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First Law, Second Law and their consequences - chemical thermodynamics in a nutshell - Will a process proceed and if yes how far

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this gentleman was committed to physical the chemistry 101 my name is Dr. Nobel and this is gonna be another in natural which you know not lose track of the manner decay is that polymer memories always summarize the conventional chemical government we want to answer in a concise manner understand the question open them does the process them again actually runs spontaneous and if so how far to answer this question
we will combine the 1st and the 2nd long and find a new state area the gibbs free energy G the gibbs free energy is a measure of instability though that feel that the world considering both energy and an adjective 1st let's have a look at the role the energy losses we describe systems and processes and from low and that the and that is the measure of the amount of energy contained it's is they system this the only have the volume that bitch and although in energy or an but at hand for example on the system standard on the system's phase on its chemical composition and possibly also on institution the surroundings also have energy comes in calls we can imagine and and of of the surroundings if we
go through the process that we are dealing with of change the end of the chain from an initial state on to a fun day at this and notice that age it's always for processes temperature changes phase changes chemical reactions you and on mixing process the change in entropy
may be determined by measuring the as very he furthermore the are various formulas that can calculate the of the growth of cities usually it is
surroundings to all the changing and the key during the process that is we include that agents around the 1st long makes a statement about the energy changes that are possible in the universe it is the concept of conservation of energy the energy of the universe remains constant for each process the change in internal energy of system thus the changes in town the energy of the surroundings is the fear with such from energy to entropy of the relations each system that only come with a certain amount of energy namely me out of the but also with a certain degree of dissolving the stone K we call this property the entropy S yeah the on the systems temperature depends on its face on its chemical composition and there is strongly on its of course is surroundings so you have a certain degree of his or to which can be summarized by the entropy of the surroundings during processed and already at the end of of the system changes the entropy of finds status different from the end of the of the initial state the of system changes for example in changing temperature changing phase in chemical reactions on mixing and she grows again we must consider only the systems but also in the rounding we can measure the
change in entropy by dividing the rest but he's by temperature the so-called reviews T in addition there are more specific regions while calculating banter change the 2nd long out of states that the end of the of the universe can only increased entropy is not not so as or energy on the moment and that they can be produced but not destroyed never process at the end of the change of the system but the the change of surroundings must be greater than or equal to you the limiting case equal to view this controversy arose in all other cases are in most we want to apply 1st and 2nd law and the universe home posted as the wrong thing we have to be considered now combined 1st and 2nd law and seek a new state variable which contains only system properties and is a measure of whether or not processing an important special case is that the output of either very the pattern initial
stages of space takes spread at constant pressure and which with both
distinguish strictly between system and surrounding area then you had different colors the system can share in our bone process is equal to the temperature of the surroundings the Apple change of the system is equal to the negative of the change of surroundings and you the exchange cheap because they're not very grows not the consistent need yet of the change of surroundings by the system parameters that the surroundings the a negative that age systems a the 2nd law states that the total entropy of the universe can only increase this long now can be completely expressed in the the malaria we obtain an equation that is equivalent to a flattened long and has the that no sources can only take place at a particular combination all that and at that age and T. we
convert this equation to that H minus key bonds that as must be less than or equal to the euro know you named the combination H minus T times as as given free energy G that come to a very thin Rotarian as to if not at the back process is possible
they did he have to do that than all equal to 0 GE and fact is a matter of instability GE can only decrease in the process of status saying and never includes but the change
in the free energy density is a measure of the affinity of the driver proposed a great montage of gives the energy is that we may focus on the system and make as regards the race the wrong no we have a measure of the stability of we know that GE will depend on temperature on phase on chemical composition and the illusion that H and you the barriers which make up the we can also quantify depends we now need to focus only on gives the energy to say whether a process could have continuously on
