atoms and this to reading
this equilibrium that America will make Saturday the concentration of the activated complex multiplying contemplation
by the competition but there irony given equation for the rates and the rates constants of and order chemical process Ms. Irene regions state that the reaction rate constant is determined by the activation as key the age and the activation energy that answer any factor influencing rate or for example Söderman's all foreign ions can be discovered by using either in English any activity that produces the that between the reactants and when nation-state Batterjee pound will accelerate year the move from the background to the reader any activity that increases the visibility different shown in red Ms. slow down the reaction consider the reaction all without positively charged cope complex with the hydroxide and with this reaction brought quite a non polar solvents it was switched to a mall polar following the standardized both of the reactant and the conditions however the
reactants also allowed to their graded shops in VN will increase in free activation of the bed the conscious slowing down the pros and these kinds of iron
reactions reduced no in the more polymers but there are going to follow the
action between uniform josh Lions you the reaction will speed up and pose fall reactions between ions and
neutral particles are unaffected by polarity and I am thank you for watching it but
Bodenschutz
Matrix <Biologie>
Physikalische Chemie
Chemische Reaktion
Reaktionsführung
Oktanzahl
Verrottung
Setzen <Verfahrenstechnik>
Konzentrat
Sterblichkeit
Chemische Forschung
Topizität
Raffination
Reaktionskinetik
Enzymkinetik
Physikalische Chemie
Chemischer Prozess
Formaldehyd
Fleischersatz
Wasserfall
Aktivierungsenergie
Acetaldehyd
Körpertemperatur
Reaktionsführung
Oktanzahl
Potenz <Homöopathie>
Verrottung
Konzentrat
Molekül
Funktionelle Gruppe
Genexpression
Enzym
Sonnenschutzmittel
Wasserstand
Reaktionsführung
Transport
Konzentrat
Isotopenmarkierung
Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit
Containment <Gentechnologie>
Radioaktiver Stoff
Biologisches Lebensmittel
Reaktionsführung
Gezeitenstrom
Initiator <Chemie>
Konzentrat
Funktionelle Gruppe
Chemischer Prozess
Bodenschutz
Oktanzahl
Reaktionsführung
Konzentrat
Bukett <Wein>
Molekulardynamik
Umweltchemikalie
Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit
Reaktionsführung
Oktanzahl
Verrottung
Konzentrat
Chemischer Prozess
Essigsäureester
Reaktionsführung
Konzentrat
Zutat
Replikationsursprung
Hydrolyse
Reaktionsführung
Oktanzahl
Konzentrat
Lactitol
Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit
Tachyphylaxie
Biologisches Material
Matrix <Biologie>
Sonnenschutzmittel
Aktivierungsenergie
Single electron transfer
Oktanzahl
Reaktionsführung
Potenz <Homöopathie>
Fettsäuremethylester
Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit
Stockfisch
Körpertemperatur
Elektronegativität
Leukozytenultrafiltrat
Funktionelle Gruppe
Chemischer Prozess
Werkzeugstahl
Reaktionsführung
Oktanzahl
Chemische Bindung
Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit
Bodenschutz
Wasserstand
Übergangsmetall
Komplexbildungsreaktion
Verrottung
Setzen <Verfahrenstechnik>
Krankheit
Molekül
Substitutionsreaktion
Tiermodell
Hydrierung
Aktivierungsenergie
Reaktionsführung
Medikalisierung
Komplexbildungsreaktion
Funktionelle Gruppe
Ordnungszahl
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Reaktionsführung
Koordinationszahl
Oberflächenchemie
Aktivierungsenergie
Reaktionsführung
Thermoformen
Nanopartikel
Komplexbildungsreaktion
Glykolyse
Krankheit
Chemischer Prozess
Sonnenschutzmittel
Fleischersatz
Schlag <Landwirtschaft>
Aktivität <Konzentration>
Oktanzahl
Reaktionsführung
Körpertemperatur
Nanopartikel
Konzentrat
Ordnungszahl
Sonnenschutzmittel
Aktivierungsenergie
Lösungsmittel
Aktivität <Konzentration>
Reaktionsführung
Oktanzahl
Flussbett
Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit
Altern
Eisenherstellung
Krankheit
Grading
Chemischer Prozess
Polymere
Wasserfall
Reaktionsführung
Homogenes System
Nanopartikel
Hyperpolarisierung

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel Reaction rate law and reaction profile - a question of temperature, concentration, solvent and catalyst - how fast will a reaction proceed
Serientitel Physical Chemistry
Autor Lauth, Günter Jakob
Mitwirkende Lauth, Anika (Medientechnik)
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - keine kommerzielle Nutzung 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen und nicht-kommerziellen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/34661
Herausgeber Günter Jakob Lauth (SciFox)
Erscheinungsjahr 2013
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Chemie, Physik

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