the changing if the energy that energy corresponds to the affinity of trial of over of if that energy is negative the process is possible this called an exergonic the vector G positive it grows it is not possible this is called and Eitel that he had
amended directly as we've got good news the row for example in the event that there are all of that describe the
dependence of Jee-young temperature pressure on the quantities of substances involved in the system it would
not consider not very process stated the composition of going out in that sun and were all but it's not quite as costing me in Japanese the process and the Parliament energetically uphill yeah the increases by 57 comma decimal 2 and as a kid use not as which classes
to consider the entropic effects out of chaos of the system change during the process the processes and trophic those and other tropical of the yeah entropy increases by 100 and 75 comma decimal 3 genes in a cave finally we the
energy in what about the stability of the system then the action research during his brother who delivers energy as a function of extent of reaction CSI and find a few across on less stable and fewer reactants but if pure reactants and a pure product for the state of Maine instabilities this is the equilibrium of the process into this day this system was voluntarily move we get hand on the
allows for the important variable data gene the crime to be calculated from the invoking change that age and the energy of particular importance this is standard from their G not that gives free energy difference between pure reactant and pure water would determine the standard ripe all be found on their actions who 1st came to the standard Apple p 57 produced them all the standard activity or 170 5 to from old patterns and then calculate delta G
knot at room-temperature according to give her when the trees that reaction of piece of 5 killed you will promote that had you know notice positive the reaction of the codon is and gone it will never close to completion spontaneous it can only go the 17 million which corresponds to it but you the standard
right therefore have no objection component better each not only and entropic components that that now moreover the temperature plays a significant role in on the side of the entrance the numerical value of the
equilibrium constant many had predicted from the standard that gene all of the good negative art you know rhythm we set property values for the
decomposition reaction of managed that some that blockade is negative that gene all over the value of K. is found to be nearly 1 1 but every reaction which is
the moon and the equilibrium constant is less than what it would look like on the
left hand side on the side of the to
done in the unit of the equilibrium constant we have to formulate a law of mass action in our example the equilibrium constant as the unit ball begin a region
shows that the primary action and some words here in constant may be highly handle on temperature the that of the reaction which is an topic is always at and temperature exergonic enough may occur spontaneously it in the edges and the lonely and accident because the reaction will be spontaneous at at all these reactions are always and in the case of an excellent only exotropic reactions there's feeling that below this temperature and you realize to the right but but the the the temperature of of the European nice to them in the end of the army and the reactions to the situation is we're on the floor temperature below which included not to that and above which the reaction in the accident yeah 2 examples the
decomposition of nice those to help him outside income right side is a typical reaction with small temperature at low temperature or it's endergonic and the groom lies to it is not until about 12 hundred kelvins that this reaction is exergonic now laking is the reaction the which at low temperatures this reaction is exergonic the boss 1400 kelvins it would be and that handles all the equilibrium
constant on temperature can be described quantitatively if you combine the case had of meeting was appointed to calculate equilibrium college we obtain the so-called front-office reaction the ball the plot of the logarithm of equilibrium constants against the wrist broker temperature provides a straight line this little which is really key and you change that with any of the
reaction the slow of fun top plot is positive with anabolic reactions the slope is negative that is within the reaction
equilibrium shifts to the right in increasing them the group of an
exothermic reaction on the other hand shift to the left as temperature rise you the
look of the plant have brought reaction Apple peace may easily be calculated ever since the commonly of experiences and in addition and removal of the PV rock or among the cisternae FIL those cells to counter the imposed change and you move him this is that the reaction to to fall to N O 2 is end of with increasing temperature the equilibrium rulership to the right the
reaction of and with increasing pressure on the group membership to the this is the principle of the and brown sometimes called the principle of the the trains will be consumed your loving factor the application of the principle of trees is saying in academic reactions increase in temperature decreases the equilibrium constant 30 reactions to the long at the lowest possible can this applies to the chemical processes but also to physical processes for example yes optional carbon-dioxide in water in the end of the process the situation might be they are permanently favored at higher temperatures or and this principle applies to both chemical and physical processes to to this year the X
apart reactions is increased by our approach the preference used in ammonia and others and although I hydrogenation reactions and in gas absorption end of current
processes provide higher use and the low pressure these processes could for example be performed in a vacuum or with the addition of a new get those reduced part of pressure examples of how the Nations reactions all of these options denying the use of the process increased by adding all reactions in excess or removing brought from them yeah she should but that as the cations favored use 1 reactant in excess or in the water of reaction by the destination the presentation of cats and by having a strong solution by removal column right side from the reaction mixture in the 1st example of this point endergonic processes
to not runs pointed there are 2 possibilities to enforce such roses 1 possibility is the coupling of an endergonic processes to a highly at the wrong similar to heavy load pulling up not made by cable the end of by formation of glucose phosphate can be facilitated by coupling with the exergonic decomposition and line drive another way to fall and the
guy reactions this is applied is the energy in the form of useful work the synthesis of glucose from come and what we know around spontaneously only when the free energy is provided by optical the reaction received a photo of whole way whenever move upwards in the gravitational field of the Earth spontaneously supply of energy involving does not change this situation only by supplying useful well that kind of up to the present it is possible to live that way similarly it may be possible to enforce endergonic processes by appropriate supply of the light on that that energy this some women have
related rise reactions or repair gives free energy that energy that he
can be calculated by keeps thermal equating Brumbies and the the change the age and the entropy change that with negative delta
G where an exergonic process that may run spotting the equilibrium constant K E and K related problems standard drive that he's not that watching
Chemische Forschung
Radioaktiver Stoff
Polymere
Reaktionsführung
Memory-Effekt
Physikalische Chemie
Chemische Forschung
Chemischer Prozess
Altern
Matrix <Biologie>
Zuchtziel
Phasengleichgewicht
Körpertemperatur
Reaktionsführung
Gibbs-Energie
Querprofil
Kettenlänge <Makromolekül>
Bildungsentropie
Zuchtziel
Chemische Forschung
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Chemischer Prozess
Matrix <Biologie>
Mischanlage
Gestein
Chemische Eigenschaft
Phasengleichgewicht
Zellwachstum
Körpertemperatur
Reaktionsführung
Chemische Formel
Alkoholgehalt
Bildungsentropie
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Chemischer Prozess
Seafloor spreading
Chemische Eigenschaft
Körpertemperatur
Initiator <Chemie>
Bildungsentropie
Druckausgleich
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Chemischer Prozess
Altern
Körpertemperatur
Chemische Bindung
Gibbs-Energie
Querprofil
Farbenindustrie
Quellgebiet
Bildungsentropie
Mähdrescher
Fleischerin
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Chemischer Prozess
Matrix <Biologie>
Raffination
Phasengleichgewicht
Körpertemperatur
Reaktionsführung
Gibbs-Energie
Gezeitenstrom
Zusatzstoff
Stoffdichte
Chemischer Prozess
Raffination
Expressionsvektor
Chemischer Prozess
Klinisches Experiment
Matrix <Biologie>
Körpertemperatur
Druckausgleich
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Chemischer Prozess
Gen
Bildungsentropie
Funktionelle Gruppe
Zusatzstoff
Stöchiometrie
Karsthöhle
Systemische Therapie <Pharmakologie>
Chemischer Prozess
Gen
Altern
Aktivität <Konzentration>
Reaktionsführung
Gibbs-Energie
Zuchtziel
Lactitol
Wasser
Knoten <Chemie>
Gen
Körpertemperatur
Arginin
Zuchtziel
ARS-Element
Gleichgewichtskonstante
Gen
Reaktionsführung
Arginin
Verrottung
Massenwirkungsgesetz
Gleichgewichtskonstante
Reaktionsführung
Körpertemperatur
Arginin
Tieftemperaturtechnik
Topizität
Reaktionsführung
Körpertemperatur
Primärstoffwechsel
ARS-Element
Konkrement <Innere Medizin>
Gleichgewichtskonstante
Aceton
Zelle
Gestein
Reaktionsführung
Körpertemperatur
Exotherme Reaktion
Chemieanlage
Funktionelle Gruppe
Ammoniak
Sonnenschutzmittel
Physikalische Chemie
Körpertemperatur
Reaktionsführung
Funktionelle Gruppe
Wasser
Druckausgleich
Chemischer Prozess
Strom
Sorptionsmittel
Reaktionsführung
Verrottung
Setzen <Verfahrenstechnik>
Wasser
Glucose
Druckausgleich
Lösung
Aceton
Azokupplung
Katalase
Phosphate
Glucose
Chemischer Prozess
Zuchtziel
Reaktionsführung
Arginin
Thermoformen
Gibbs-Energie
Glucose
Glucose
Repression <Genetik>
Chemischer Prozess
Biosynthese
Altern
Elektronegativität
Zuchtziel
Delta
Bildungsentropie
Gleichgewichtskonstante
Chemischer Prozess

Metadaten

Formale Metadaten

Titel First Law, Second Law and their consequences - chemical thermodynamics in a nutshell - Will a process proceed and if yes how far
Serientitel Physical Chemistry
Autor Lauth, Günter Jakob
Mitwirkende Lauth, Anika (Medientechnik)
Lizenz CC-Namensnennung - keine kommerzielle Nutzung 3.0 Deutschland:
Sie dürfen das Werk bzw. den Inhalt zu jedem legalen und nicht-kommerziellen Zweck nutzen, verändern und in unveränderter oder veränderter Form vervielfältigen, verbreiten und öffentlich zugänglich machen, sofern Sie den Namen des Autors/Rechteinhabers in der von ihm festgelegten Weise nennen.
DOI 10.5446/34659
Herausgeber Günter Jakob Lauth (SciFox)
Erscheinungsjahr 2013
Sprache Englisch

Inhaltliche Metadaten

Fachgebiet Chemie, Physik

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